Models, code, and papers for "Aidong Men":
While deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have shown extraordinary capability of modelling specific noise and denoising, they still perform poorly on real-world noisy images. The main reason is that the real-world noise is more sophisticated and diverse. To tackle the issue of blind denoising, in this paper, we propose a novel pyramid real image denoising network (PRIDNet), which contains three stages. First, the noise estimation stage uses channel attention mechanism to recalibrate the channel importance of input noise. Second, at the multi-scale denoising stage, pyramid pooling is utilized to extract multi-scale features. Third, the stage of feature fusion adopts a kernel selecting operation to adaptively fuse multi-scale features. Experiments on two datasets of real noisy photographs demonstrate that our approach can achieve competitive performance in comparison with state-of-the-art denoisers in terms of both quantitative measure and visual perception quality.
Microwave-based breast cancer detection has been proposed as a complementary approach to compensate for some drawbacks of existing breast cancer detection techniques. Among the existing microwave breast cancer detection methods, machine learning-type algorithms have recently become more popular. These focus on detecting the existence of breast tumours rather than performing imaging to identify the exact tumour position. A key step of the machine learning approaches is feature extraction. One of the most widely used feature extraction method is principle component analysis (PCA). However, it can be sensitive to signal misalignment. This paper presents an empirical mode decomposition (EMD)-based feature extraction method, which is more robust to the misalignment. Experimental results involving clinical data sets combined with numerically simulated tumour responses show that combined features from EMD and PCA improve the detection performance with an ensemble selection-based classifier.
While deep learning has achieved great success in many fields, one common criticism about deep learning is its lack of interpretability. In most cases, the hidden units in a deep neural network do not have a clear semantic meaning or correspond to any physical entities. However, model interpretability and explainability are crucial in many biomedical applications. To address this challenge, we developed the Factor Graph Neural Network model that is interpretable and predictable by combining probabilistic graphical models with deep learning. We directly encode biological knowledge such as Gene Ontology as a factor graph into the model architecture, making the model transparent and interpretable. Furthermore, we devised an attention mechanism that can capture multi-scale hierarchical interactions among biological entities such as genes and Gene Ontology terms. With parameter sharing mechanism, the unrolled Factor Graph Neural Network model can be trained with stochastic depth and generalize well. We applied our model to two cancer genomic datasets to predict target clinical variables and achieved better results than other traditional machine learning and deep learning models. Our model can also be used for gene set enrichment analysis and selecting Gene Ontology terms that are important to target clinical variables.
While deep learning has achieved great success in computer vision and many other fields, currently it does not work very well on patient genomic data with the "big p, small N" problem (i.e., a relatively small number of samples with high-dimensional features). In order to make deep learning work with a small amount of training data, we have to design new models that facilitate few-shot learning. Here we present the Affinity Network Model (AffinityNet), a data efficient deep learning model that can learn from a limited number of training examples and generalize well. The backbone of the AffinityNet model consists of stacked k-Nearest-Neighbor (kNN) attention pooling layers. The kNN attention pooling layer is a generalization of the Graph Attention Model (GAM), and can be applied to not only graphs but also any set of objects regardless of whether a graph is given or not. As a new deep learning module, kNN attention pooling layers can be plugged into any neural network model just like convolutional layers. As a simple special case of kNN attention pooling layer, feature attention layer can directly select important features that are useful for classification tasks. Experiments on both synthetic data and cancer genomic data from TCGA projects show that our AffinityNet model has better generalization power than conventional neural network models with little training data. The code is freely available at https://github.com/BeautyOfWeb/AffinityNet .
It has been shown that the adjacency eigenspace of a network contains key information of its underlying structure. However, there has been no study on spectral analysis of the adjacency matrices of directed signed graphs. In this paper, we derive theoretical approximations of spectral projections from such directed signed networks using matrix perturbation theory. We use the derived theoretical results to study the influences of negative intra cluster and inter cluster directed edges on node spectral projections. We then develop a spectral clustering based graph partition algorithm, SC-DSG, and conduct evaluations on both synthetic and real datasets. Both theoretical analysis and empirical evaluation demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
In this paper, we focus on fraud detection on a signed graph with only a small set of labeled training data. We propose a novel framework that combines deep neural networks and spectral graph analysis. In particular, we use the node projection (called as spectral coordinate) in the low dimensional spectral space of the graph's adjacency matrix as input of deep neural networks. Spectral coordinates in the spectral space capture the most useful topology information of the network. Due to the small dimension of spectral coordinates (compared with the dimension of the adjacency matrix derived from a graph), training deep neural networks becomes feasible. We develop and evaluate two neural networks, deep autoencoder and convolutional neural network, in our fraud detection framework. Experimental results on a real signed graph show that our spectrum based deep neural networks are effective in fraud detection.
Many online applications, such as online social networks or knowledge bases, are often attacked by malicious users who commit different types of actions such as vandalism on Wikipedia or fraudulent reviews on eBay. Currently, most of the fraud detection approaches require a training dataset that contains records of both benign and malicious users. However, in practice, there are often no or very few records of malicious users. In this paper, we develop one-class adversarial nets (OCAN) for fraud detection using training data with only benign users. OCAN first uses LSTM-Autoencoder to learn the representations of benign users from their sequences of online activities. It then detects malicious users by training a discriminator with a complementary GAN model that is different from the regular GAN model. Experimental results show that our OCAN outperforms the state-of-the-art one-class classification models and achieves comparable performance with the latest multi-source LSTM model that requires both benign and malicious users in the training phase.
Causal inference is a critical research topic across many domains, such as statistics, computer science, education, public policy and economics, for decades. Nowadays, estimating causal effect from observational data has become an appealing research direction owing to the large amount of available data and low budget requirement, compared with randomized controlled trials. Embraced with the rapidly developed machine learning area, various causal effect estimation methods for observational data have sprung up. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive review of causal inference methods under the potential outcome framework, one of the well known causal inference framework. The methods are divided into two categories depending on whether they require all three assumptions of the potential outcome framework or not. For each category, both the traditional statistical methods and the recent machine learning enhanced methods are discussed and compared. The plausible applications of these methods are also presented, including the applications in advertising, recommendation, medicine and so on. Moreover, the commonly used benchmark datasets as well as the open-source codes are also summarized, which facilitate researchers and practitioners to explore, evaluate and apply the causal inference methods.