Models, code, and papers for "Ali A":

Coded Fourier Transform

Oct 17, 2017
Qian Yu, Mohammad Ali Maddah-Ali, A. Salman Avestimehr

We consider the problem of computing the Fourier transform of high-dimensional vectors, distributedly over a cluster of machines consisting of a master node and multiple worker nodes, where the worker nodes can only store and process a fraction of the inputs. We show that by exploiting the algebraic structure of the Fourier transform operation and leveraging concepts from coding theory, one can efficiently deal with the straggler effects. In particular, we propose a computation strategy, named as coded FFT, which achieves the optimal recovery threshold, defined as the minimum number of workers that the master node needs to wait for in order to compute the output. This is the first code that achieves the optimum robustness in terms of tolerating stragglers or failures for computing Fourier transforms. Furthermore, the reconstruction process for coded FFT can be mapped to MDS decoding, which can be solved efficiently. Moreover, we extend coded FFT to settings including computing general $n$-dimensional Fourier transforms, and provide the optimal computing strategy for those settings.


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A Survey of Machine and Deep Learning Methods for Internet of Things (IoT) Security

Jul 29, 2018
Mohammed Ali Al-Garadi, Amr Mohamed, Abdulla Al-Ali, Xiaojiang Du, Mohsen Guizani

The Internet of Things (IoT) integrates billions of smart devices that can communicate with one another with minimal human intervention. It is one of the fastest developing fields in the history of computing, with an estimated 50 billion devices by the end of 2020. On the one hand, IoT play a crucial role in enhancing several real-life smart applications that can improve life quality. On the other hand, the crosscutting nature of IoT systems and the multidisciplinary components involved in the deployment of such systems introduced new security challenges. Implementing security measures, such as encryption, authentication, access control, network security and application security, for IoT devices and their inherent vulnerabilities is ineffective. Therefore, existing security methods should be enhanced to secure the IoT system effectively. Machine learning and deep learning (ML/DL) have advanced considerably over the last few years, and machine intelligence has transitioned from laboratory curiosity to practical machinery in several important applications. Consequently, ML/DL methods are important in transforming the security of IoT systems from merely facilitating secure communication between devices to security-based intelligence systems. The goal of this work is to provide a comprehensive survey of ML /DL methods that can be used to develop enhanced security methods for IoT systems. IoT security threats that are related to inherent or newly introduced threats are presented, and various potential IoT system attack surfaces and the possible threats related to each surface are discussed. We then thoroughly review ML/DL methods for IoT security and present the opportunities, advantages and shortcomings of each method. We discuss the opportunities and challenges involved in applying ML/DL to IoT security. These opportunities and challenges can serve as potential future research directions.


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Design Challenges of Multi-UAV Systems in Cyber-Physical Applications: A Comprehensive Survey, and Future Directions

Oct 23, 2018
Reza Shakeri, Mohammed Ali Al-Garadi, Ahmed Badawy, Amr Mohamed, Tamer Khattab, Abdulla Al-Ali, Khaled A. Harras, Mohsen Guizani

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have recently rapidly grown to facilitate a wide range of innovative applications that can fundamentally change the way cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are designed. CPSs are a modern generation of systems with synergic cooperation between computational and physical potentials that can interact with humans through several new mechanisms. The main advantages of using UAVs in CPS application is their exceptional features, including their mobility, dynamism, effortless deployment, adaptive altitude, agility, adjustability, and effective appraisal of real-world functions anytime and anywhere. Furthermore, from the technology perspective, UAVs are predicted to be a vital element of the development of advanced CPSs. Therefore, in this survey, we aim to pinpoint the most fundamental and important design challenges of multi-UAV systems for CPS applications. We highlight key and versatile aspects that span the coverage and tracking of targets and infrastructure objects, energy-efficient navigation, and image analysis using machine learning for fine-grained CPS applications. Key prototypes and testbeds are also investigated to show how these practical technologies can facilitate CPS applications. We present and propose state-of-the-art algorithms to address design challenges with both quantitative and qualitative methods and map these challenges with important CPS applications to draw insightful conclusions on the challenges of each application. Finally, we summarize potential new directions and ideas that could shape future research in these areas.


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Recognition of Regular Shapes in Satelite Images

Jan 08, 2010
Ahmad Reza Eskandari, Ali Pourmohammad

This paper has been withdrawn by the author ali pourmohammad.

* This paper has been withdrawn 

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Using SLP Neural Network to Persian Handwritten Digits Recognition

Jan 08, 2010
Ali Pourmohammad, Seyed Mohammad Ahadi

This paper has been withdrawn by the author ali pourmohammad.

* This paper has been withdrawn 

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Shifted Randomized Singular Value Decomposition

Nov 28, 2019
Ali Basirat

We extend the randomized singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm \citep{Halko2011finding} to estimate the SVD of a shifted data matrix without explicitly constructing the matrix in the memory. With no loss in the accuracy of the original algorithm, the extended algorithm provides for a more efficient way of matrix factorization. The algorithm facilitates the low-rank approximation and principal component analysis (PCA) of off-center data matrices. When applied to different types of data matrices, our experimental results confirm the advantages of the extensions made to the original algorithm.


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Sifted Randomized Singular Value Decomposition

Nov 26, 2019
Ali Basirat

We extend the randomized singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm \citep{Halko2011finding} to estimate the SVD of a shifted data matrix without explicitly constructing the matrix in the memory. With no loss in the accuracy of the original algorithm, the extended algorithm provides for a more efficient way of matrix factorization. The algorithm facilitates the low-rank approximation and principal component analysis (PCA) of off-center data matrices. When applied to different types of data matrices, our experimental results confirm the advantages of the extensions made to the original algorithm.


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TinyCNN: A Tiny Modular CNN Accelerator for Embedded FPGA

Nov 15, 2019
Ali Jahanshahi

In recent years, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based methods have achieved great success in a large number of applications and have been among the most powerful and widely used techniques in computer vision. However, CNN-based methods are computational-intensive and resource-consuming, and thus are hard to be integrated into embedded systems such as smart phones, smart glasses, and robots. FPGA is one of the most promising platforms for accelerating CNN, but the limited on-chip memory size limit the performance of FPGA accelerator for CNN. In this paper, we propose a framework for designing CNN accelerator on embedded FPGA for image classification. The proposed framework provides a tool for FPGA resource-aware design space exploration of CNNs and automatically generates the hardware description of the CNN to be programmed on a target FPGA. The framework consists of three main backends; software, hardware generation, and simulation/precision adjustment. The software backend serves as an API to the designer to design the CNN and train it according to the hardware resources that are available. Using the CNN model, hardware backend generates the necessary hardware components and integrates them to generate the hardware description of the CNN. Finaly, Simulation/precision adjustment backend adjusts the inter-layer precision units to minimize the classification error. We used 16-bit fixed-point data in a CNN accelerator (FPGA) and compared it to the exactly similar software version running on an ARM processor (32-bit floating point data). We encounter about 3% accuracy loss in classification of the accelerated (FPGA) version. In return, we got up to 15.75x speedup by classifying with the accelerated version on the FPGA.


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Using Approximate Models in Robot Learning

Feb 13, 2019
Ali Lenjani

Trajectory following is one of the complicated control problems when its dynamics are nonlinear, stochastic and include a large number of parameters. The problem has significant difficulties including a large number of trials required for data collection and a massive volume of computations required to find a closed-loop controller for high dimensional and stochastic domains. For solving this type of problem, if we have an appropriate reward function and dynamics model; finding an optimal control policy is possible by using model-based reinforcement learning and optimal control algorithms. However, defining an accurate dynamics model is not possible for complicated problems. Pieter Abbeel and Andrew Ng recently presented an algorithm that requires only an approximate model and only a small number of real-life trials. This algorithm has broad applicability; however, there are some problems regarding the convergence of the algorithm. In this research, required modifications are presented that provide more powerful assurance for converging to optimal control policy. Also updated algorithm is implemented to evaluate the efficiency of the new algorithm by comparing the acquired results with human expert performance. We are using differential dynamic programming (DDP) as the locally trajectory optimizer, and a 2D dynamics and kinematics simulator is used to evaluate the accuracy of the presented algorithm.


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Pros and Cons of GAN Evaluation Measures

Oct 24, 2018
Ali Borji

Generative models, in particular generative adversarial networks (GANs), have received significant attention recently. A number of GAN variants have been proposed and have been utilized in many applications. Despite large strides in terms of theoretical progress, evaluating and comparing GANs remains a daunting task. While several measures have been introduced, as of yet, there is no consensus as to which measure best captures strengths and limitations of models and should be used for fair model comparison. As in other areas of computer vision and machine learning, it is critical to settle on one or few good measures to steer the progress in this field. In this paper, I review and critically discuss more than 24 quantitative and 5 qualitative measures for evaluating generative models with a particular emphasis on GAN-derived models. I also provide a set of 7 desiderata followed by an evaluation of whether a given measure or a family of measures is compatible with them.


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Saliency Prediction in the Deep Learning Era: An Empirical Investigation

Oct 11, 2018
Ali Borji

Visual saliency models have enjoyed a big leap in performance in recent years, thanks to advances in deep learning and large scale annotated data. Despite enormous effort and huge breakthroughs, however, models still fall short in reaching human-level accuracy. In this work, I explore the landscape of the field emphasizing on new deep saliency models, benchmarks, and datasets. A large number of image and video saliency models are reviewed and compared over two image benchmarks and two large scale video datasets. Further, I identify factors that contribute to the gap between models and humans and discuss remaining issues that need to be addressed to build the next generation of more powerful saliency models. Some specific questions that are addressed include: in what ways current models fail, how to remedy them, what can be learned from cognitive studies of attention, how explicit saliency judgments relate to fixations, how to conduct fair model comparison, and what are the emerging applications of saliency models.


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An Overview of Datatype Quantization Techniques for Convolutional Neural Networks

Aug 22, 2018
Ali Athar

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are becoming increasingly popular due to their superior performance in the domain of computer vision, in applications such as objection detection and recognition. However, they demand complex, power-consuming hardware which makes them unsuitable for implementation on low-power mobile and embedded devices. In this paper, a description and comparison of various techniques is presented which aim to mitigate this problem. This is primarily achieved by quantizing the floating-point weights and activations to reduce the hardware requirements, and adapting the training and inference algorithms to maintain the network's performance.

* 4 pages, 2 figures 

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Stability Analysis of Optimal Adaptive Control using Value Iteration with Approximation Errors

Oct 23, 2017
Ali Heydari

Adaptive optimal control using value iteration initiated from a stabilizing control policy is theoretically analyzed in terms of stability of the system during the learning stage without ignoring the effects of approximation errors. This analysis includes the system operated using any single/constant resulting control policy and also using an evolving/time-varying control policy. A feature of the presented results is providing estimations of the \textit{region of attraction} so that if the initial condition is within the region, the whole trajectory will remain inside it and hence, the function approximation results remain valid.

* A part of this paper is based on preliminary results presented in arXiv:1412.5675 

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Negative Results in Computer Vision: A Perspective

Jun 06, 2017
Ali Borji

A negative result is when the outcome of an experiment or a model is not what is expected or when a hypothesis does not hold. Despite being often overlooked in the scientific community, negative results are results and they carry value. While this topic has been extensively discussed in other fields such as social sciences and biosciences, less attention has been paid to it in the computer vision community. The unique characteristics of computer vision, particularly its experimental aspect, call for a special treatment of this matter. In this paper, I will address what makes negative results important, how they should be disseminated and incentivized, and what lessons can be learned from cognitive vision research in this regard. Further, I will discuss issues such as computer vision and human vision interaction, experimental design and statistical hypothesis testing, explanatory versus predictive modeling, performance evaluation, model comparison, as well as computer vision research culture.


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Vanishing point detection with convolutional neural networks

Sep 04, 2016
Ali Borji

Inspired by the finding that vanishing point (road tangent) guides driver's gaze, in our previous work we showed that vanishing point attracts gaze during free viewing of natural scenes as well as in visual search (Borji et al., Journal of Vision 2016). We have also introduced improved saliency models using vanishing point detectors (Feng et al., WACV 2016). Here, we aim to predict vanishing points in naturalistic environments by training convolutional neural networks in an end-to-end manner over a large set of road images downloaded from Youtube with vanishing points annotated. Results demonstrate effectiveness of our approach compared to classic approaches of vanishing point detection in the literature.


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Spectral Collaborative Representation based Classification for Hand Gestures recognition on Electromyography Signals

Jun 26, 2015
Ali Boyali

In this study, we introduce a novel variant and application of the Collaborative Representation based Classification in spectral domain for recognition of the hand gestures using the raw surface Electromyography signals. The intuitive use of spectral features are explained via circulant matrices. The proposed Spectral Collaborative Representation based Classification (SCRC) is able to recognize gestures with higher levels of accuracy for a fairly rich gesture set. The worst recognition result which is the best in the literature is obtained as 97.3\% among the four sets of the experiments for each hand gestures. The recognition results are reported with a substantial number of experiments and labeling computation.


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Convergence Analysis of Policy Iteration

May 20, 2015
Ali Heydari

Adaptive optimal control of nonlinear dynamic systems with deterministic and known dynamics under a known undiscounted infinite-horizon cost function is investigated. Policy iteration scheme initiated using a stabilizing initial control is analyzed in solving the problem. The convergence of the iterations and the optimality of the limit functions, which follows from the established uniqueness of the solution to the Bellman equation, are the main results of this study. Furthermore, a theoretical comparison between the speed of convergence of policy iteration versus value iteration is presented. Finally, the convergence results are extended to the case of multi-step look-ahead policy iteration.


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Stabilizing Value Iteration with and without Approximation Errors

May 15, 2015
Ali Heydari

Adaptive optimal control using value iteration (VI) initiated from a stabilizing policy is theoretically analyzed in various aspects including the continuity of the result, the stability of the system operated using any single/constant resulting control policy, the stability of the system operated using the evolving/time-varying control policy, the convergence of the algorithm, and the optimality of the limit function. Afterwards, the effect of presence of approximation errors in the involved function approximation processes is incorporated and another set of results for boundedness of the approximate VI as well as stability of the system operated under the results for both cases of applying a single policy or an evolving policy are derived. A feature of the presented results is providing estimations of the region of attraction so that if the initial condition is within the region, the whole trajectory will remain inside it and hence, the function approximation results will be reliable.

* In this revision the proof of Lemma 5 is updated. Initial submission date: 12/17/2014. (This study has overlaps on Theorem 6 and Lemma 5 with another work of the author available at arXiv:1412.6095) 

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Theoretical and Numerical Analysis of Approximate Dynamic Programming with Approximation Errors

May 15, 2015
Ali Heydari

This study is aimed at answering the famous question of how the approximation errors at each iteration of Approximate Dynamic Programming (ADP) affect the quality of the final results considering the fact that errors at each iteration affect the next iteration. To this goal, convergence of Value Iteration scheme of ADP for deterministic nonlinear optimal control problems with undiscounted cost functions is investigated while considering the errors existing in approximating respective functions. The boundedness of the results around the optimal solution is obtained based on quantities which are known in a general optimal control problem and assumptions which are verifiable. Moreover, since the presence of the approximation errors leads to the deviation of the results from optimality, sufficient conditions for stability of the system operated by the result obtained after a finite number of value iterations, along with an estimation of its region of attraction, are derived in terms of a calculable upper bound of the control approximation error. Finally, the process of implementation of the method on an orbital maneuver problem is investigated through which the assumptions made in the theoretical developments are verified and the sufficient conditions are applied for guaranteeing stability and near optimality.

* This study is the counterpart of another work of the author (arXiv:1412.5675) which was for value iterations with initial stabilizing guess (with overlaps on Theorem 1 and Lemma 1). As for the revision on this work, some steps of proofs are updated and an explanation about the approximation error is included. Initial submission date: 12/18/2014 

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Optimal Triggering of Networked Control Systems

Dec 17, 2014
Ali Heydari

The problem of resource allocation of nonlinear networked control systems is investigated, where, unlike the well discussed case of triggering for stability, the objective is optimal triggering. An approximate dynamic programming approach is developed for solving problems with fixed final times initially and then it is extended to infinite horizon problems. Different cases including Zero-Order-Hold, Generalized Zero-Order-Hold, and stochastic networks are investigated. Afterwards, the developments are extended to the case of problems with unknown dynamics and a model-free scheme is presented for learning the (approximate) optimal solution. After detailed analyses of convergence, optimality, and stability of the results, the performance of the method is demonstrated through different numerical examples.


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