Models, code, and papers for "Charles Nash":

Relational inductive biases, deep learning, and graph networks

Oct 17, 2018
Peter W. Battaglia, Jessica B. Hamrick, Victor Bapst, Alvaro Sanchez-Gonzalez, Vinicius Zambaldi, Mateusz Malinowski, Andrea Tacchetti, David Raposo, Adam Santoro, Ryan Faulkner, Caglar Gulcehre, Francis Song, Andrew Ballard, Justin Gilmer, George Dahl, Ashish Vaswani, Kelsey Allen, Charles Nash, Victoria Langston, Chris Dyer, Nicolas Heess, Daan Wierstra, Pushmeet Kohli, Matt Botvinick, Oriol Vinyals, Yujia Li, Razvan Pascanu

Artificial intelligence (AI) has undergone a renaissance recently, making major progress in key domains such as vision, language, control, and decision-making. This has been due, in part, to cheap data and cheap compute resources, which have fit the natural strengths of deep learning. However, many defining characteristics of human intelligence, which developed under much different pressures, remain out of reach for current approaches. In particular, generalizing beyond one's experiences--a hallmark of human intelligence from infancy--remains a formidable challenge for modern AI. The following is part position paper, part review, and part unification. We argue that combinatorial generalization must be a top priority for AI to achieve human-like abilities, and that structured representations and computations are key to realizing this objective. Just as biology uses nature and nurture cooperatively, we reject the false choice between "hand-engineering" and "end-to-end" learning, and instead advocate for an approach which benefits from their complementary strengths. We explore how using relational inductive biases within deep learning architectures can facilitate learning about entities, relations, and rules for composing them. We present a new building block for the AI toolkit with a strong relational inductive bias--the graph network--which generalizes and extends various approaches for neural networks that operate on graphs, and provides a straightforward interface for manipulating structured knowledge and producing structured behaviors. We discuss how graph networks can support relational reasoning and combinatorial generalization, laying the foundation for more sophisticated, interpretable, and flexible patterns of reasoning. As a companion to this paper, we have released an open-source software library for building graph networks, with demonstrations of how to use them in practice.

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Parallel Algorithm for Approximating Nash Equilibrium in Multiplayer Stochastic Games with Application to Naval Strategic Planning

Oct 01, 2019
Sam Ganzfried, Conner Laughlin, Charles Morefield

Many real-world domains contain multiple agents behaving strategically with probabilistic transitions and uncertain (potentially infinite) duration. Such settings can be modeled as stochastic games. While algorithms have been developed for solving (i.e., computing a game-theoretic solution concept such as Nash equilibrium) two-player zero-sum stochastic games, research on algorithms for non-zero-sum and multiplayer stochastic games is very limited. We present a new algorithm for these settings, which constitutes the first parallel algorithm for multiplayer stochastic games. We present experimental results on a 4-player stochastic game motivated by a naval strategic planning scenario, showing that our algorithm is able to quickly compute strategies constituting Nash equilibrium up to a very small degree of approximation.

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AI Assisted Annotator using Reinforcement Learning

Oct 09, 2019
V. Ratna Saripalli, Gopal Avinash, Charles W. Anderson

Healthcare data suffers from both noise and lack of ground truth. The cost of data increases as it is cleaned and annotated in healthcare. Unlike other data sets, medical data annotation, which is critical to accurate ground truth, requires medical domain expertise for a better patient outcome. In this work, we report on the use of reinforcement learning to mimic the decision making process of annotators for medical events, to automate annotation and labelling. The reinforcement agent learns to annotate alarm data based on annotations done by an expert. Our method shows promising results on medical alarm data sets. We trained DQN and A2C agents using the data from monitoring devices annotated by an expert. Initial results from these RL agents learning the expert annotation behavior are promising. The A2C agent performs better in terms of learning the sparse events in a given state, thereby choosing more right actions compared to DQN agent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reinforcement learning application for the automation of medical events annotation, which has far-reaching practical use.

* 8 pages 

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