Models, code, and papers for "Claire David":

Finding simple, non-recursive, base noun phrases is an important subtask for many natural language processing applications. While previous empirical methods for base NP identification have been rather complex, this paper instead proposes a very simple algorithm that is tailored to the relative simplicity of the task. In particular, we present a corpus-based approach for finding base NPs by matching part-of-speech tag sequences. The training phase of the algorithm is based on two successful techniques: first the base NP grammar is read from a ``treebank'' corpus; then the grammar is improved by selecting rules with high ``benefit'' scores. Using this simple algorithm with a naive heuristic for matching rules, we achieve surprising accuracy in an evaluation on the Penn Treebank Wall Street Journal.

This paper presents an evolutionary metaheuristic called Multiple Search Neuroevolution (MSN) to optimize deep neural networks. The algorithm attempts to search multiple promising regions in the search space simultaneously, maintaining sufficient distance between them. It is tested by training neural networks for two tasks, and compared with other optimization algorithms. The first task is to solve Global Optimization functions with challenging topographies. We found to MSN to outperform classic optimization algorithms such as Evolution Strategies, reducing the number of optimization steps performed by at least 2X. The second task is to train a convolutional neural network (CNN) on the popular MNIST dataset. Using 3.33% of the training set, MSN reaches a validation accuracy of 90%. Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) was able to match the same accuracy figure, while taking 7X less optimization steps. Despite lagging, the fact that the MSN metaheurisitc trains a 4.7M-parameter CNN suggests promise for future development. This is by far the largest network ever evolved using a pool of only 50 samples.

Learning cooperative policies for multi-agent systems is often challenged by partial observability and a lack of coordination. In some settings, the structure of a problem allows a distributed solution with limited communication. Here, we consider a scenario where no communication is available, and instead we learn local policies for all agents that collectively mimic the solution to a centralized multi-agent static optimization problem. Our main contribution is an information theoretic framework based on rate distortion theory which facilitates analysis of how well the resulting fully decentralized policies are able to reconstruct the optimal solution. Moreover, this framework provides a natural extension that addresses which nodes an agent should communicate with to improve the performance of its individual policy.

Nodes residing in different parts of a graph can have similar structural roles within their local network topology. The identification of such roles provides key insight into the organization of networks and can be used for a variety of machine learning tasks. However, learning structural representations of nodes is a challenging problem, and it has typically involved manually specifying and tailoring topological features for each node. In this paper, we develop GraphWave, a method that represents each node's network neighborhood via a low-dimensional embedding by leveraging heat wavelet diffusion patterns. Instead of training on hand-selected features, GraphWave learns these embeddings in an unsupervised way. We mathematically prove that nodes with similar network neighborhoods will have similar GraphWave embeddings even though these nodes may reside in very different parts of the network, and our method scales linearly with the number of edges. Experiments in a variety of different settings demonstrate GraphWave's real-world potential for capturing structural roles in networks, and our approach outperforms existing state-of-the-art baselines in every experiment, by as much as 137%.

Iterative linear-quadratic (ILQ) methods are widely used in the nonlinear optimal control community. Recent work has applied similar methodology in the setting of multi-player general-sum differential games. Here, ILQ methods are capable of finding local Nash equilibria in interactive motion planning problems in real-time. As in most iterative procedures, however, this approach can be sensitive to initial conditions and hyperparameter choices, which can result in poor computational performance or even unsafe trajectories. In this paper, we focus our attention on a broad class of dynamical systems which are feedback linearizable, and exploit this structure to improve both algorithmic reliability and runtime. We showcase our new algorithm in three distinct traffic scenarios, and observe that in practice our method converges significantly more often and more quickly than was possible without exploiting the feedback linearizable structure.

We present a new framework for motion planning that wraps around existing kinodynamic planners and guarantees recursive feasibility when operating in a priori unknown, static environments. Our approach makes strong guarantees about overall safety and collision avoidance by utilizing a robust controller derived from reachability analysis. We ensure that motion plans never exit the safe backward reachable set of the initial state, while safely exploring the space. This preserves the safety of the initial state, and guarantees that that we will eventually find the goal if it is possible to do so while exploring safely. We implement our framework in the Robot Operating System (ROS) software environment and demonstrate it in a real-time simulation.

In many settings where multiple agents interact, the optimal choices for each agent depend heavily on the choices of the others. These coupled interactions are well-described by a general-sum differential game, in which players have differing objectives, the state evolves in continuous time, and optimal play may be characterized by one of many equilibrium concepts, e.g., a Nash equilibrium. Often, problems admit multiple equilibria. From the perspective of a single agent in such a game, this multiplicity of solutions can introduce uncertainty about how other agents will behave. This paper proposes a general framework for resolving ambiguity between equilibria by reasoning about the equilibrium other agents are aiming for. We demonstrate this framework in simulations of a multi-player human-robot navigation problem that yields two main conclusions: First, by inferring which equilibrium humans are operating at, the robot is able to predict trajectories more accurately, and second, by discovering and aligning itself to this equilibrium the robot is able to reduce the cost for all players.

Differential games offer a powerful theoretical framework for formulating safety and robustness problems in optimal control. Unfortunately, numerical solution techniques for general nonlinear dynamical systems scale poorly with state dimension and are rarely used in applications requiring real-time computation. For single-agent optimal control problems, however, local methods based on efficiently solving iterated approximations with linear dynamics and quadratic costs are becoming increasingly popular. We take inspiration from one such method, the iterative linear quadratic regulator (ILQR), and observe that efficient algorithms also exist to solve multi-player linear-quadratic games. Whereas ILQR converges to a local solution of the optimal control problem, if our method converges it returns a local Nash equilibrium of the differential game. We benchmark our method in a three-player general-sum simulated example, in which it takes < 0.75 s to identify a solution and < 50 ms to solve warm-started subproblems in a receding horizon. We also demonstrate our approach in hardware, operating in real-time and following a 10 s receding horizon.

We study the adaptive sensing problem for the multiple source seeking problem, where a mobile robot must identify the strongest emitters in an environment with background emissions. Background signals may be highly heterogeneous, and can mislead algorithms which are based on receding horizon control, greedy heuristics, or smooth background priors. We propose AdaSearch, a general algorithm for adaptive sensing. AdaSearch combines global trajectory planning with principled confidence intervals in order to concentrate measurements in promising regions while still guaranteeing sufficient coverage of the entire area. Theoretical analysis shows that AdaSearch significantly outperforms a uniform sampling strategy when the distribution of background signals is highly variable. Simulation studies demonstrate that when applied to the problem of radioactive source-seeking, AdaSearch outperforms both uniform sampling and a receding time horizon information-maximization approach based on the current literature. We corroborate these findings with a hardware demonstration, using a small quadrotor helicopter in a motion-capture arena.

Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) reachability analysis has been developed over the past decades into a widely-applicable tool for determining goal satisfaction and safety verification in nonlinear systems. While HJ reachability can be formulated very generally, computational complexity can be a serious impediment for many systems of practical interest. Much prior work has been devoted to computing approximate solutions to large reachability problems, yet many of these methods apply to only restricted problem classes, do not generate controllers, and/or are extremely conservative. In this paper, we present a novel approach to approximate HJ reachability in which computing an optimal controller is viewed as a sequential classification problem. Even though we employ neural networks for this classification task, our method still provides safety guarantees in many cases. We demonstrate the utility of our approach in the context of safe trajectory following with specific application to quadrotor navigation. Offline computation and online evaluation confirm that our method preserves safety.

It has been challenging for the technical and regulatory communities to formulate requirements for trustworthiness of the cyber-physical systems (CPS) due to the complexity of the issues associated with their design, deployment, and operations. The US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), through a public working group, has released a CPS Framework that adopts a broad and integrated view of CPS and positions trustworthiness among other aspects of CPS. This paper takes the model created by the CPS Framework and its further developments one step further, by applying ontological approaches and reasoning techniques in order to achieve greater understanding of CPS. The example analyzed in the paper demonstrates the enrichment of the original CPS model obtained through ontology and reasoning and its ability to deliver additional insights to the developers and operators of CPS.

Improving the energy-efficiency of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems has the potential to realize large economic and societal benefits. This paper concerns the system identification of a hybrid system model of a building-wide HVAC system and its subsequent control using a hybrid system formulation of learning-based model predictive control (LBMPC). Here, the learning refers to model updates to the hybrid system model that incorporate the heating effects due to occupancy, solar effects, outside air temperature (OAT), and equipment, in addition to integrator dynamics inherently present in low-level control. Though we make significant modeling simplifications, our corresponding controller that uses this model is able to experimentally achieve a large reduction in energy usage without any degradations in occupant comfort. It is in this way that we justify the modeling simplifications that we have made. We conclude by presenting results from experiments on our building HVAC testbed, which show an average of 1.5MWh of energy savings per day (p = 0.002) with a 95% confidence interval of 1.0MWh to 2.1MWh of energy savings.

The implementation of optimal power flow (OPF) methods to perform voltage and power flow regulation in electric networks is generally believed to require communication. We consider distribution systems with multiple controllable Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and present a data-driven approach to learn control policies for each DER to reconstruct and mimic the solution to a centralized OPF problem from solely locally available information. Collectively, all local controllers closely match the centralized OPF solution, providing near-optimal performance and satisfaction of system constraints. A rate distortion framework facilitates the analysis of how well the resulting fully decentralized control policies are able to reconstruct the OPF solution. Our methodology provides a natural extension to decide what buses a DER should communicate with to improve the reconstruction of its individual policy. The method is applied on both single- and three-phase test feeder networks using data from real loads and distributed generators. It provides a framework for Distribution System Operators to efficiently plan and operate the contributions of DERs to active distribution networks.

We present a novel approach to control design for nonlinear systems, which leverages reinforcement learning techniques to learn a linearizing controller for a physical plant with unknown dynamics. Feedback linearization is a technique from nonlinear control which renders the input-output dynamics of a nonlinear plant \emph{linear} under application of an appropriate feedback controller. Once a linearizing controller has been constructed, desired output trajectories for the nonlinear plant can be tracked using a variety of linear control techniques. A single learned policy then serves to track arbitrary desired reference signals provided by a higher-level planner. We present theoretical results which provide conditions under which the learning problem has a unique solution which exactly linearizes the plant. We demonstrate the performance of our approach on two simulated problems and a physical robotic platform. For the simulated environments, we observe that the learned feedback linearizing policies can achieve arbitrary tracking of reference trajectories for a fully actuated double pendulum and a 14 dimensional quadrotor. In hardware, we demonstrate that our approach significantly improves tracking performance on a 7-DOF Baxter robot after less than two hours of training.

This paper identifies stylistic differences in instruction-giving observed in a corpus of human-robot dialogue. Differences in verbosity and structure (i.e., single-intent vs. multi-intent instructions) arose naturally without restrictions or prior guidance on how users should speak with the robot. Different styles were found to produce different rates of miscommunication, and correlations were found between style differences and individual user variation, trust, and interaction experience with the robot. Understanding potential consequences and factors that influence style can inform design of dialogue systems that are robust to natural variation from human users.

Robust motion planning is a well-studied problem in the robotics literature, yet current algorithms struggle to operate scalably and safely in the presence of other moving agents, such as humans. This paper introduces a novel framework for robot navigation that accounts for high-order system dynamics and maintains safety in the presence of external disturbances, other robots, and non-deterministic intentional agents. Our approach precomputes a tracking error margin for each robot, generates confidence-aware human motion predictions, and coordinates multiple robots with a sequential priority ordering, effectively enabling scalable safe trajectory planning and execution. We demonstrate our approach in hardware with two robots and two humans. We also showcase our work's scalability in a larger simulation.

In order to safely operate around humans, robots can employ predictive models of human motion. Unfortunately, these models cannot capture the full complexity of human behavior and necessarily introduce simplifying assumptions. As a result, predictions may degrade whenever the observed human behavior departs from the assumed structure, which can have negative implications for safety. In this paper, we observe that how "rational" human actions appear under a particular model can be viewed as an indicator of that model's ability to describe the human's current motion. By reasoning about this model confidence in a real-time Bayesian framework, we show that the robot can very quickly modulate its predictions to become more uncertain when the model performs poorly. Building on recent work in provably-safe trajectory planning, we leverage these confidence-aware human motion predictions to generate assured autonomous robot motion. Our new analysis combines worst-case tracking error guarantees for the physical robot with probabilistic time-varying human predictions, yielding a quantitative, probabilistic safety certificate. We demonstrate our approach with a quadcopter navigating around a human.

We describe a multi-phased Wizard-of-Oz approach to collecting human-robot dialogue in a collaborative search and navigation task. The data is being used to train an initial automated robot dialogue system to support collaborative exploration tasks. In the first phase, a wizard freely typed robot utterances to human participants. For the second phase, this data was used to design a GUI that includes buttons for the most common communications, and templates for communications with varying parameters. Comparison of the data gathered in these phases show that the GUI enabled a faster pace of dialogue while still maintaining high coverage of suitable responses, enabling more efficient targeted data collection, and improvements in natural language understanding using GUI-collected data. As a promising first step towards interactive learning, this work shows that our approach enables the collection of useful training data for navigation-based HRI tasks.

We describe the adaptation and refinement of a graphical user interface designed to facilitate a Wizard-of-Oz (WoZ) approach to collecting human-robot dialogue data. The data collected will be used to develop a dialogue system for robot navigation. Building on an interface previously used in the development of dialogue systems for virtual agents and video playback, we add templates with open parameters which allow the wizard to quickly produce a wide variety of utterances. Our research demonstrates that this approach to data collection is viable as an intermediate step in developing a dialogue system for physical robots in remote locations from their users - a domain in which the human and robot need to regularly verify and update a shared understanding of the physical environment. We show that our WoZ interface and the fixed set of utterances and templates therein provide for a natural pace of dialogue with good coverage of the navigation domain.

Machine learning is an important research area in particle physics, beginning with applications to high-level physics analysis in the 1990s and 2000s, followed by an explosion of applications in particle and event identification and reconstruction in the 2010s. In this document we discuss promising future research and development areas in machine learning in particle physics with a roadmap for their implementation, software and hardware resource requirements, collaborative initiatives with the data science community, academia and industry, and training the particle physics community in data science. The main objective of the document is to connect and motivate these areas of research and development with the physics drivers of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider and future neutrino experiments and identify the resource needs for their implementation. Additionally we identify areas where collaboration with external communities will be of great benefit.