Models, code, and papers for "Danda Paudel":

Covariance Pooling For Facial Expression Recognition

May 13, 2018
Dinesh Acharya, Zhiwu Huang, Danda Paudel, Luc Van Gool

Classifying facial expressions into different categories requires capturing regional distortions of facial landmarks. We believe that second-order statistics such as covariance is better able to capture such distortions in regional facial fea- tures. In this work, we explore the benefits of using a man- ifold network structure for covariance pooling to improve facial expression recognition. In particular, we first employ such kind of manifold networks in conjunction with tradi- tional convolutional networks for spatial pooling within in- dividual image feature maps in an end-to-end deep learning manner. By doing so, we are able to achieve a recognition accuracy of 58.14% on the validation set of Static Facial Expressions in the Wild (SFEW 2.0) and 87.0% on the vali- dation set of Real-World Affective Faces (RAF) Database. Both of these results are the best results we are aware of. Besides, we leverage covariance pooling to capture the tem- poral evolution of per-frame features for video-based facial expression recognition. Our reported results demonstrate the advantage of pooling image-set features temporally by stacking the designed manifold network of covariance pool-ing on top of convolutional network layers.

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Geometrically Mappable Image Features

Mar 21, 2020
Janine Thoma, Danda Pani Paudel, Ajad Chhatkuli, Luc Van Gool

Vision-based localization of an agent in a map is an important problem in robotics and computer vision. In that context, localization by learning matchable image features is gaining popularity due to recent advances in machine learning. Features that uniquely describe the visual contents of images have a wide range of applications, including image retrieval and understanding. In this work, we propose a method that learns image features targeted for image-retrieval-based localization. Retrieval-based localization has several benefits, such as easy maintenance and quick computation. However, the state-of-the-art features only provide visual similarity scores which do not explicitly reveal the geometric distance between query and retrieved images. Knowing this distance is highly desirable for accurate localization, especially when the reference images are sparsely distributed in the scene. Therefore, we propose a novel loss function for learning image features which are both visually representative and geometrically relatable. This is achieved by guiding the learning process such that the feature and geometric distances between images are directly proportional. In our experiments we show that our features not only offer significantly better localization accuracy, but also allow to estimate the trajectory of a query sequence in absence of the reference images.

* IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 5, no. 2 (2020): 2062-2069 
* Implementation available at 

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Convex Relaxations for Consensus and Non-Minimal Problems in 3D Vision

Sep 26, 2019
Thomas Probst, Danda Pani Paudel, Ajad Chhatkuli, Luc Van Gool

In this paper, we formulate a generic non-minimal solver using the existing tools of Polynomials Optimization Problems (POP) from computational algebraic geometry. The proposed method exploits the well known Shor's or Lasserre's relaxations, whose theoretical aspects are also discussed. Notably, we further exploit the POP formulation of non-minimal solver also for the generic consensus maximization problems in 3D vision. Our framework is simple and straightforward to implement, which is also supported by three diverse applications in 3D vision, namely rigid body transformation estimation, Non-Rigid Structure-from-Motion (NRSfM), and camera autocalibration. In all three cases, both non-minimal and consensus maximization are tested, which are also compared against the state-of-the-art methods. Our results are competitive to the compared methods, and are also coherent with our theoretical analysis. The main contribution of this paper is the claim that a good approximate solution for many polynomial problems involved in 3D vision can be obtained using the existing theory of numerical computational algebra. This claim leads us to reason about why many relaxed methods in 3D vision behave so well? And also allows us to offer a generic relaxed solver in a rather straightforward way. We further show that the convex relaxation of these polynomials can easily be used for maximizing consensus in a deterministic manner. We support our claim using several experiments for aforementioned three diverse problems in 3D vision.

* Accepted to ICCV'19 

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Model-free Consensus Maximization for Non-Rigid Shapes

Aug 13, 2018
Thomas Probst, Ajad Chhatkuli, Danda Pani Paudel, Luc Van Gool

Many computer vision methods use consensus maximization to relate measurements containing outliers with the correct transformation model. In the context of rigid shapes, this is typically done using Random Sampling and Consensus (RANSAC) by estimating an analytical model that agrees with the largest number of measurements (inliers). However, small parameter models may not be always available. In this paper, we formulate the model-free consensus maximization as an Integer Program in a graph using `rules' on measurements. We then provide a method to solve it optimally using the Branch and Bound (BnB) paradigm. We focus its application on non-rigid shapes, where we apply the method to remove outlier 3D correspondences and achieve performance superior to the state of the art. Our method works with outlier ratio as high as 80\%. We further derive a similar formulation for 3D template to image matching, achieving similar or better performance compared to the state of the art.

* ECCV18 

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Incremental Non-Rigid Structure-from-Motion with Unknown Focal Length

Aug 13, 2018
Thomas Probst, Danda Pani Paudel, Ajad Chhatkuli, Luc Van Gool

The perspective camera and the isometric surface prior have recently gathered increased attention for Non-Rigid Structure-from-Motion (NRSfM). Despite the recent progress, several challenges remain, particularly the computational complexity and the unknown camera focal length. In this paper we present a method for incremental Non-Rigid Structure-from-Motion (NRSfM) with the perspective camera model and the isometric surface prior with unknown focal length. In the template-based case, we provide a method to estimate four parameters of the camera intrinsics. For the template-less scenario of NRSfM, we propose a method to upgrade reconstructions obtained for one focal length to another based on local rigidity and the so-called Maximum Depth Heuristics (MDH). On its basis we propose a method to simultaneously recover the focal length and the non-rigid shapes. We further solve the problem of incorporating a large number of points and adding more views in MDH-based NRSfM and efficiently solve them with Second-Order Cone Programming (SOCP). This does not require any shape initialization and produces results orders of times faster than many methods. We provide evaluations on standard sequences with ground-truth and qualitative reconstructions on challenging YouTube videos. These evaluations show that our method performs better in both speed and accuracy than the state of the art.

* ECCV 2018 

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Image-based Navigation using Visual Features and Map

Dec 10, 2018
Janine Thoma, Danda Pani Paudel, Ajad Chhatkuli, Thomas Probst, Luc Van Gool

Building on progress in feature representations for image retrieval, image-based localization has seen a surge of research interest. Image-based localization has the advantage of being inexpensive and efficient, often avoiding the use of 3D metric maps altogether. This said, the need to maintain a large number of reference images as an effective support of localization in a scene, nonetheless calls for them to be organized in a map structure of some kind. The problem of localization often arises as part of a navigation process. We are, therefore, interested in summarizing the reference images as a set of landmarks, which meet the requirements for image-based navigation. A contribution of the paper is to formulate such a set of requirements for the two sub-tasks involved: map construction and self localization. These requirements are then exploited for compact map representation and accurate self-localization, using the framework of a network flow problem. During this process, we formulate the map construction and self-localization problems as convex quadratic and second-order cone programs, respectively. We evaluate our methods on publicly available indoor and outdoor datasets, where they outperform existing methods significantly.

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Improving Video Generation for Multi-functional Applications

Mar 14, 2018
Bernhard Kratzwald, Zhiwu Huang, Danda Pani Paudel, Acharya Dinesh, Luc Van Gool

In this paper, we aim to improve the state-of-the-art video generative adversarial networks (GANs) with a view towards multi-functional applications. Our improved video GAN model does not separate foreground from background nor dynamic from static patterns, but learns to generate the entire video clip conjointly. Our model can thus be trained to generate - and learn from - a broad set of videos with no restriction. This is achieved by designing a robust one-stream video generation architecture with an extension of the state-of-the-art Wasserstein GAN framework that allows for better convergence. The experimental results show that our improved video GAN model outperforms state-of-theart video generative models on multiple challenging datasets. Furthermore, we demonstrate the superiority of our model by successfully extending it to three challenging problems: video colorization, video inpainting, and future prediction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work using GANs to colorize and inpaint video clips.

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Face Translation between Images and Videos using Identity-aware CycleGAN

Dec 04, 2017
Zhiwu Huang, Bernhard Kratzwald, Danda Pani Paudel, Jiqing Wu, Luc Van Gool

This paper presents a new problem of unpaired face translation between images and videos, which can be applied to facial video prediction and enhancement. In this problem there exist two major technical challenges: 1) designing a robust translation model between static images and dynamic videos, and 2) preserving facial identity during image-video translation. To address such two problems, we generalize the state-of-the-art image-to-image translation network (Cycle-Consistent Adversarial Networks) to the image-to-video/video-to-image translation context by exploiting a image-video translation model and an identity preservation model. In particular, we apply the state-of-the-art Wasserstein GAN technique to the setting of image-video translation for better convergence, and we meanwhile introduce a face verificator to ensure the identity. Experiments on standard image/video face datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model in both terms of qualitative and quantitative evaluations.

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Divide-and-Conquer Adversarial Learning for High-Resolution Image and Video Enhancement

Oct 23, 2019
Zhiwu Huang, Danda Pani Paudel, Guanju Li, Jiqing Wu, Radu Timofte, Luc Van Gool

This paper introduces a divide-and-conquer inspired adversarial learning (DACAL) approach for photo enhancement. The key idea is to decompose the photo enhancement process into hierarchically multiple sub-problems, which can be better conquered from bottom to up. On the top level, we propose a perception-based division to learn additive and multiplicative components, required to translate a low-quality image or video into its high-quality counterpart. On the intermediate level, we use a frequency-based division with generative adversarial network (GAN) to weakly supervise the photo enhancement process. On the lower level, we design a dimension-based division that enables the GAN model to better approximates the distribution distance on multiple independent one-dimensional data to train the GAN model. While considering all three hierarchies, we develop multiscale and recurrent training approaches to optimize the image and video enhancement process in a weakly-supervised manner. Both quantitative and qualitative results clearly demonstrate that the proposed DACAL achieves the state-of-the-art performance for high-resolution image and video enhancement.

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Unsupervised Learning of Category-Specific Symmetric 3D Keypoints from Point Sets

Mar 17, 2020
Clara Fernandez-Labrador, Ajad Chhatkuli, Danda Pani Paudel, Jose J. Guerrero, Cédric Demonceaux, Luc Van Gool

Automatic discovery of category-specific 3D keypoints from a collection of objects of some category is a challenging problem. One reason is that not all objects in a category necessarily have the same semantic parts. The level of difficulty adds up further when objects are represented by 3D point clouds, with variations in shape and unknown coordinate frames. We define keypoints to be category-specific, if they meaningfully represent objects' shape and their correspondences can be simply established order-wise across all objects. This paper aims at learning category-specific 3D keypoints, in an unsupervised manner, using a collection of misaligned 3D point clouds of objects from an unknown category. In order to do so, we model shapes defined by the keypoints, within a category, using the symmetric linear basis shapes without assuming the plane of symmetry to be known. The usage of symmetry prior leads us to learn stable keypoints suitable for higher misalignments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work on learning such keypoints directly from 3D point clouds. Using categories from four benchmark datasets, we demonstrate the quality of our learned keypoints by quantitative and qualitative evaluations. Our experiments also show that the keypoints discovered by our method are geometrically and semantically consistent.

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Domain Agnostic Feature Learning for Image and Video Based Face Anti-spoofing

Dec 15, 2019
Suman Saha, Wenhao Xu, Menelaos Kanakis, Stamatios Georgoulis, Yuhua Chen, Danda Pani Paudel, Luc Van Gool

Nowadays, the increasingly growing number of mobile and computing devices has led to a demand for safer user authentication systems. Face anti-spoofing is a measure towards this direction for bio-metric user authentication, and in particular face recognition, that tries to prevent spoof attacks. The state-of-the-art anti-spoofing techniques leverage the ability of deep neural networks to learn discriminative features, based on cues from the training set images or video samples, in an effort to detect spoof attacks. However, due to the particular nature of the problem, i.e. large variability due to factors like different backgrounds, lighting conditions, camera resolutions, spoof materials, etc., these techniques typically fail to generalize to new samples. In this paper, we explicitly tackle this problem and propose a class-conditional domain discriminator module, that, coupled with a gradient reversal layer, tries to generate live and spoof features that are discriminative, but at the same time robust against the aforementioned variability factors. Extensive experimental analysis shows the effectiveness of the proposed method over existing image- and video-based anti-spoofing techniques, both in terms of numerical improvement as well as when visualizing the learned features.

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Sliced Wasserstein Generative Models

Apr 13, 2019
Jiqing Wu, Zhiwu Huang, Dinesh Acharya, Wen Li, Janine Thoma, Danda Pani Paudel, Luc Van Gool

In generative modeling, the Wasserstein distance (WD) has emerged as a useful metric to measure the discrepancy between generated and real data distributions. Unfortunately, it is challenging to approximate the WD of high-dimensional distributions. In contrast, the sliced Wasserstein distance (SWD) factorizes high-dimensional distributions into their multiple one-dimensional marginal distributions and is thus easier to approximate. In this paper, we introduce novel approximations of the primal and dual SWD. Instead of using a large number of random projections, as it is done by conventional SWD approximation methods, we propose to approximate SWDs with a small number of parameterized orthogonal projections in an end-to-end deep learning fashion. As concrete applications of our SWD approximations, we design two types of differentiable SWD blocks to equip modern generative frameworks---Auto-Encoders (AE) and Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN). In the experiments, we not only show the superiority of the proposed generative models on standard image synthesis benchmarks, but also demonstrate the state-of-the-art performance on challenging high resolution image and video generation in an unsupervised manner.

* This paper is submitted to arxiv twice, thus withdraw one of the versions. See arXiv:1706.02631 instead 

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