Models, code, and papers for "Di Li":

Dense Multimodal Fusion for Hierarchically Joint Representation

Oct 08, 2018
Di Hu, Feiping Nie, Xuelong Li

Multiple modalities can provide more valuable information than single one by describing the same contents in various ways. Hence, it is highly expected to learn effective joint representation by fusing the features of different modalities. However, previous methods mainly focus on fusing the shallow features or high-level representations generated by unimodal deep networks, which only capture part of the hierarchical correlations across modalities. In this paper, we propose to densely integrate the representations by greedily stacking multiple shared layers between different modality-specific networks, which is named as Dense Multimodal Fusion (DMF). The joint representations in different shared layers can capture the correlations in different levels, and the connection between shared layers also provides an efficient way to learn the dependence among hierarchical correlations. These two properties jointly contribute to the multiple learning paths in DMF, which results in faster convergence, lower training loss, and better performance. We evaluate our model on three typical multimodal learning tasks, including audiovisual speech recognition, cross-modal retrieval, and multimodal classification. The noticeable performance in the experiments demonstrates that our model can learn more effective joint representation.

* 10 pages, 4 figures 

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Deep LDA Hashing

Oct 08, 2018
Di Hu, Feiping Nie, Xuelong Li

The conventional supervised hashing methods based on classification do not entirely meet the requirements of hashing technique, but Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) does. In this paper, we propose to perform a revised LDA objective over deep networks to learn efficient hashing codes in a truly end-to-end fashion. However, the complicated eigenvalue decomposition within each mini-batch in every epoch has to be faced with when simply optimizing the deep network w.r.t. the LDA objective. In this work, the revised LDA objective is transformed into a simple least square problem, which naturally overcomes the intractable problems and can be easily solved by the off-the-shelf optimizer. Such deep extension can also overcome the weakness of LDA Hashing in the limited linear projection and feature learning. Amounts of experiments are conducted on three benchmark datasets. The proposed Deep LDA Hashing shows nearly 70 points improvement over the conventional one on the CIFAR-10 dataset. It also beats several state-of-the-art methods on various metrics.

* 10 pages, 3 figures 

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Asynchronous Stochastic Proximal Methods for Nonconvex Nonsmooth Optimization

Sep 15, 2018
Rui Zhu, Di Niu, Zongpeng Li

We study stochastic algorithms for solving nonconvex optimization problems with a convex yet possibly nonsmooth regularizer, which find wide applications in many practical machine learning applications. However, compared to asynchronous parallel stochastic gradient descent (AsynSGD), an algorithm targeting smooth optimization, the understanding of the behavior of stochastic algorithms for nonsmooth regularized optimization problems is limited, especially when the objective function is nonconvex. To fill this theoretical gap, in this paper, we propose and analyze asynchronous parallel stochastic proximal gradient (Asyn-ProxSGD) methods for nonconvex problems. We establish an ergodic convergence rate of $O(1/\sqrt{K})$ for the proposed Asyn-ProxSGD, where $K$ is the number of updates made on the model, matching the convergence rate currently known for AsynSGD (for smooth problems). To our knowledge, this is the first work that provides convergence rates of asynchronous parallel ProxSGD algorithms for nonconvex problems. Furthermore, our results are also the first to show the convergence of any stochastic proximal methods without assuming an increasing batch size or the use of additional variance reduction techniques. We implement the proposed algorithms on Parameter Server and demonstrate its convergence behavior and near-linear speedup, as the number of workers increases, on two real-world datasets.

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Deep Co-Clustering for Unsupervised Audiovisual Learning

Jul 10, 2018
Di Hu, Feiping Nie, Xuelong Li

The seen birds twitter, the running cars accompany with noise, people talks by face-to-face, etc. These naturally audiovisual correspondences provide the possibilities to explore and understand the outside world. However, the mixed multiple objects and sounds make it intractable to perform efficient matching in the unconstrained environment. To settle this problem, we propose to adequately excavate audio and visual components and perform elaborate correspondence learning among them. Concretely, a novel unsupervised audiovisual learning model is proposed, named as Deep Co-Clustering (DCC), that synchronously performs sets of clustering with multimodal vectors of convolutional maps in different shared spaces for capturing multiple audiovisual correspondences. And such integrated multimodal clustering network can be effectively trained with max-margin loss in the end-to-end fashion. Amounts of experiments in feature evaluation and audiovisual tasks are performed. The results demonstrate that DCC can learn effective unimodal representation, with which the classifier can even outperform human. Further, DCC shows noticeable performance in the task of sound localization, multisource detection, and audiovisual understanding.

* 12 pages, 4 figures 

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A Block-wise, Asynchronous and Distributed ADMM Algorithm for General Form Consensus Optimization

Feb 24, 2018
Rui Zhu, Di Niu, Zongpeng Li

Many machine learning models, including those with non-smooth regularizers, can be formulated as consensus optimization problems, which can be solved by the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Many recent efforts have been made to develop asynchronous distributed ADMM to handle large amounts of training data. However, all existing asynchronous distributed ADMM methods are based on full model updates and require locking all global model parameters to handle concurrency, which essentially serializes the updates from different workers. In this paper, we present a novel block-wise, asynchronous and distributed ADMM algorithm, which allows different blocks of model parameters to be updated in parallel. The lock-free block-wise algorithm may greatly speedup sparse optimization problems, a common scenario in reality, in which most model updates only modify a subset of all decision variables. We theoretically prove the convergence of our proposed algorithm to stationary points for non-convex general form consensus problems with possibly non-smooth regularizers. We implement the proposed ADMM algorithm on the Parameter Server framework and demonstrate its convergence and near-linear speedup performance as the number of workers increases.

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From Eliza to XiaoIce: Challenges and Opportunities with Social Chatbots

Feb 09, 2018
Heung-Yeung Shum, Xiaodong He, Di Li

Conversational systems have come a long way since their inception in the 1960s. After decades of research and development, we've seen progress from Eliza and Parry in the 60's and 70's, to task-completion systems as in the DARPA Communicator program in the 2000s, to intelligent personal assistants such as Siri in the 2010s, to today's social chatbots like XiaoIce. Social chatbots' appeal lies not only in their ability to respond to users' diverse requests, but also in being able to establish an emotional connection with users. The latter is done by satisfying users' need for communication, affection, as well as social belonging. To further the advancement and adoption of social chatbots, their design must focus on user engagement and take both intellectual quotient (IQ) and emotional quotient (EQ) into account. Users should want to engage with a social chatbot; as such, we define the success metric for social chatbots as conversation-turns per session (CPS). Using XiaoIce as an illustrative example, we discuss key technologies in building social chatbots from core chat to visual awareness to skills. We also show how XiaoIce can dynamically recognize emotion and engage the user throughout long conversations with appropriate interpersonal responses. As we become the first generation of humans ever living with AI, we have a responsibility to design social chatbots to be both useful and empathetic, so they will become ubiquitous and help society as a whole.

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Deep Binary Reconstruction for Cross-modal Hashing

Aug 24, 2017
Xuelong Li, Di Hu, Feiping Nie

With the increasing demand of massive multimodal data storage and organization, cross-modal retrieval based on hashing technique has drawn much attention nowadays. It takes the binary codes of one modality as the query to retrieve the relevant hashing codes of another modality. However, the existing binary constraint makes it difficult to find the optimal cross-modal hashing function. Most approaches choose to relax the constraint and perform thresholding strategy on the real-value representation instead of directly solving the original objective. In this paper, we first provide a concrete analysis about the effectiveness of multimodal networks in preserving the inter- and intra-modal consistency. Based on the analysis, we provide a so-called Deep Binary Reconstruction (DBRC) network that can directly learn the binary hashing codes in an unsupervised fashion. The superiority comes from a proposed simple but efficient activation function, named as Adaptive Tanh (ATanh). The ATanh function can adaptively learn the binary codes and be trained via back-propagation. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets demonstrate that DBRC outperforms several state-of-the-art methods in both image2text and text2image retrieval task.

* 8 pages, 5 figures, accepted by ACM Multimedia 2017 

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Image2song: Song Retrieval via Bridging Image Content and Lyric Words

Aug 19, 2017
Xuelong Li, Di Hu, Xiaoqiang Lu

Image is usually taken for expressing some kinds of emotions or purposes, such as love, celebrating Christmas. There is another better way that combines the image and relevant song to amplify the expression, which has drawn much attention in the social network recently. Hence, the automatic selection of songs should be expected. In this paper, we propose to retrieve semantic relevant songs just by an image query, which is named as the image2song problem. Motivated by the requirements of establishing correlation in semantic/content, we build a semantic-based song retrieval framework, which learns the correlation between image content and lyric words. This model uses a convolutional neural network to generate rich tags from image regions, a recurrent neural network to model lyric, and then establishes correlation via a multi-layer perceptron. To reduce the content gap between image and lyric, we propose to make the lyric modeling focus on the main image content via a tag attention. We collect a dataset from the social-sharing multimodal data to study the proposed problem, which consists of (image, music clip, lyric) triplets. We demonstrate that our proposed model shows noticeable results in the image2song retrieval task and provides suitable songs. Besides, the song2image task is also performed.

* 13 pages, 13 figures, accepted by ICCV 2017 

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Universal Rules for Fooling Deep Neural Networks based Text Classification

Jan 22, 2019
Di Li, Danilo Vasconcellos Vargas, Sakurai Kouichi

Recently, deep learning based natural language processing techniques are being extensively used to deal with spam mail, censorship evaluation in social networks, among others. However, there is only a couple of works evaluating the vulnerabilities of such deep neural networks. Here, we go beyond attacks to investigate, for the first time, universal rules, i.e., rules that are sample agnostic and therefore could turn any text sample in an adversarial one. In fact, the universal rules do not use any information from the method itself (no information from the method, gradient information or training dataset information is used), making them black-box universal attacks. In other words, the universal rules are sample and method agnostic. By proposing a coevolutionary optimization algorithm we show that it is possible to create universal rules that can automatically craft imperceptible adversarial samples (only less than five perturbations which are close to misspelling are inserted in the text sample). A comparison with a random search algorithm further justifies the strength of the method. Thus, universal rules for fooling networks are here shown to exist. Hopefully, the results from this work will impact the development of yet more sample and model agnostic attacks as well as their defenses, culminating in perhaps a new age for artificial intelligence.

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Particle Filter Re-detection for Visual Tracking via Correlation Filters

Jan 09, 2018
Di Yuan, Donghao Li, Zhenyu He, Xinming Zhang

Most of the correlation filter based tracking algorithms can achieve good performance and maintain fast computational speed. However, in some complicated tracking scenes, there is a fatal defect that causes the object to be located inaccurately. In order to address this problem, we propose a particle filter redetection based tracking approach for accurate object localization. During the tracking process, the kernelized correlation filter (KCF) based tracker locates the object by relying on the maximum response value of the response map; when the response map becomes ambiguous, the KCF tracking result becomes unreliable. Our method can provide more candidates by particle resampling to detect the object accordingly. Additionally, we give a new object scale evaluation mechanism, which merely considers the differences between the maximum response values in consecutive frames. Extensive experiments on OTB2013 and OTB2015 datasets demonstrate that the proposed tracker performs favorably in relation to the state-of-the-art methods.

* 18 pages, 6 figures, 2 tables 

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An LSTM-Based Autonomous Driving Model Using Waymo Open Dataset

Mar 23, 2020
Zhicheng Gu, Zhihao Li, Xuan Di, Rongye Shi

The Waymo Open Dataset has been released recently, providing a platform to crowdsource some fundamental challenges for automated vehicles (AVs), such as 3D detection and tracking. While~the dataset provides a large amount of high-quality and multi-source driving information, people in academia are more interested in the underlying driving policy programmed in Waymo self-driving cars, which is inaccessible due to AV manufacturers' proprietary protection. Accordingly, academic researchers have to make various assumptions to implement AV components in their models or simulations, which may not represent the realistic interactions in real-world traffic. Thus, this paper introduces an approach to learn a long short-term memory (LSTM)-based model for imitating the behavior of Waymo's self-driving model. The proposed model has been evaluated based on Mean Absolute Error (MAE). The experimental results show that our model outperforms several baseline models in driving action prediction. In addition, a visualization tool is presented for verifying the performance of the model.

* Applied Sciences 10(6) 2046, 2020 

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Facility Location Problem in Differential Privacy Model Revisited

Oct 26, 2019
Yunus Esencayi, Marco Gaboardi, Shi Li, Di Wang

In this paper we study the uncapacitated facility location problem in the model of differential privacy (DP) with uniform facility cost. Specifically, we first show that, under the hierarchically well-separated tree (HST) metrics and the super-set output setting that was introduced in Gupta et. al., there is an $\epsilon$-DP algorithm that achieves an $O(\frac{1}{\epsilon})$(expected multiplicative) approximation ratio; this implies an $O(\frac{\log n}{\epsilon})$ approximation ratio for the general metric case, where $n$ is the size of the input metric. These bounds improve the best-known results given by Gupta et. al. In particular, our approximation ratio for HST-metrics is independent of $n$, and the ratio for general metrics is independent of the aspect ratio of the input metric. On the negative side, we show that the approximation ratio of any $\epsilon$-DP algorithm is lower bounded by $\Omega(\frac{1}{\sqrt{\epsilon}})$, even for instances on HST metrics with uniform facility cost, under the super-set output setting. The lower bound shows that the dependence of the approximation ratio for HST metrics on $\epsilon$ can not be removed or greatly improved. Our novel methods and techniques for both the upper and lower bound may find additional applications.

* Accepted to NeurIPS 2019 

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End-to-End Denoising of Dark Burst Images Using Recurrent Fully Convolutional Networks

Apr 16, 2019
Di Zhao, Lan Ma, Songnan Li, Dahai Yu

When taking photos in dim-light environments, due to the small amount of light entering, the shot images are usually extremely dark, with a great deal of noise, and the color cannot reflect real-world color. Under this condition, the traditional methods used for single image denoising have always failed to be effective. One common idea is to take multiple frames of the same scene to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. This paper proposes a recurrent fully convolutional network (RFCN) to process burst photos taken under extremely low-light conditions, and to obtain denoised images with improved brightness. Our model maps raw burst images directly to sRGB outputs, either to produce a best image or to generate a multi-frame denoised image sequence. This process has proven to be capable of accomplishing the low-level task of denoising, as well as the high-level task of color correction and enhancement, all of which is end-to-end processing through our network. Our method has achieved better results than state-of-the-art methods. In addition, we have applied the model trained by one type of camera without fine-tuning on photos captured by different cameras and have obtained similar end-to-end enhancements.

* 8 pages, 7 figures 

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Collaborative Spatio-temporal Feature Learning for Video Action Recognition

Mar 04, 2019
Chao Li, Qiaoyong Zhong, Di Xie, Shiliang Pu

Spatio-temporal feature learning is of central importance for action recognition in videos. Existing deep neural network models either learn spatial and temporal features independently (C2D) or jointly with unconstrained parameters (C3D). In this paper, we propose a novel neural operation which encodes spatio-temporal features collaboratively by imposing a weight-sharing constraint on the learnable parameters. In particular, we perform 2D convolution along three orthogonal views of volumetric video data,which learns spatial appearance and temporal motion cues respectively. By sharing the convolution kernels of different views, spatial and temporal features are collaboratively learned and thus benefit from each other. The complementary features are subsequently fused by a weighted summation whose coefficients are learned end-to-end. Our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on large-scale benchmarks and won the 1st place in the Moments in Time Challenge 2018. Moreover, based on the learned coefficients of different views, we are able to quantify the contributions of spatial and temporal features. This analysis sheds light on interpretability of the model and may also guide the future design of algorithm for video recognition.

* CVPR 2019 

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The Design and Implementation of XiaoIce, an Empathetic Social Chatbot

Dec 21, 2018
Li Zhou, Jianfeng Gao, Di Li, Heung-Yeung Shum

This paper describes the development of the Microsoft XiaoIce system, the most popular social chatbot in the world. XiaoIce is uniquely designed as an AI companion with an emotional connection to satisfy the human need for communication, affection, and social belonging. We take into account both intelligent quotient (IQ) and emotional quotient (EQ) in system design, cast human-machine social chat as decision-making over Markov Decision Processes (MDPs), and optimize XiaoIce for long-term user engagement, measured in expected Conversation-turns Per Session (CPS). We detail the system architecture and key components including dialogue manager, core chat, skills, and an empathetic computing module. We show how XiaoIce dynamically recognizes human feelings and states, understands user intents, and responds to user needs throughout long conversations. Since the release in 2014, XiaoIce has communicated with over 660 million users and succeeded in establishing long-term relationships with many of them. Analysis of large-scale online logs shows that XiaoIce has achieved an average CPS of 23, which is significantly higher than that of other chatbots and even human conversations.

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Co-occurrence Feature Learning from Skeleton Data for Action Recognition and Detection with Hierarchical Aggregation

Apr 17, 2018
Chao Li, Qiaoyong Zhong, Di Xie, Shiliang Pu

Skeleton-based human action recognition has recently drawn increasing attentions with the availability of large-scale skeleton datasets. The most crucial factors for this task lie in two aspects: the intra-frame representation for joint co-occurrences and the inter-frame representation for skeletons' temporal evolutions. In this paper we propose an end-to-end convolutional co-occurrence feature learning framework. The co-occurrence features are learned with a hierarchical methodology, in which different levels of contextual information are aggregated gradually. Firstly point-level information of each joint is encoded independently. Then they are assembled into semantic representation in both spatial and temporal domains. Specifically, we introduce a global spatial aggregation scheme, which is able to learn superior joint co-occurrence features over local aggregation. Besides, raw skeleton coordinates as well as their temporal difference are integrated with a two-stream paradigm. Experiments show that our approach consistently outperforms other state-of-the-arts on action recognition and detection benchmarks like NTU RGB+D, SBU Kinect Interaction and PKU-MMD.

* IJCAI18 oral 

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Kernalised Multi-resolution Convnet for Visual Tracking

Aug 02, 2017
Di Wu, Wenbin Zou, Xia Li, Yong Zhao

Visual tracking is intrinsically a temporal problem. Discriminative Correlation Filters (DCF) have demonstrated excellent performance for high-speed generic visual object tracking. Built upon their seminal work, there has been a plethora of recent improvements relying on convolutional neural network (CNN) pretrained on ImageNet as a feature extractor for visual tracking. However, most of their works relying on ad hoc analysis to design the weights for different layers either using boosting or hedging techniques as an ensemble tracker. In this paper, we go beyond the conventional DCF framework and propose a Kernalised Multi-resolution Convnet (KMC) formulation that utilises hierarchical response maps to directly output the target movement. When directly deployed the learnt network to predict the unseen challenging UAV tracking dataset without any weight adjustment, the proposed model consistently achieves excellent tracking performance. Moreover, the transfered multi-reslution CNN renders it possible to be integrated into the RNN temporal learning framework, therefore opening the door on the end-to-end temporal deep learning (TDL) for visual tracking.

* CVPRW 2017 

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Skeleton-based Action Recognition with Convolutional Neural Networks

Apr 25, 2017
Chao Li, Qiaoyong Zhong, Di Xie, Shiliang Pu

Current state-of-the-art approaches to skeleton-based action recognition are mostly based on recurrent neural networks (RNN). In this paper, we propose a novel convolutional neural networks (CNN) based framework for both action classification and detection. Raw skeleton coordinates as well as skeleton motion are fed directly into CNN for label prediction. A novel skeleton transformer module is designed to rearrange and select important skeleton joints automatically. With a simple 7-layer network, we obtain 89.3% accuracy on validation set of the NTU RGB+D dataset. For action detection in untrimmed videos, we develop a window proposal network to extract temporal segment proposals, which are further classified within the same network. On the recent PKU-MMD dataset, we achieve 93.7% mAP, surpassing the baseline by a large margin.

* ICMEW 2017 

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Expectile Matrix Factorization for Skewed Data Analysis

Mar 03, 2017
Rui Zhu, Di Niu, Linglong Kong, Zongpeng Li

Matrix factorization is a popular approach to solving matrix estimation problems based on partial observations. Existing matrix factorization is based on least squares and aims to yield a low-rank matrix to interpret the conditional sample means given the observations. However, in many real applications with skewed and extreme data, least squares cannot explain their central tendency or tail distributions, yielding undesired estimates. In this paper, we propose \emph{expectile matrix factorization} by introducing asymmetric least squares, a key concept in expectile regression analysis, into the matrix factorization framework. We propose an efficient algorithm to solve the new problem based on alternating minimization and quadratic programming. We prove that our algorithm converges to a global optimum and exactly recovers the true underlying low-rank matrices when noise is zero. For synthetic data with skewed noise and a real-world dataset containing web service response times, the proposed scheme achieves lower recovery errors than the existing matrix factorization method based on least squares in a wide range of settings.

* 8 page main text with 5 page supplementary documents, published in AAAI 2017 

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