Models, code, and papers for "Dinesh Acharya":
Classifying facial expressions into different categories requires capturing regional distortions of facial landmarks. We believe that second-order statistics such as covariance is better able to capture such distortions in regional facial fea- tures. In this work, we explore the benefits of using a man- ifold network structure for covariance pooling to improve facial expression recognition. In particular, we first employ such kind of manifold networks in conjunction with tradi- tional convolutional networks for spatial pooling within in- dividual image feature maps in an end-to-end deep learning manner. By doing so, we are able to achieve a recognition accuracy of 58.14% on the validation set of Static Facial Expressions in the Wild (SFEW 2.0) and 87.0% on the vali- dation set of Real-World Affective Faces (RAF) Database. Both of these results are the best results we are aware of. Besides, we leverage covariance pooling to capture the tem- poral evolution of per-frame features for video-based facial expression recognition. Our reported results demonstrate the advantage of pooling image-set features temporally by stacking the designed manifold network of covariance pool-ing on top of convolutional network layers.
This paper introduces a new similarity measure based on edge counting in a taxonomy like WorldNet or Ontology. Measurement of similarity between text segments or concepts is very useful for many applications like information retrieval, ontology matching, text mining, and question answering and so on. Several measures have been developed for measuring similarity between two concepts: out of these we see that the measure given by Wu and Palmer  is simple, and gives good performance. Our measure is based on their measure but strengthens it. Wu and Palmer  measure has a disadvantage that it does not consider how far the concepts are semantically. In our measure we include the shortest path between the concepts and the depth of whole taxonomy together with the distances used in Wu and Palmer . Also the measure has following disadvantage i.e. in some situations, the similarity of two elements of an IS-A ontology contained in the neighborhood exceeds the similarity value of two elements contained in the same hierarchy. Our measure introduces a penalization factor for this case based upon shortest length between the concepts and depth of whole taxonomy.
In many domains of computer vision, generative adversarial networks (GANs) have achieved great success, among which the family of Wasserstein GANs (WGANs) is considered to be state-of-the-art due to the theoretical contributions and competitive qualitative performance. However, it is very challenging to approximate the $k$-Lipschitz constraint required by the Wasserstein-1 metric~(W-met). In this paper, we propose a novel Wasserstein divergence~(W-div), which is a relaxed version of W-met and does not require the $k$-Lipschitz constraint. As a concrete application, we introduce a Wasserstein divergence objective for GANs~(WGAN-div), which can faithfully approximate W-div through optimization. Under various settings, including progressive growing training, we demonstrate the stability of the proposed WGAN-div owing to its theoretical and practical advantages over WGANs. Also, we study the quantitative and visual performance of WGAN-div on standard image synthesis benchmarks of computer vision, showing the superior performance of WGAN-div compared to the state-of-the-art methods.
In this paper, we aim to improve the state-of-the-art video generative adversarial networks (GANs) with a view towards multi-functional applications. Our improved video GAN model does not separate foreground from background nor dynamic from static patterns, but learns to generate the entire video clip conjointly. Our model can thus be trained to generate - and learn from - a broad set of videos with no restriction. This is achieved by designing a robust one-stream video generation architecture with an extension of the state-of-the-art Wasserstein GAN framework that allows for better convergence. The experimental results show that our improved video GAN model outperforms state-of-theart video generative models on multiple challenging datasets. Furthermore, we demonstrate the superiority of our model by successfully extending it to three challenging problems: video colorization, video inpainting, and future prediction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work using GANs to colorize and inpaint video clips.
In generative modeling, the Wasserstein distance (WD) has emerged as a useful metric to measure the discrepancy between generated and real data distributions. Unfortunately, it is challenging to approximate the WD of high-dimensional distributions. In contrast, the sliced Wasserstein distance (SWD) factorizes high-dimensional distributions into their multiple one-dimensional marginal distributions and is thus easier to approximate. In this paper, we introduce novel approximations of the primal and dual SWD. Instead of using a large number of random projections, as it is done by conventional SWD approximation methods, we propose to approximate SWDs with a small number of parameterized orthogonal projections in an end-to-end deep learning fashion. As concrete applications of our SWD approximations, we design two types of differentiable SWD blocks to equip modern generative frameworks---Auto-Encoders (AE) and Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN). In the experiments, we not only show the superiority of the proposed generative models on standard image synthesis benchmarks, but also demonstrate the state-of-the-art performance on challenging high resolution image and video generation in an unsupervised manner.
We present a pedestrian tracking algorithm, DensePeds, that tracks individuals in highly dense crowds (greater than 2 pedestrians per square meter). Our approach is designed for videos captured from front-facing or elevated cameras. We present a new motion model called Front-RVO (FRVO) for predicting pedestrian movements in dense situations using collision avoidance constraints and combine it with state-of-the-art Mask R-CNN to compute sparse feature vectors that reduce the loss of pedestrian tracks (false negatives). We evaluate DensePeds on the standard MOT benchmarks as well as a new dense crowd dataset. In practice, our approach is 4.5 times faster than prior tracking algorithms on the MOT benchmark and we are state-of-the-art in dense crowd videos by over 2.6% on the absolute scale on average.
We present a new algorithm for predicting the near-term trajectories of road-agents in dense traffic videos. Our approach is designed for heterogeneous traffic, where the road-agents may correspond to buses, cars, scooters, bicycles, or pedestrians. We model the interactions between different road-agents using a novel LSTM-CNN hybrid network for trajectory prediction. In particular, we take into account heterogeneous interactions that implicitly accounts for the varying shapes, dynamics, and behaviors of different road agents. In addition, we model horizon-based interactions which are used to implicitly model the driving behavior of each road-agent. We evaluate the performance of our prediction algorithm, TraPHic, on the standard datasets and also introduce a new dense, heterogeneous traffic dataset corresponding to urban Asian videos and agent trajectories. We outperform state-of-the-art methods on dense traffic datasets by 30%.
We consider the problem of Probably Approximate Correct (PAC) learning of a binary classifier from noisy labeled examples acquired from multiple annotators (each characterized by a respective classification noise rate). First, we consider the complete information scenario, where the learner knows the noise rates of all the annotators. For this scenario, we derive sample complexity bound for the Minimum Disagreement Algorithm (MDA) on the number of labeled examples to be obtained from each annotator. Next, we consider the incomplete information scenario, where each annotator is strategic and holds the respective noise rate as a private information. For this scenario, we design a cost optimal procurement auction mechanism along the lines of Myerson's optimal auction design framework in a non-trivial manner. This mechanism satisfies incentive compatibility property, thereby facilitating the learner to elicit true noise rates of all the annotators.
We present M3ER, a learning-based method for emotion recognition from multiple input modalities. Our approach combines cues from multiple co-occurring modalities (such as face, text, and speech) and also is more robust than other methods to sensor noise in any of the individual modalities. M3ER models a novel, data-driven multiplicative fusion method to combine the modalities, which learn to emphasize the more reliable cues and suppress others on a per-sample basis. By introducing a check step which uses Canonical Correlational Analysis to differentiate between ineffective and effective modalities, M3ER is robust to sensor noise. M3ER also generates proxy features in place of the ineffectual modalities. We demonstrate the efficiency of our network through experimentation on two benchmark datasets, IEMOCAP and CMU-MOSEI. We report a mean accuracy of 82.7% on IEMOCAP and 89.0% on CMU-MOSEI, which, collectively, is an improvement of about 5% over prior work.
We present a realtime tracking algorithm, RoadTrack, to track heterogeneous road-agents in dense traffic videos. Our approach is designed for traffic scenarios that consist of different road-agents such as pedestrians, two-wheelers, cars, buses, etc. sharing the road. We use the tracking-by-detection approach where we track a road-agent by matching the appearance or bounding box region in the current frame with the predicted bounding box region propagated from the previous frame. RoadTrack uses a novel motion model called the Simultaneous Collision Avoidance and Interaction (SimCAI) model to predict the motion of road-agents by modeling collision avoidance and interactions between the road-agents for the next frame. We demonstrate the advantage of RoadTrack on a dataset of dense traffic videos and observe an accuracy of 75.8% on this dataset, outperforming prior state-of-the-art tracking algorithms by at least 5.2%. RoadTrack operates in realtime at approximately 30 fps and is at least 4 times faster than prior tracking algorithms on standard tracking datasets.
We present RobustTP, an end-to-end algorithm for predicting future trajectories of road-agents in dense traffic with noisy sensor input trajectories obtained from RGB cameras (either static or moving) through a tracking algorithm. In this case, we consider noise as the deviation from the ground truth trajectory. The amount of noise depends on the accuracy of the tracking algorithm. Our approach is designed for dense heterogeneous traffic, where the road agents corresponding to a mixture of buses, cars, scooters, bicycles, or pedestrians. RobustTP is an approach that first computes trajectories using a combination of a non-linear motion model and a deep learning-based instance segmentation algorithm. Next, these noisy trajectories are trained using an LSTM-CNN neural network architecture that models the interactions between road-agents in dense and heterogeneous traffic. Our trajectory prediction algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art methods for end-to-end trajectory prediction using sensor inputs. We achieve an improvement of upto 18% in average displacement error and an improvement ofup to 35.5% in final displacement error at the end of the prediction window (5 seconds) over the next best method. All experiments were set up on an Nvidia TiTan Xp GPU. Additionally, we release a software framework, TrackNPred. The framework consists of implementations of state-of-the-art tracking and trajectory prediction methods and tools to benchmark and evaluate them on real-world dense traffic datasets.
We present an algorithm to track traffic agents in dense videos. Our approach is designed for heterogeneous traffic scenarios that consist of different agents such as pedestrians, two-wheelers, cars, buses etc. sharing the road. We present a novel Heterogeneous Traffic Motion and Interaction model (HTMI) to predict the motion of agents by modeling collision avoidance and interactions between the agents. We implement HTMI within the tracking-by-detection paradigm and use background subtracted representations of traffic agents to extract binary tensors for accurate tracking. We highlight the performance on a dense traffic videos and observe an accuracy of 75.8%. We observe up to 4 times speedup over prior tracking algorithms on standard traffic datasets.
We present a data-driven deep neural algorithm for detecting deceptive walking behavior using nonverbal cues like gaits and gestures. We conducted an elaborate user study, where we recorded many participants performing tasks involving deceptive walking. We extract the participants' walking gaits as series of 3D poses. We annotate various gestures performed by participants during their tasks. Based on the gait and gesture data, we train an LSTM-based deep neural network to obtain deep features. Finally, we use a combination of psychology-based gait, gesture, and deep features to detect deceptive walking with an accuracy of 93.4%. This is an improvement of 16.1% over handcrafted gait and gesture features and an improvement of 5.9% and 10.1% over classifiers based on the state-of-the-art emotion and action classification algorithms, respectively. Additionally, we present a novel dataset, DeceptiveWalk, that contains gaits and gestures with their associated deception labels. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first algorithm to detect deceptive behavior using non-verbal cues of gait and gesture.
We present an autoencoder-based semi-supervised approach to classify perceived human emotions from walking styles obtained from videos or from motion-captured data and represented as sequences of 3D poses. Given the motion on each joint in the pose at each time step extracted from 3D pose sequences, we hierarchically pool these joint motions in a bottom-up manner in the encoder, following the kinematic chains in the human body. We also constrain the latent embeddings of the encoder to contain the space of psychologically-motivated affective features underlying the gaits. We train the decoder to reconstruct the motions per joint per time step in a top-down manner from the latent embeddings. For the annotated data, we also train a classifier to map the latent embeddings to emotion labels. Our semi-supervised approach achieves a mean average precision of 0.84 on the Emotion-Gait benchmark dataset, which contains gaits collected from multiple sources. We outperform current state-of-art algorithms for both emotion recognition and action recognition from 3D gaits by 7% -- 23% on the absolute.
We present a novel classifier network called STEP, to classify perceived human emotion from gaits, based on a Spatial Temporal Graph Convolutional Network (ST-GCN) architecture. Given an RGB video of an individual walking, our formulation implicitly exploits the gait features to classify the emotional state of the human into one of four emotions: happy, sad, angry, or neutral. We use hundreds of annotated real-world gait videos and augment them with thousands of annotated synthetic gaits generated using a novel generative network called STEP-Gen, built on an ST-GCN based Conditional Variational Autoencoder (CVAE). We incorporate a novel push-pull regularization loss in the CVAE formulation of STEP-Gen to generate realistic gaits and improve the classification accuracy of STEP. We also release a novel dataset (E-Gait), which consists of $2,177$ human gaits annotated with perceived emotions along with thousands of synthetic gaits. In practice, STEP can learn the affective features and exhibits classification accuracy of 89% on E-Gait, which is 14 - 30% more accurate over prior methods.
We present a novel algorithm (GraphRQI) to identify driver behaviors from road-agent trajectories. Our approach assumes that the road-agents exhibit a range of driving traits, such as aggressive or conservative driving. Moreover, these traits affect the trajectories of nearby road-agents as well as the interactions between road-agents. We represent these inter-agent interactions using unweighted and undirected traffic graphs. Our algorithm classifies the driver behavior using a supervised learning algorithm by reducing the computation to the spectral analysis of the traffic graph. Moreover, we present a novel eigenvalue algorithm to compute the spectrum efficiently. We provide theoretical guarantees for the running time complexity of our eigenvalue algorithm and show that it is faster than previous methods by 2 times. We evaluate the classification accuracy of our approach on traffic videos and autonomous driving datasets corresponding to urban traffic. In practice, GraphRQI achieves an accuracy improvement of up to 25% over prior driver behavior classification algorithms. We also use our classification algorithm to predict the future trajectories of road-agents.