Models, code, and papers for "Gabriel Perdue":
We present the application of Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) to the task of astronomical image classification using a quantum annealer built by D-Wave Systems. Morphological analysis of galaxies provides critical information for studying their formation and evolution across cosmic time scales. We compress the images using principal component analysis to fit a representation on the quantum hardware. Then, we train RBMs with discriminative and generative algorithms, including contrastive divergence and hybrid generative-discriminative approaches. We compare these methods to Quantum Annealing (QA), Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Gibbs Sampling, Simulated Annealing (SA) as well as machine learning algorithms like gradient boosted decision trees. We find that RBMs implemented on D-wave hardware perform well, and that they show some classification performance advantages on small datasets, but they don't offer a broadly strategic advantage for this task. During this exploration, we analyzed the steps required for Boltzmann sampling with the D-Wave 2000Q, including a study of temperature estimation, and examined the impact of qubit noise by comparing and contrasting the original D-Wave 2000Q to the lower-noise version recently made available. While these analyses ultimately had minimal impact on the performance of the RBMs, we include them for reference.
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have shown strong promise for analyzing scientific data from many domains including particle imaging detectors. However, the challenge of choosing the appropriate network architecture (depth, kernel shapes, activation functions, etc.) for specific applications and different data sets is still poorly understood. In this paper, we study the relationships between a CNN's architecture and its performance by proposing a systematic language that is useful for comparison between different CNN's architectures before training time. We characterize CNN's architecture by different attributes, and demonstrate that the attributes can be predictive of the networks' performance in two specific computer vision-based physics problems -- event vertex finding and hadron multiplicity classification in the MINERvA experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. In doing so, we extract several architectural attributes from optimized networks' architecture for the physics problems, which are outputs of a model selection algorithm called Multi-node Evolutionary Neural Networks for Deep Learning (MENNDL). We use machine learning models to predict whether a network can perform better than a certain threshold accuracy before training. The models perform 16-20% better than random guessing. Additionally, we found an coefficient of determination of 0.966 for an Ordinary Least Squares model in a regression on accuracy over a large population of networks.
We present a deep learning approach for vertex reconstruction of neutrino-nucleus interaction events, a problem in the domain of high energy physics. In this approach, we combine both energy and timing data that are collected in the MINERvA detector to perform classification and regression tasks. We show that the resulting network achieves higher accuracy than previous results while requiring a smaller model size and less training time. In particular, the proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art by 4.00% on classification accuracy. For the regression task, our model achieves 0.9919 on the coefficient of determination, higher than the previous work (0.96).
Machine learning is an important research area in particle physics, beginning with applications to high-level physics analysis in the 1990s and 2000s, followed by an explosion of applications in particle and event identification and reconstruction in the 2010s. In this document we discuss promising future research and development areas in machine learning in particle physics with a roadmap for their implementation, software and hardware resource requirements, collaborative initiatives with the data science community, academia and industry, and training the particle physics community in data science. The main objective of the document is to connect and motivate these areas of research and development with the physics drivers of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider and future neutrino experiments and identify the resource needs for their implementation. Additionally we identify areas where collaboration with external communities will be of great benefit.