Models, code, and papers for "Guoqiang Xu":
The continuous dimensional emotion modelled by arousal and valence can depict complex changes of emotions. In this paper, we present our works on arousal and valence predictions for One-Minute-Gradual (OMG) Emotion Challenge. Multimodal representations are first extracted from videos using a variety of acoustic, video and textual models and support vector machine (SVM) is then used for fusion of multimodal signals to make final predictions. Our solution achieves Concordant Correlation Coefficient (CCC) scores of 0.397 and 0.520 on arousal and valence respectively for the validation dataset, which outperforms the baseline systems with the best CCC scores of 0.15 and 0.23 on arousal and valence by a large margin.
According to the World Health Organization(WHO), it is estimated that approximately 1.3 billion people live with some forms of vision impairment globally, of whom 36 million are blind. Due to their disability, engaging these minority into the society is a challenging problem. The recent rise of smart mobile phones provides a new solution by enabling blind users' convenient access to the information and service for understanding the world. Users with vision impairment can adopt the screen reader embedded in the mobile operating systems to read the content of each screen within the app, and use gestures to interact with the phone. However, the prerequisite of using screen readers is that developers have to add natural-language labels to the image-based components when they are developing the app. Unfortunately, more than 77% apps have issues of missing labels, according to our analysis of 10,408 Android apps. Most of these issues are caused by developers' lack of awareness and knowledge in considering the minority. And even if developers want to add the labels to UI components, they may not come up with concise and clear description as most of them are of no visual issues. To overcome these challenges, we develop a deep-learning based model, called LabelDroid, to automatically predict the labels of image-based buttons by learning from large-scale commercial apps in Google Play. The experimental results show that our model can make accurate predictions and the generated labels are of higher quality than that from real Android developers.
The recent research of facial expression recognition has made a lot of progress due to the development of deep learning technologies, but some typical challenging problems such as the variety of rich facial expressions and poses are still not resolved. To solve these problems, we develop a new Facial Expression Recognition (FER) framework by involving the facial poses into our image synthesizing and classification process. There are two major novelties in this work. First, we create a new facial expression dataset of more than 200k images with 119 persons, 4 poses and 54 expressions. To our knowledge this is the first dataset to label faces with subtle emotion changes for expression recognition purpose. It is also the first dataset that is large enough to validate the FER task on unbalanced poses, expressions, and zero-shot subject IDs. Second, we propose a facial pose generative adversarial network (FaPE-GAN) to synthesize new facial expression images to augment the data set for training purpose, and then learn a LightCNN based Fa-Net model for expression classification. Finally, we advocate four novel learning tasks on this dataset. The experimental results well validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Affective computing and cognitive theory are widely used in modern human-computer interaction scenarios. Human faces, as the most prominent and easily accessible features, have attracted great attention from researchers. Since humans have rich emotions and developed musculature, there exist a lot of fine-grained expressions in real-world applications. However, it is extremely time-consuming to collect and annotate a large number of facial images, of which may even require psychologists to correctly categorize them. To the best of our knowledge, the existing expression datasets are only limited to several basic facial expressions, which are not sufficient to support our ambitions in developing successful human-computer interaction systems. To this end, a novel Fine-grained Facial Expression Database - F2ED is contributed in this paper, and it includes more than 200k images with 54 facial expressions from 119 persons. Considering the phenomenon of uneven data distribution and lack of samples is common in real-world scenarios, we further evaluate several tasks of few-shot expression learning by virtue of our F2ED, which are to recognize the facial expressions given only few training instances. These tasks mimic human performance to learn robust and general representation from few examples. To address such few-shot tasks, we propose a unified task-driven framework - Compositional Generative Adversarial Network (Comp-GAN) learning to synthesize facial images and thus augmenting the instances of few-shot expression classes. Extensive experiments are conducted on F2ED and existing facial expression datasets, i.e., JAFFE and FER2013, to validate the efficacy of our F2ED in pre-training facial expression recognition network and the effectiveness of our proposed approach Comp-GAN to improve the performance of few-shot recognition tasks.
Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has gained state-of-the-art results in many pattern recognition and computer vision tasks. However, most of the CNN structures are manually designed by experienced researchers. Therefore, auto- matically building high performance networks becomes an important problem. In this paper, we introduce the idea of using DNA computing algorithm to automatically learn high-performance architectures. In DNA computing algorithm, we use short DNA strands to represent layers and long DNA strands to represent overall networks. We found that most of the learned models perform similarly, and only those performing worse during the first runs of training will perform worse finally than others. The indicates that: 1) Using DNA computing algorithm to learn deep architectures is feasible; 2) Local minima should not be a problem of deep networks; 3) We can use early stop to kill the models with the bad performance just after several runs of training. In our experiments, an accuracy 99.73% was obtained on the MNIST data set and an accuracy 95.10% was obtained on the CIFAR-10 data set.
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have a great performance in image generation, but they need a large scale of data to train the entire framework, and often result in nonsensical results. We propose a new method referring to conditional GAN, which equipments the latent noise with mixture of Student's t-distribution with attention mechanism in addition to class information. Student's t-distribution has long tails that can provide more diversity to the latent noise. Meanwhile, the discriminator in our model implements two tasks simultaneously, judging whether the images come from the true data distribution, and identifying the class of each generated images. The parameters of the mixture model can be learned along with those of GANs. Moreover, we mathematically prove that any multivariate Student's t-distribution can be obtained by a linear transformation of a normal multivariate Student's t-distribution. Experiments comparing the proposed method with typical GAN, DeliGAN and DCGAN indicate that, our method has a great performance on generating diverse and legible objects with limited data.
A Bayesian approach termed BAyesian Least Squares Optimization with Nonnegative L1-norm constraint (BALSON) is proposed. The error distribution of data fitting is described by Gaussian likelihood. The parameter distribution is assumed to be a Dirichlet distribution. With the Bayes rule, searching for the optimal parameters is equivalent to finding the mode of the posterior distribution. In order to explicitly characterize the nonnegative L1-norm constraint of the parameters, we further approximate the true posterior distribution by a Dirichlet distribution. We estimate the statistics of the approximating Dirichlet posterior distribution by sampling methods. Four sampling methods have been introduced. With the estimated posterior distributions, the original parameters can be effectively reconstructed in polynomial fitting problems, and the BALSON framework is found to perform better than conventional methods.
Tissue heterogeneity is a major confounding factor in studying individual populations that cannot be resolved directly by global profiling. Experimental solutions to mitigate tissue heterogeneity are expensive, time consuming, inapplicable to existing data, and may alter the original gene expression patterns. Here we ask whether it is possible to deconvolute two-source mixed expressions (estimating both proportions and cell-specific profiles) from two or more heterogeneous samples without requiring any prior knowledge. Supported by a well-grounded mathematical framework, we argue that both constituent proportions and cell-specific expressions can be estimated in a completely unsupervised mode when cell-specific marker genes exist, which do not have to be known a priori, for each of constituent cell types. We demonstrate the performance of unsupervised deconvolution on both simulation and real gene expression data, together with perspective discussions.