Models, code, and papers for "Hao-Wen Dong":
Several prior works have proposed various methods for the task of automatic melody harmonization, in which a model aims to generate a sequence of chords to serve as the harmonic accompaniment of a given multiple-bar melody sequence. In this paper, we present a comparative study evaluating and comparing the performance of a set of canonical approaches to this task, including a template matching based model, a hidden Markov based model, a genetic algorithm based model, and two deep learning based models. The evaluation is conducted on a dataset of 9,226 melody/chord pairs we newly collect for this study, considering up to 48 triad chords, using a standardized training/test split. We report the result of an objective evaluation using six different metrics and a subjective study with 202 participants.
Generating music has a few notable differences from generating images and videos. First, music is an art of time, necessitating a temporal model. Second, music is usually composed of multiple instruments/tracks with their own temporal dynamics, but collectively they unfold over time interdependently. Lastly, musical notes are often grouped into chords, arpeggios or melodies in polyphonic music, and thereby introducing a chronological ordering of notes is not naturally suitable. In this paper, we propose three models for symbolic multi-track music generation under the framework of generative adversarial networks (GANs). The three models, which differ in the underlying assumptions and accordingly the network architectures, are referred to as the jamming model, the composer model and the hybrid model. We trained the proposed models on a dataset of over one hundred thousand bars of rock music and applied them to generate piano-rolls of five tracks: bass, drums, guitar, piano and strings. A few intra-track and inter-track objective metrics are also proposed to evaluate the generative results, in addition to a subjective user study. We show that our models can generate coherent music of four bars right from scratch (i.e. without human inputs). We also extend our models to human-AI cooperative music generation: given a specific track composed by human, we can generate four additional tracks to accompany it. All code, the dataset and the rendered audio samples are available at https://salu133445.github.io/musegan/ .
Recent work has proposed various adversarial losses for training generative adversarial networks. Yet, it remains unclear what certain types of functions are valid adversarial loss functions, and how these loss functions perform against one another. In this paper, we aim to gain a deeper understanding of adversarial losses by decoupling the effects of their component functions and regularization terms. We first derive some necessary and sufficient conditions of the component functions such that the adversarial loss is a divergence-like measure between the data and the model distributions. In order to systematically compare different adversarial losses, we then propose DANTest, a new, simple framework based on discriminative adversarial networks. With this framework, we evaluate an extensive set of adversarial losses by combining different component functions and regularization approaches. This study leads to some new insights into the adversarial losses. For reproducibility, all source code is available at https://github.com/salu133445/dan .
We propose the BinaryGAN, a novel generative adversarial network (GAN) that uses binary neurons at the output layer of the generator. We employ the sigmoid-adjusted straight-through estimators to estimate the gradients for the binary neurons and train the whole network by end-to-end backpropogation. The proposed model is able to directly generate binary-valued predictions at test time. We implement such a model to generate binarized MNIST digits and experimentally compare the performance for different types of binary neurons, GAN objectives and network architectures. Although the results are still preliminary, we show that it is possible to train a GAN that has binary neurons and that the use of gradient estimators can be a promising direction for modeling discrete distributions with GANs. For reproducibility, the source code is available at https://github.com/salu133445/binarygan .
It has been shown recently that deep convolutional generative adversarial networks (GANs) can learn to generate music in the form of piano-rolls, which represent music by binary-valued time-pitch matrices. However, existing models can only generate real-valued piano-rolls and require further post-processing, such as hard thresholding (HT) or Bernoulli sampling (BS), to obtain the final binary-valued results. In this paper, we study whether we can have a convolutional GAN model that directly creates binary-valued piano-rolls by using binary neurons. Specifically, we propose to append to the generator an additional refiner network, which uses binary neurons at the output layer. The whole network is trained in two stages. Firstly, the generator and the discriminator are pretrained. Then, the refiner network is trained along with the discriminator to learn to binarize the real-valued piano-rolls the pretrained generator creates. Experimental results show that using binary neurons instead of HT or BS indeed leads to better results in a number of objective measures. Moreover, deterministic binary neurons perform better than stochastic ones in both objective measures and a subjective test. The source code, training data and audio examples of the generated results can be found at https://salu133445.github.io/bmusegan/ .