Models, code, and papers for "Hendrik Strobelt":
Large language models can produce powerful contextual representations that lead to improvements across many NLP tasks. Since these models are typically guided by a sequence of learned self attention mechanisms and may comprise undesired inductive biases, it is paramount to be able to explore what the attention has learned. While static analyses of these models lead to targeted insights, interactive tools are more dynamic and can help humans better gain an intuition for the model-internal reasoning process. We present exBERT, an interactive tool named after the popular BERT language model, that provides insights into the meaning of the contextual representations by matching a human-specified input to similar contexts in a large annotated dataset. By aggregating the annotations of the matching similar contexts, exBERT helps intuitively explain what each attention-head has learned.
The rapid improvement of language models has raised the specter of abuse of text generation systems. This progress motivates the development of simple methods for detecting generated text that can be used by and explained to non-experts. We develop GLTR, a tool to support humans in detecting whether a text was generated by a model. GLTR applies a suite of baseline statistical methods that can detect generation artifacts across common sampling schemes. In a human-subjects study, we show that the annotation scheme provided by GLTR improves the human detection-rate of fake text from 54% to 72% without any prior training. GLTR is open-source and publicly deployed, and has already been widely used to detect generated outputs
Deep learning models require the configuration of many layers and parameters in order to get good results. However, there are currently few systematic guidelines for how to configure a successful model. This means model builders often have to experiment with different configurations by manually programming different architectures (which is tedious and time consuming) or rely on purely automated approaches to generate and train the architectures (which is expensive). In this paper, we present Rapid Exploration of Model Architectures and Parameters, or REMAP, a visual analytics tool that allows a model builder to discover a deep learning model quickly via exploration and rapid experimentation of neural network architectures. In REMAP, the user explores the large and complex parameter space for neural network architectures using a combination of global inspection and local experimentation. Through a visual overview of a set of models, the user identifies interesting clusters of architectures. Based on their findings, the user can run ablation and variation experiments to identify the effects of adding, removing, or replacing layers in a given architecture and generate new models accordingly. They can also handcraft new models using a simple graphical interface. As a result, a model builder can build deep learning models quickly, efficiently, and without manual programming. We inform the design of REMAP through a design study with four deep learning model builders. Through a use case, we demonstrate that REMAP allows users to discover performant neural network architectures efficiently using visual exploration and user-defined semi-automated searches through the model space.
Recurrent neural networks, and in particular long short-term memory (LSTM) networks, are a remarkably effective tool for sequence modeling that learn a dense black-box hidden representation of their sequential input. Researchers interested in better understanding these models have studied the changes in hidden state representations over time and noticed some interpretable patterns but also significant noise. In this work, we present LSTMVIS, a visual analysis tool for recurrent neural networks with a focus on understanding these hidden state dynamics. The tool allows users to select a hypothesis input range to focus on local state changes, to match these states changes to similar patterns in a large data set, and to align these results with structural annotations from their domain. We show several use cases of the tool for analyzing specific hidden state properties on dataset containing nesting, phrase structure, and chord progressions, and demonstrate how the tool can be used to isolate patterns for further statistical analysis. We characterize the domain, the different stakeholders, and their goals and tasks.
Automation of tasks can have critical consequences when humans lose agency over decision processes. Deep learning models are particularly susceptible since current black-box approaches lack explainable reasoning. We argue that both the visual interface and model structure of deep learning systems need to take into account interaction design. We propose a framework of collaborative semantic inference (CSI) for the co-design of interactions and models to enable visual collaboration between humans and algorithms. The approach exposes the intermediate reasoning process of models which allows semantic interactions with the visual metaphors of a problem, which means that a user can both understand and control parts of the model reasoning process. We demonstrate the feasibility of CSI with a co-designed case study of a document summarization system.
Neural Sequence-to-Sequence models have proven to be accurate and robust for many sequence prediction tasks, and have become the standard approach for automatic translation of text. The models work in a five stage blackbox process that involves encoding a source sequence to a vector space and then decoding out to a new target sequence. This process is now standard, but like many deep learning methods remains quite difficult to understand or debug. In this work, we present a visual analysis tool that allows interaction with a trained sequence-to-sequence model through each stage of the translation process. The aim is to identify which patterns have been learned and to detect model errors. We demonstrate the utility of our tool through several real-world large-scale sequence-to-sequence use cases.
Classifiers are among the most widely used supervised machine learning algorithms. Many classification models exist, and choosing the right one for a given task is difficult. During model selection and debugging, data scientists need to asses classifier performance, evaluate the training behavior over time, and compare different models. Typically, this analysis is based on single-number performance measures such as accuracy. A more detailed evaluation of classifiers is possible by inspecting class errors. The confusion matrix is an established way for visualizing these class errors, but it was not designed with temporal or comparative analysis in mind. More generally, established performance analysis systems do not allow a combined temporal and comparative analysis of class-level information. To address this issue, we propose ConfusionFlow, an interactive, comparative visualization tool that combines the benefits of class confusion matrices with the visualization of performance characteristics over time. ConfusionFlow is model-agnostic and can be used to compare performances for different model types, model architectures, and/or training and test datasets. We demonstrate the usefulness of ConfusionFlow in the context of two practical problems: an analysis of the influence of network pruning on model errors, and a case study on instance selection strategies in active learning.
Despite the success of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), mode collapse remains a serious issue during GAN training. To date, little work has focused on understanding and quantifying which modes have been dropped by a model. In this work, we visualize mode collapse at both the distribution level and the instance level. First, we deploy a semantic segmentation network to compare the distribution of segmented objects in the generated images with the target distribution in the training set. Differences in statistics reveal object classes that are omitted by a GAN. Second, given the identified omitted object classes, we visualize the GAN's omissions directly. In particular, we compare specific differences between individual photos and their approximate inversions by a GAN. To this end, we relax the problem of inversion and solve the tractable problem of inverting a GAN layer instead of the entire generator. Finally, we use this framework to analyze several recent GANs trained on multiple datasets and identify their typical failure cases.
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have achieved impressive results for many real-world applications. As an active research topic, many GAN variants have emerged with improvements in sample quality and training stability. However, visualization and understanding of GANs is largely missing. How does a GAN represent our visual world internally? What causes the artifacts in GAN results? How do architectural choices affect GAN learning? Answering such questions could enable us to develop new insights and better models. In this work, we present an analytic framework to visualize and understand GANs at the unit-, object-, and scene-level. We first identify a group of interpretable units that are closely related to concepts with a segmentation-based network dissection method. We quantify the causal effect of interpretable units by measuring the ability of interventions to control objects in the output. Finally, we examine the contextual relationship between these units and their surrounding by inserting the discovered concepts into new images. We show several practical applications enabled by our framework, from comparing internal representations across different layers, models, and datasets, to improving GANs by locating and removing artifact-causing units, to interactively manipulating objects in the scene. We will open source our interactive tools to help researchers and practitioners better understand their models.
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have recently achieved impressive results for many real-world applications, and many GAN variants have emerged with improvements in sample quality and training stability. However, they have not been well visualized or understood. How does a GAN represent our visual world internally? What causes the artifacts in GAN results? How do architectural choices affect GAN learning? Answering such questions could enable us to develop new insights and better models. In this work, we present an analytic framework to visualize and understand GANs at the unit-, object-, and scene-level. We first identify a group of interpretable units that are closely related to object concepts using a segmentation-based network dissection method. Then, we quantify the causal effect of interpretable units by measuring the ability of interventions to control objects in the output. We examine the contextual relationship between these units and their surroundings by inserting the discovered object concepts into new images. We show several practical applications enabled by our framework, from comparing internal representations across different layers, models, and datasets, to improving GANs by locating and removing artifact-causing units, to interactively manipulating objects in a scene. We provide open source interpretation tools to help researchers and practitioners better understand their GAN models.
Data science requires time-consuming iterative manual activities. In particular, activities such as data selection, preprocessing, transformation, and mining, highly depend on iterative trial-and-error processes that could be sped up significantly by providing quick feedback on the impact of changes. The idea of progressive data science is to compute the results of changes in a progressive manner, returning a first approximation of results quickly and allow iterative refinements until converging to a final result. Enabling the user to interact with the intermediate results allows an early detection of erroneous or suboptimal choices, the guided definition of modifications to the pipeline and their quick assessment. In this paper, we discuss the progressiveness challenges arising in different steps of the data science pipeline. We describe how changes in each step of the pipeline impact the subsequent steps and outline why progressive data science will help to make the process more effective. Computing progressive approximations of outcomes resulting from changes creates numerous research challenges, especially if the changes are made in the early steps of the pipeline. We discuss these challenges and outline first steps towards progressiveness, which, we argue, will ultimately help to significantly speed-up the overall data science process.
Application of neural networks to a vast variety of practical applications is transforming the way AI is applied in practice. Pre-trained neural network models available through APIs or capability to custom train pre-built neural network architectures with customer data has made the consumption of AI by developers much simpler and resulted in broad adoption of these complex AI models. While prebuilt network models exist for certain scenarios, to try and meet the constraints that are unique to each application, AI teams need to think about developing custom neural network architectures that can meet the tradeoff between accuracy and memory footprint to achieve the tight constraints of their unique use-cases. However, only a small proportion of data science teams have the skills and experience needed to create a neural network from scratch, and the demand far exceeds the supply. In this paper, we present NeuNetS : An automated Neural Network Synthesis engine for custom neural network design that is available as part of IBM's AI OpenScale's product. NeuNetS is available for both Text and Image domains and can build neural networks for specific tasks in a fraction of the time it takes today with human effort, and with accuracy similar to that of human-designed AI models.