Models, code, and papers for "Javier Duarte":
At the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), traditional track reconstruction techniques that are critical for analysis are expected to face challenges due to scaling with track density. Quantum annealing has shown promise in its ability to solve combinatorial optimization problems amidst an ongoing effort to establish evidence of a quantum speedup. As a step towards exploiting such potential speedup, we investigate a track reconstruction approach by adapting the existing geometric Denby-Peterson (Hopfield) network method to the quantum annealing framework and to HL-LHC conditions. Furthermore, we develop additional techniques to embed the problem onto existing and near-term quantum annealing hardware. Results using simulated annealing and quantum annealing with the D-Wave 2X system on the TrackML dataset are presented, demonstrating the successful application of a quantum annealing-inspired algorithm to the track reconstruction challenge. We find that combinatorial optimization problems can effectively reconstruct tracks, suggesting possible applications for fast hardware-specific implementations at the LHC while leaving open the possibility of a quantum speedup for tracking.
Recent results at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have pointed to enhanced physics capabilities through the improvement of the real-time event processing techniques. Machine learning methods are ubiquitous and have proven to be very powerful in LHC physics, and particle physics as a whole. However, exploration of the use of such techniques in low-latency, low-power FPGA hardware has only just begun. FPGA-based trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) systems have extremely low, sub-microsecond latency requirements that are unique to particle physics. We present a case study for neural network inference in FPGAs focusing on a classifier for jet substructure which would enable, among many other physics scenarios, searches for new dark sector particles and novel measurements of the Higgs boson. While we focus on a specific example, the lessons are far-reaching. We develop a package based on High-Level Synthesis (HLS) called hls4ml to build machine learning models in FPGAs. The use of HLS increases accessibility across a broad user community and allows for a drastic decrease in firmware development time. We map out FPGA resource usage and latency versus neural network hyperparameters to identify the problems in particle physics that would benefit from performing neural network inference with FPGAs. For our example jet substructure model, we fit well within the available resources of modern FPGAs with a latency on the scale of 100 ns.
We describe the implementation of Boosted Decision Trees in the hls4ml library, which allows the conversion of a trained model into an FPGA firmware through an automatic highlevel-synthesis conversion. Thanks to its full on-chip implementation, hls4ml allows performance of inference of Boosted Decision Tree models with extremely low latency. A benchmark model achieving near state of the art classification performance is implemented on an FPGA with 60 ns inference latency, using 8% of the Look Up Tables of the target device. This solution is compatible with the needs of fast real-time processing such as the L1 trigger system of a typical collider experiment.
Machine learning is an important research area in particle physics, beginning with applications to high-level physics analysis in the 1990s and 2000s, followed by an explosion of applications in particle and event identification and reconstruction in the 2010s. In this document we discuss promising future research and development areas in machine learning in particle physics with a roadmap for their implementation, software and hardware resource requirements, collaborative initiatives with the data science community, academia and industry, and training the particle physics community in data science. The main objective of the document is to connect and motivate these areas of research and development with the physics drivers of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider and future neutrino experiments and identify the resource needs for their implementation. Additionally we identify areas where collaboration with external communities will be of great benefit.