Models, code, and papers for "Jialin Liu":
Surrogate-assisted evolutionary algorithms (SAEAs) are powerful optimisation tools for computationally expensive problems (CEPs). However, a randomly selected algorithm may fail in solving unknown problems due to no free lunch theorems, and it will cause more computational resource if we re-run the algorithm or try other algorithms to get a much solution, which is more serious in CEPs. In this paper, we consider an algorithm portfolio for SAEAs to reduce the risk of choosing an inappropriate algorithm for CEPs. We propose two portfolio frameworks for very expensive problems in which the maximal number of fitness evaluations is only 5 times of the problem's dimension. One framework named Par-IBSAEA runs all algorithm candidates in parallel and a more sophisticated framework named UCB-IBSAEA employs the Upper Confidence Bound (UCB) policy from reinforcement learning to help select the most appropriate algorithm at each iteration. An effective reward definition is proposed for the UCB policy. We consider three state-of-the-art individual-based SAEAs on different problems and compare them to the portfolios built from their instances on several benchmark problems given limited computation budgets. Our experimental studies demonstrate that our proposed portfolio frameworks significantly outperform any single algorithm on the set of benchmark problems.
Market economy closely connects aspects to all walks of life. The stock forecast is one of task among studies on the market economy. However, information on markets economy contains a lot of noise and uncertainties, which lead economy forecasting to become a challenging task. Ensemble learning and deep learning are the most methods to solve the stock forecast task. In this paper, we present a model combining the advantages of two methods to forecast the change of stock price. The proposed method combines CNN and GBoost. The experimental results on six market indexes show that the proposed method has better performance against current popular methods.
Multi-task learning aims to learn multiple tasks jointly by exploiting their relatedness to improve the generalization performance for each task. Traditionally, to perform multi-task learning, one needs to centralize data from all the tasks to a single machine. However, in many real-world applications, data of different tasks may be geo-distributed over different local machines. Due to heavy communication caused by transmitting the data and the issue of data privacy and security, it is impossible to send data of different task to a master machine to perform multi-task learning. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a distributed multi-task learning framework that simultaneously learns predictive models for each task as well as task relationships between tasks alternatingly in the parameter server paradigm. In our framework, we first offer a general dual form for a family of regularized multi-task relationship learning methods. Subsequently, we propose a communication-efficient primal-dual distributed optimization algorithm to solve the dual problem by carefully designing local subproblems to make the dual problem decomposable. Moreover, we provide a theoretical convergence analysis for the proposed algorithm, which is specific for distributed multi-task relationship learning. We conduct extensive experiments on both synthetic and real-world datasets to evaluate our proposed framework in terms of effectiveness and convergence.
Many artificial intelligences (AIs) are randomized. One can be lucky or unlucky with the random seed; we quantify this effect and show that, maybe contrarily to intuition, this is far from being negligible. Then, we apply two different existing algorithms for selecting good seeds and good probability distributions over seeds. This mainly leads to learning an opening book. We apply this to Phantom Go, which, as all phantom games, is hard for opening book learning. We improve the winning rate from 50% to 70% in 5x5 against the same AI, and from approximately 0% to 40% in 5x5, 7x7 and 9x9 against a stronger (learning) opponent.
Very expensive problems are very common in practical system that one fitness evaluation costs several hours or even days. Surrogate assisted evolutionary algorithms (SAEAs) have been widely used to solve this crucial problem in the past decades. However, most studied SAEAs focus on solving problems with a budget of at least ten times of the dimension of problems which is unacceptable in many very expensive real-world problems. In this paper, we employ Voronoi diagram to boost the performance of SAEAs and propose a novel framework named Voronoi-based efficient surrogate assisted evolutionary algorithm (VESAEA) for very expensive problems, in which the optimization budget, in terms of fitness evaluations, is only 5 times of the problem's dimension. In the proposed framework, the Voronoi diagram divides the whole search space into several subspace and then the local search is operated in some potentially better subspace. Additionally, in order to trade off the exploration and exploitation, the framework involves a global search stage developed by combining leave-one-out cross-validation and radial basis function surrogate model. A performance selector is designed to switch the search dynamically and automatically between the global and local search stages. The empirical results on a variety of benchmark problems demonstrate that the proposed framework significantly outperforms several state-of-art algorithms with extremely limited fitness evaluations. Besides, the efficacy of Voronoi-diagram is furtherly analyzed, and the results show its potential to optimize very expensive problems.
In recent years, unfolding iterative algorithms as neural networks has become an empirical success in solving sparse recovery problems. However, its theoretical understanding is still immature, which prevents us from fully utilizing the power of neural networks. In this work, we study unfolded ISTA (Iterative Shrinkage Thresholding Algorithm) for sparse signal recovery. We introduce a weight structure that is necessary for asymptotic convergence to the true sparse signal. With this structure, unfolded ISTA can attain a linear convergence, which is better than the sublinear convergence of ISTA/FISTA in general cases. Furthermore, we propose to incorporate thresholding in the network to perform support selection, which is easy to implement and able to boost the convergence rate both theoretically and empirically. Extensive simulations, including sparse vector recovery and a compressive sensing experiment on real image data, corroborate our theoretical results and demonstrate their practical usefulness. We have made our codes publicly available: https://github.com/xchen-tamu/linear-lista-cpss.
This paper describes the N-Tuple Bandit Evolutionary Algorithm (NTBEA), an optimisation algorithm developed for noisy and expensive discrete (combinatorial) optimisation problems. The algorithm is applied to two game-based hyper-parameter optimisation problems. The N-Tuple system directly models the statistics, approximating the fitness and number of evaluations of each modelled combination of parameters. The model is simple, efficient and informative. Results show that the NTBEA significantly outperforms grid search and an estimation of distribution algorithm.
The compact genetic algorithm is an Estimation of Distribution Algorithm for binary optimisation problems. Unlike the standard Genetic Algorithm, no cross-over or mutation is involved. Instead, the compact Genetic Algorithm uses a virtual population represented as a probability distribution over the set of binary strings. At each optimisation iteration, exactly two individuals are generated by sampling from the distribution, and compared exactly once to determine a winner and a loser. The probability distribution is then adjusted to increase the likelihood of generating individuals similar to the winner. This paper introduces two straightforward variations of the compact Genetic Algorithm, each of which lead to a significant improvement in performance. The main idea is to make better use of each fitness evaluation, by ensuring that each evaluated individual is used in multiple win/loss comparisons. The first variation is to sample $n>2$ individuals at each iteration to make $n(n-1)/2$ comparisons. The second variation only samples one individual at each iteration but keeps a sliding history window of previous individuals to compare with. We evaluate methods on two noisy test problems and show that in each case they significantly outperform the compact Genetic Algorithm, while maintaining the simplicity of the algorithm.
A key part of any evolutionary algorithm is fitness evaluation. When fitness evaluations are corrupted by noise, as happens in many real-world problems as a consequence of various types of uncertainty, a strategy is needed in order to cope with this. Resampling is one of the most common strategies, whereby each solution is evaluated many times in order to reduce the variance of the fitness estimates. When evaluating the performance of a noisy optimisation algorithm, a key consideration is the stopping condition for the algorithm. A frequently used stopping condition in runtime analysis, known as "First Hitting Time", is to stop the algorithm as soon as it encounters the optimal solution. However, this is unrealistic for real-world problems, as if the optimal solution were already known, there would be no need to search for it. This paper argues that the use of First Hitting Time, despite being a commonly used approach, is significantly flawed and overestimates the quality of many algorithms in real-world cases, where the optimum is not known in advance and has to be genuinely searched for. A better alternative is to measure the quality of the solution an algorithm returns after a fixed evaluation budget, i.e., to focus on final solution quality. This paper argues that focussing on final solution quality is more realistic and demonstrates cases where the results produced by each algorithm evaluation method lead to very different conclusions regarding the quality of each noisy optimisation algorithm.
This paper describes a new algorithm for decision making in two-player real-time video games. As with Monte Carlo Tree Search, the algorithm can be used without heuristics and has been developed for use in general video game AI. The approach is to extend recent work on rolling horizon evolutionary planning, which has been shown to work well for single-player games, to two (or in principle many) player games. To select an action the algorithm co-evolves two (or in the general case N) populations, one for each player, where each individual is a sequence of actions for the respective player. The fitness of each individual is evaluated by playing it against a selection of action-sequences from the opposing population. When choosing an action to take in the game, the first action is chosen from the fittest member of the population for that player. The new algorithm is compared with a number of general video game AI algorithms on three variations of a two-player space battle game, with promising results.
The Random Mutation Hill-Climbing algorithm is a direct search technique mostly used in discrete domains. It repeats the process of randomly selecting a neighbour of a best-so-far solution and accepts the neighbour if it is better than or equal to it. In this work, we propose to use a novel method to select the neighbour solution using a set of independent multi- armed bandit-style selection units which results in a bandit-based Random Mutation Hill-Climbing algorithm. The new algorithm significantly outperforms Random Mutation Hill-Climbing in both OneMax (in noise-free and noisy cases) and Royal Road problems (in the noise-free case). The algorithm shows particular promise for discrete optimisation problems where each fitness evaluation is expensive.
Consider convex optimization problems subject to a large number of constraints. We focus on stochastic problems in which the objective takes the form of expected values and the feasible set is the intersection of a large number of convex sets. We propose a class of algorithms that perform both stochastic gradient descent and random feasibility updates simultaneously. At every iteration, the algorithms sample a number of projection points onto a randomly selected small subsets of all constraints. Three feasibility update schemes are considered: averaging over random projected points, projecting onto the most distant sample, projecting onto a special polyhedral set constructed based on sample points. We prove the almost sure convergence of these algorithms, and analyze the iterates' feasibility error and optimality error, respectively. We provide new convergence rate benchmarks for stochastic first-order optimization with many constraints. The rate analysis and numerical experiments reveal that the algorithm using the polyhedral-set projection scheme is the most efficient one within known algorithms.
Financial markets have a vital role in the development of modern society. They allow the deployment of economic resources. Changes in stock prices reflect changes in the market. In this study, we focus on predicting stock prices by deep learning model. This is a challenge task, because there is much noise and uncertainty in information that is related to stock prices. So this work uses sparse autoencoders with one-dimension (1-D) residual convolutional networks which is a deep learning model, to de-noise the data. Long-short term memory (LSTM) is then used to predict the stock price. The prices, indices and macroeconomic variables in past are the features used to predict the next day's price. Experiment results show that 1-D residual convolutional networks can de-noise data and extract deep features better than a model that combines wavelet transforms (WT) and stacked autoencoders (SAEs). In addition, we compare the performances of model with two different forecast targets of stock price: absolute stock price and price rate of change. The results show that predicting stock price through price rate of change is better than predicting absolute prices directly.
Game-based benchmarks have been playing an essential role in the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Providing diverse challenges is crucial to push research toward innovation and understanding in modern techniques. Rinascimento provides a parameterised partially-observable multiplayer card-based board game, these parameters can easily modify the rules, objectives and items in the game. We describe the framework in all its features and the game-playing challenge providing baseline game-playing AIs and analysis of their skills. We reserve to agents' hyper-parameter tuning a central role in the experiments highlighting how it can heavily influence the performance. The base-line agents contain several additional contribution to Statistical Forward Planning algorithms.
The General Video Game AI competitions have been the testing ground for several techniques for game playing, such as evolutionary computation techniques, tree search algorithms, hyper heuristic based or knowledge based algorithms. So far the metrics used to evaluate the performance of agents have been win ratio, game score and length of games. In this paper we provide a wider set of metrics and a comparison method for evaluating and comparing agents. The metrics and the comparison method give shallow introspection into the agent's decision making process and they can be applied to any agent regardless of its algorithmic nature. In this work, the metrics and the comparison method are used to measure the impact of the terms that compose a tree policy of an MCTS based agent, comparing with several baseline agents. The results clearly show how promising such general approach is and how it can be useful to understand the behaviour of an AI agent, in particular, how the comparison with baseline agents can help understanding the shape of the agent decision landscape. The presented metrics and comparison method represent a step toward to more descriptive ways of logging and analysing agent's behaviours.
While a number of different algorithms have recently been proposed for convolutional dictionary learning, this remains an expensive problem. The single biggest impediment to learning from large training sets is the memory requirements, which grow at least linearly with the size of the training set since all existing methods are batch algorithms. The work reported here addresses this limitation by extending online dictionary learning ideas to the convolutional context.
Though the object detection has shown great success when the training set is sufficient, there is a serious shortage of generalization in the small dataset scenario. However, we inevitably just get a small one in some application scenarios, especially medicine. In this paper, we propose Comparison detector which still maintains the end-to-end fashion in training and testing, surpassing the state-of-the-art two-stage object detection model on the small dataset. Inspired by one/few-shot learning, we replace the parameter classifier in feature pyramid network(FPN) with the comparison classifier in no-parameters or semi-parameters manner. In fact, a stronger inductive bias is added to the model to simplify the problem and reduce the dependence of data. The performance of our model is evaluated on the cervical cancer pathology test set. When training on the small dataset, it achieves a mAP 26.3% and an AR 35.7%, both improving about 20 points compared to baseline model. Moreover, Comparison detector achieves same mAP performance as the current state-of-the-art model when training on the medium dataset, and improves AR by 4 points. Our method is promising for the development of object detection in small dataset scenario.
The OneMax problem is a standard benchmark optimisation problem for a binary search space. Recent work on applying a Bandit-Based Random Mutation Hill-Climbing algorithm to the noisy OneMax Problem showed that it is important to choose a good value for the resampling number to make a careful trade off between taking more samples in order to reduce noise, and taking fewer samples to reduce the total computational cost. This paper extends that observation, by deriving an analytical expression for the running time of the RMHC algorithm with resampling applied to the noisy OneMax problem, and showing both theoretically and empirically that the optimal resampling number increases with the number of dimensions in the search space.
Most games have, or can be generalised to have, a number of parameters that may be varied in order to provide instances of games that lead to very different player experiences. The space of possible parameter settings can be seen as a search space, and we can therefore use a Random Mutation Hill Climbing algorithm or other search methods to find the parameter settings that induce the best games. One of the hardest parts of this approach is defining a suitable fitness function. In this paper we explore the possibility of using one of a growing set of General Video Game AI agents to perform automatic play-testing. This enables a very general approach to game evaluation based on estimating the skill-depth of a game. Agent-based play-testing is computationally expensive, so we compare two simple but efficient optimisation algorithms: the Random Mutation Hill-Climber and the Multi-Armed Bandit Random Mutation Hill-Climber. For the test game we use a space-battle game in order to provide a suitable balance between simulation speed and potential skill-depth. Results show that both algorithms are able to rapidly evolve game versions with significant skill-depth, but that choosing a suitable resampling number is essential in order to combat the effects of noise.
Meta-learning has been widely used for implementing few-shot learning and fast model adaptation. One kind of meta-learning methods attempt to learn how to control the gradient descent process in order to make the gradient-based learning have high speed and generalization. This work proposes a method that controls the gradient descent process of the model parameters of a neural network by limiting the model parameters in a low-dimensional latent space. The main challenge of this idea is that a decoder with too many parameters is required. This work designs a decoder with typical structure and shares a part of weights in the decoder to reduce the number of the required parameters. Besides, this work has introduced ensemble learning to work with the proposed approach for improving performance. The results show that the proposed approach is witnessed by the superior performance over the Omniglot classification and the miniImageNet classification tasks.