Models, code, and papers for "Jianguo Yu":

A Domain Adaptive Density Clustering Algorithm for Data with Varying Density Distribution

Nov 23, 2019
Jianguo Chen, Philip S. Yu

As one type of efficient unsupervised learning methods, clustering algorithms have been widely used in data mining and knowledge discovery with noticeable advantages. However, clustering algorithms based on density peak have limited clustering effect on data with varying density distribution (VDD), equilibrium distribution (ED), and multiple domain-density maximums (MDDM), leading to the problems of sparse cluster loss and cluster fragmentation. To address these problems, we propose a Domain-Adaptive Density Clustering (DADC) algorithm, which consists of three steps: domain-adaptive density measurement, cluster center self-identification, and cluster self-ensemble. For data with VDD features, clusters in sparse regions are often neglected by using uniform density peak thresholds, which results in the loss of sparse clusters. We define a domain-adaptive density measurement method based on K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) to adaptively detect the density peaks of different density regions. We treat each data point and its KNN neighborhood as a subgroup to better reflect its density distribution in a domain view. In addition, for data with ED or MDDM features, a large number of density peaks with similar values can be identified, which results in cluster fragmentation. We propose a cluster center self-identification and cluster self-ensemble method to automatically extract the initial cluster centers and merge the fragmented clusters. Experimental results demonstrate that compared with other comparative algorithms, the proposed DADC algorithm can obtain more reasonable clustering results on data with VDD, ED and MDDM features. Benefitting from a few parameter requirements and non-iterative nature, DADC achieves low computational complexity and is suitable for large-scale data clustering.

* IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 2019 

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Speech Recognition with no speech or with noisy speech

Mar 02, 2019
Gautam Krishna, Co Tran, Jianguo Yu, Ahmed H Tewfik

The performance of automatic speech recognition systems(ASR) degrades in the presence of noisy speech. This paper demonstrates that using electroencephalography (EEG) can help automatic speech recognition systems overcome performance loss in the presence of noise. The paper also shows that distillation training of automatic speech recognition systems using EEG features will increase their performance. Finally, we demonstrate the ability to recognize words from EEG with no speech signal on a limited English vocabulary with high accuracy.

* Accepted for ICASSP 2019 

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Distributed Deep Learning Model for Intelligent Video Surveillance Systems with Edge Computing

Apr 12, 2019
Jianguo Chen, Kenli Li, Qingying Deng, Keqin Li, Philip S. Yu

In this paper, we propose a Distributed Intelligent Video Surveillance (DIVS) system using Deep Learning (DL) algorithms and deploy it in an edge computing environment. We establish a multi-layer edge computing architecture and a distributed DL training model for the DIVS system. The DIVS system can migrate computing workloads from the network center to network edges to reduce huge network communication overhead and provide low-latency and accurate video analysis solutions. We implement the proposed DIVS system and address the problems of parallel training, model synchronization, and workload balancing. Task-level parallel and model-level parallel training methods are proposed to further accelerate the video analysis process. In addition, we propose a model parameter updating method to achieve model synchronization of the global DL model in a distributed EC environment. Moreover, a dynamic data migration approach is proposed to address the imbalance of workload and computational power of edge nodes. Experimental results showed that the EC architecture can provide elastic and scalable computing power, and the proposed DIVS system can efficiently handle video surveillance and analysis tasks.

* IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics. 2019 

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Layerwise Perturbation-Based Adversarial Training for Hard Drive Health Degree Prediction

Sep 28, 2018
Jianguo Zhang, Ji Wang, Lifang He, Zhao Li, Philip S. Yu

With the development of cloud computing and big data, the reliability of data storage systems becomes increasingly important. Previous researchers have shown that machine learning algorithms based on SMART attributes are effective methods to predict hard drive failures. In this paper, we use SMART attributes to predict hard drive health degrees which are helpful for taking different fault tolerant actions in advance. Given the highly imbalanced SMART datasets, it is a nontrivial work to predict the health degree precisely. The proposed model would encounter overfitting and biased fitting problems if it is trained by the traditional methods. In order to resolve this problem, we propose two strategies to better utilize imbalanced data and improve performance. Firstly, we design a layerwise perturbation-based adversarial training method which can add perturbations to any layers of a neural network to improve the generalization of the network. Secondly, we extend the training method to the semi-supervised settings. Then, it is possible to utilize unlabeled data that have a potential of failure to further improve the performance of the model. Our extensive experiments on two real-world hard drive datasets demonstrate the superiority of the proposed schemes for both supervised and semi-supervised classification. The model trained by the proposed method can correctly predict the hard drive health status 5 and 15 days in advance. Finally, we verify the generality of the proposed training method in other similar anomaly detection tasks where the dataset is imbalanced. The results argue that the proposed methods are applicable to other domains.

* The 2018 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining (ICDM'18) 

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Composite Binary Decomposition Networks

Nov 16, 2018
You Qiaoben, Zheng Wang, Jianguo Li, Yinpeng Dong, Yu-Gang Jiang, Jun Zhu

Binary neural networks have great resource and computing efficiency, while suffer from long training procedure and non-negligible accuracy drops, when comparing to the full-precision counterparts. In this paper, we propose the composite binary decomposition networks (CBDNet), which first compose real-valued tensor of each layer with a limited number of binary tensors, and then decompose some conditioned binary tensors into two low-rank binary tensors, so that the number of parameters and operations are greatly reduced comparing to the original ones. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, as CBDNet can approximate image classification network ResNet-18 using 5.25 bits, VGG-16 using 5.47 bits, DenseNet-121 using 5.72 bits, object detection networks SSD300 using 4.38 bits, and semantic segmentation networks SegNet using 5.18 bits, all with minor accuracy drops.

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A Periodicity-based Parallel Time Series Prediction Algorithm in Cloud Computing Environments

Oct 17, 2018
Jianguo Chen, Kenli Li, Huigui Rong, Kashif Bilal, Keqin Li, Philip S. Yu

In the era of big data, practical applications in various domains continually generate large-scale time-series data. Among them, some data show significant or potential periodicity characteristics, such as meteorological and financial data. It is critical to efficiently identify the potential periodic patterns from massive time-series data and provide accurate predictions. In this paper, a Periodicity-based Parallel Time Series Prediction (PPTSP) algorithm for large-scale time-series data is proposed and implemented in the Apache Spark cloud computing environment. To effectively handle the massive historical datasets, a Time Series Data Compression and Abstraction (TSDCA) algorithm is presented, which can reduce the data scale as well as accurately extracting the characteristics. Based on this, we propose a Multi-layer Time Series Periodic Pattern Recognition (MTSPPR) algorithm using the Fourier Spectrum Analysis (FSA) method. In addition, a Periodicity-based Time Series Prediction (PTSP) algorithm is proposed. Data in the subsequent period are predicted based on all previous period models, in which a time attenuation factor is introduced to control the impact of different periods on the prediction results. Moreover, to improve the performance of the proposed algorithms, we propose a parallel solution on the Apache Spark platform, using the Streaming real-time computing module. To efficiently process the large-scale time-series datasets in distributed computing environments, Distributed Streams (DStreams) and Resilient Distributed Datasets (RDDs) are used to store and calculate these datasets. Extensive experimental results show that our PPTSP algorithm has significant advantages compared with other algorithms in terms of prediction accuracy and performance.

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A Bi-layered Parallel Training Architecture for Large-scale Convolutional Neural Networks

Oct 17, 2018
Jianguo Chen, Kenli Li, Kashif Bilal, Xu Zhou, Keqin Li, Philip S. Yu

Benefitting from large-scale training datasets and the complex training network, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are widely applied in various fields with high accuracy. However, the training process of CNNs is very time-consuming, where large amounts of training samples and iterative operations are required to obtain high-quality weight parameters. In this paper, we focus on the time-consuming training process of large-scale CNNs and propose a Bi-layered Parallel Training (BPT-CNN) architecture in distributed computing environments. BPT-CNN consists of two main components: (a) an outer-layer parallel training for multiple CNN subnetworks on separate data subsets, and (b) an inner-layer parallel training for each subnetwork. In the outer-layer parallelism, we address critical issues of distributed and parallel computing, including data communication, synchronization, and workload balance. A heterogeneous-aware Incremental Data Partitioning and Allocation (IDPA) strategy is proposed, where large-scale training datasets are partitioned and allocated to the computing nodes in batches according to their computing power. To minimize the synchronization waiting during the global weight update process, an Asynchronous Global Weight Update (AGWU) strategy is proposed. In the inner-layer parallelism, we further accelerate the training process for each CNN subnetwork on each computer, where computation steps of convolutional layer and the local weight training are parallelized based on task-parallelism. We introduce task decomposition and scheduling strategies with the objectives of thread-level load balancing and minimum waiting time for critical paths. Extensive experimental results indicate that the proposed BPT-CNN effectively improves the training performance of CNNs while maintaining the accuracy.

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RGBD-based Parameter Extraction for Door Opening Tasks with Human Assists in Nuclear Rescue

Oct 16, 2016
Jiajun Li, Jianguo Tao, Liang Ding, Haibo Gao, Zongquan Deng, Yu Wu

The ability to open a door is essential for robots to perform home-serving and rescuing tasks. A substantial problem is to obtain the necessary parameters such as the width of the door and the length of the handle. Many researchers utilize computer vision techniques to extract the parameters automatically which lead to fine but not very stable results because of the complexity of the environment. We propose a method that utilizes an RGBD sensor and a GUI for users to 'point' at the target region with a mouse to acquire 3D information. Algorithms that can extract important parameters from the selected points are designed. To avoid large internal force induced by the misalignment of the robot orientation and the normal of the door plane, we design a module that can compute the normal of the plane by pointing at three non-collinear points and then drive the robot to the desired orientation. We carried out experiments on real robot. The result shows that the designed GUI and algorithms can help find the necessary parameters stably and get the robot prepared for further operations.

* 6 pages, 8 figures 

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Object Detection from Scratch with Deep Supervision

Sep 25, 2018
Zhiqiang Shen, Zhuang Liu, Jianguo Li, Yu-Gang Jiang, Yurong Chen, Xiangyang Xue

We propose Deeply Supervised Object Detectors (DSOD), an object detection framework that can be trained from scratch. Recent advances in object detection heavily depend on the off-the-shelf models pre-trained on large-scale classification datasets like ImageNet and OpenImage. However, one problem is that adopting pre-trained models from classification to detection task may incur learning bias due to the different objective function and diverse distributions of object categories. Techniques like fine-tuning on detection task could alleviate this issue to some extent but are still not fundamental. Furthermore, transferring these pre-trained models across discrepant domains will be more difficult (e.g., from RGB to depth images). Thus, a better solution to handle these critical problems is to train object detectors from scratch, which motivates our proposed method. Previous efforts on this direction mainly failed by reasons of the limited training data and naive backbone network structures for object detection. In DSOD, we contribute a set of design principles for learning object detectors from scratch. One of the key principles is the deep supervision, enabled by layer-wise dense connections in both backbone networks and prediction layers, plays a critical role in learning good detectors from scratch. After involving several other principles, we build our DSOD based on the single-shot detection framework (SSD). We evaluate our method on PASCAL VOC 2007, 2012 and COCO datasets. DSOD achieves consistently better results than the state-of-the-art methods with much more compact models. Specifically, DSOD outperforms baseline method SSD on all three benchmarks, while requiring only 1/2 parameters. We also observe that DSOD can achieve comparable/slightly better results than Mask RCNN + FPN (under similar input size) with only 1/3 parameters, using no extra data or pre-trained models.

* This is an extended version of our previous conference paper arXiv:1708.01241 

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Not Just Privacy: Improving Performance of Private Deep Learning in Mobile Cloud

Sep 19, 2018
Ji Wang, Jianguo Zhang, Weidong Bao, Xiaomin Zhu, Bokai Cao, Philip S. Yu

The increasing demand for on-device deep learning services calls for a highly efficient manner to deploy deep neural networks (DNNs) on mobile devices with limited capacity. The cloud-based solution is a promising approach to enabling deep learning applications on mobile devices where the large portions of a DNN are offloaded to the cloud. However, revealing data to the cloud leads to potential privacy risk. To benefit from the cloud data center without the privacy risk, we design, evaluate, and implement a cloud-based framework ARDEN which partitions the DNN across mobile devices and cloud data centers. A simple data transformation is performed on the mobile device, while the resource-hungry training and the complex inference rely on the cloud data center. To protect the sensitive information, a lightweight privacy-preserving mechanism consisting of arbitrary data nullification and random noise addition is introduced, which provides strong privacy guarantee. A rigorous privacy budget analysis is given. Nonetheless, the private perturbation to the original data inevitably has a negative impact on the performance of further inference on the cloud side. To mitigate this influence, we propose a noisy training method to enhance the cloud-side network robustness to perturbed data. Through the sophisticated design, ARDEN can not only preserve privacy but also improve the inference performance. To validate the proposed ARDEN, a series of experiments based on three image datasets and a real mobile application are conducted. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of ARDEN. Finally, we implement ARDEN on a demo system to verify its practicality.

* Conference version accepted by KDD'18 

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DSOD: Learning Deeply Supervised Object Detectors from Scratch

Apr 30, 2018
Zhiqiang Shen, Zhuang Liu, Jianguo Li, Yu-Gang Jiang, Yurong Chen, Xiangyang Xue

We present Deeply Supervised Object Detector (DSOD), a framework that can learn object detectors from scratch. State-of-the-art object objectors rely heavily on the off-the-shelf networks pre-trained on large-scale classification datasets like ImageNet, which incurs learning bias due to the difference on both the loss functions and the category distributions between classification and detection tasks. Model fine-tuning for the detection task could alleviate this bias to some extent but not fundamentally. Besides, transferring pre-trained models from classification to detection between discrepant domains is even more difficult (e.g. RGB to depth images). A better solution to tackle these two critical problems is to train object detectors from scratch, which motivates our proposed DSOD. Previous efforts in this direction mostly failed due to much more complicated loss functions and limited training data in object detection. In DSOD, we contribute a set of design principles for training object detectors from scratch. One of the key findings is that deep supervision, enabled by dense layer-wise connections, plays a critical role in learning a good detector. Combining with several other principles, we develop DSOD following the single-shot detection (SSD) framework. Experiments on PASCAL VOC 2007, 2012 and MS COCO datasets demonstrate that DSOD can achieve better results than the state-of-the-art solutions with much more compact models. For instance, DSOD outperforms SSD on all three benchmarks with real-time detection speed, while requires only 1/2 parameters to SSD and 1/10 parameters to Faster RCNN. Our code and models are available at: .

* ICCV 2017. Code and models are available at: 

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Weakly Supervised Dense Video Captioning

Apr 05, 2017
Zhiqiang Shen, Jianguo Li, Zhou Su, Minjun Li, Yurong Chen, Yu-Gang Jiang, Xiangyang Xue

This paper focuses on a novel and challenging vision task, dense video captioning, which aims to automatically describe a video clip with multiple informative and diverse caption sentences. The proposed method is trained without explicit annotation of fine-grained sentence to video region-sequence correspondence, but is only based on weak video-level sentence annotations. It differs from existing video captioning systems in three technical aspects. First, we propose lexical fully convolutional neural networks (Lexical-FCN) with weakly supervised multi-instance multi-label learning to weakly link video regions with lexical labels. Second, we introduce a novel submodular maximization scheme to generate multiple informative and diverse region-sequences based on the Lexical-FCN outputs. A winner-takes-all scheme is adopted to weakly associate sentences to region-sequences in the training phase. Third, a sequence-to-sequence learning based language model is trained with the weakly supervised information obtained through the association process. We show that the proposed method can not only produce informative and diverse dense captions, but also outperform state-of-the-art single video captioning methods by a large margin.

* To appear in CVPR 2017 

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Product Title Refinement via Multi-Modal Generative Adversarial Learning

Nov 11, 2018
Jianguo Zhang, Pengcheng Zou, Zhao Li, Yao Wan, Ye Liu, Xiuming Pan, Yu Gong, Philip S. Yu

Nowadays, an increasing number of customers are in favor of using E-commerce Apps to browse and purchase products. Since merchants are usually inclined to employ redundant and over-informative product titles to attract customers' attention, it is of great importance to concisely display short product titles on limited screen of cell phones. Previous researchers mainly consider textual information of long product titles and lack of human-like view during training and evaluation procedure. In this paper, we propose a Multi-Modal Generative Adversarial Network (MM-GAN) for short product title generation, which innovatively incorporates image information, attribute tags from the product and the textual information from original long titles. MM-GAN treats short titles generation as a reinforcement learning process, where the generated titles are evaluated by the discriminator in a human-like view.

* Workshop on Visually Grounded Interaction and Language, NIPS, 2018 

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Large-scale Supervised Hierarchical Feature Learning for Face Recognition

Jul 06, 2014
Jianguo Li, Yurong Chen

This paper proposes a novel face recognition algorithm based on large-scale supervised hierarchical feature learning. The approach consists of two parts: hierarchical feature learning and large-scale model learning. The hierarchical feature learning searches feature in three levels of granularity in a supervised way. First, face images are modeled by receptive field theory, and the representation is an image with many channels of Gaussian receptive maps. We activate a few most distinguish channels by supervised learning. Second, the face image is further represented by patches of picked channels, and we search from the over-complete patch pool to activate only those most discriminant patches. Third, the feature descriptor of each patch is further projected to lower dimension subspace with discriminant subspace analysis. Learned feature of activated patches are concatenated to get a full face representation.A linear classifier is learned to separate face pairs from same subjects and different subjects. As the number of face pairs are extremely large, we introduce ADMM (alternative direction method of multipliers) to train the linear classifier on a computing cluster. Experiments show that more training samples will bring notable accuracy improvement. We conduct experiments on FRGC and LFW. Results show that the proposed approach outperforms existing algorithms under the same protocol notably. Besides, the proposed approach is small in memory footprint, and low in computing cost, which makes it suitable for embedded applications.

* 8 pages; 3 figures 

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Tiny-DSOD: Lightweight Object Detection for Resource-Restricted Usages

Jul 29, 2018
Yuxi Li, Jiuwei Li, Weiyao Lin, Jianguo Li

Object detection has made great progress in the past few years along with the development of deep learning. However, most current object detection methods are resource hungry, which hinders their wide deployment to many resource restricted usages such as usages on always-on devices, battery-powered low-end devices, etc. This paper considers the resource and accuracy trade-off for resource-restricted usages during designing the whole object detection framework. Based on the deeply supervised object detection (DSOD) framework, we propose Tiny-DSOD dedicating to resource-restricted usages. Tiny-DSOD introduces two innovative and ultra-efficient architecture blocks: depthwise dense block (DDB) based backbone and depthwise feature-pyramid-network (D-FPN) based front-end. We conduct extensive experiments on three famous benchmarks (PASCAL VOC 2007, KITTI, and COCO), and compare Tiny-DSOD to the state-of-the-art ultra-efficient object detection solutions such as Tiny-YOLO, MobileNet-SSD (v1 & v2), SqueezeDet, Pelee, etc. Results show that Tiny-DSOD outperforms these solutions in all the three metrics (parameter-size, FLOPs, accuracy) in each comparison. For instance, Tiny-DSOD achieves 72.1% mAP with only 0.95M parameters and 1.06B FLOPs, which is by far the state-of-the-arts result with such a low resource requirement.

* 12 pages, 3 figures, accepted by BMVC 2018 

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Amur Tiger Re-identification in the Wild

Jun 14, 2019
Shuyuan Li, Jianguo Li, Weiyao Lin, Hanlin Tang

Monitoring the population and movements of endangered species is an important task to wildlife conversation. Traditional tagging methods do not scale to large populations, while applying computer vision methods to camera sensor data requires re-identification (re-ID) algorithms to obtain accurate counts and moving trajectory of wildlife. However, existing re-ID methods are largely targeted at persons and cars, which have limited pose variations and constrained capture environments. This paper tries to fill the gap by introducing a novel large-scale dataset, the Amur Tiger Re-identification in the Wild (ATRW) dataset. ATRW contains over 8,000 video clips from 92 Amur tigers, with bounding box, pose keypoint, and tiger identity annotations. In contrast to typical re-ID datasets, the tigers are captured in a diverse set of unconstrained poses and lighting conditions. We demonstrate with a set of baseline algorithms that ATRW is a challenging dataset for re-ID. Lastly, we propose a novel method for tiger re-identification, which introduces precise pose parts modeling in deep neural networks to handle large pose variation of tigers, and reaches notable performance improvement over existing re-ID methods. The dataset will be public available at .

* rearrangement 

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Network Decoupling: From Regular to Depthwise Separable Convolutions

Aug 16, 2018
Jianbo Guo, Yuxi Li, Weiyao Lin, Yurong Chen, Jianguo Li

Depthwise separable convolution has shown great efficiency in network design, but requires time-consuming training procedure with full training-set available. This paper first analyzes the mathematical relationship between regular convolutions and depthwise separable convolutions, and proves that the former one could be approximated with the latter one in closed form. We show depthwise separable convolutions are principal components of regular convolutions. And then we propose network decoupling (ND), a training-free method to accelerate convolutional neural networks (CNNs) by transferring pre-trained CNN models into the MobileNet-like depthwise separable convolution structure, with a promising speedup yet negligible accuracy loss. We further verify through experiments that the proposed method is orthogonal to other training-free methods like channel decomposition, spatial decomposition, etc. Combining the proposed method with them will bring even larger CNN speedup. For instance, ND itself achieves about 2X speedup for the widely used VGG16, and combined with other methods, it reaches 3.7X speedup with graceful accuracy degradation. We demonstrate that ND is widely applicable to classification networks like ResNet, and object detection network like SSD300.

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A Practical Solution for SAR Despeckling with Only Single Speckled Images

Dec 13, 2019
Ye Yuan, Jianguo Sun, Jian Guan, Pengming Feng, Yanxia Wu

In this letter, we aim to address synthetic aperture radar (SAR) despeckling problem with the necessity of neither clean (speckle-free) SAR images nor independent speckled image pairs from the same scene, a practical solution for SAR despeckling (PSD) is proposed. Firstly, to generate speckled-to-speckled (S2S) image pairs from the same scene in the situation of only single speckled SAR images are available, an adversarial learning framework is designed. Then, the S2S SAR image pairs are employed to train a modified despeckling Nested-UNet model using the Noise2Noise (N2N) strategy. Moreover, an iterative version of the PSD method (PSDi) is also proposed. The performance of the proposed methods is demonstrated by both synthetic speckled and real SAR data. SAR block-matching 3-D algorithm (SAR-BM3D) and SAR dilated residual network (SAR-DRN) are used in the visual and quantitative comparison. Experimental results show that the proposed methods can reach a good tradeoff between speckle suppression and edge preservation.

* 5 pages, 5 figures 

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Artistic Glyph Image Synthesis via One-Stage Few-Shot Learning

Oct 11, 2019
Yue Gao, Yuan Guo, Zhouhui Lian, Yingmin Tang, Jianguo Xiao

Automatic generation of artistic glyph images is a challenging task that attracts many research interests. Previous methods either are specifically designed for shape synthesis or focus on texture transfer. In this paper, we propose a novel model, AGIS-Net, to transfer both shape and texture styles in one-stage with only a few stylized samples. To achieve this goal, we first disentangle the representations for content and style by using two encoders, ensuring the multi-content and multi-style generation. Then we utilize two collaboratively working decoders to generate the glyph shape image and its texture image simultaneously. In addition, we introduce a local texture refinement loss to further improve the quality of the synthesized textures. In this manner, our one-stage model is much more efficient and effective than other multi-stage stacked methods. We also propose a large-scale dataset with Chinese glyph images in various shape and texture styles, rendered from 35 professional-designed artistic fonts with 7,326 characters and 2,460 synthetic artistic fonts with 639 characters, to validate the effectiveness and extendability of our method. Extensive experiments on both English and Chinese artistic glyph image datasets demonstrate the superiority of our model in generating high-quality stylized glyph images against other state-of-the-art methods.

* ACM Trans. Graph. 38, 6, Article 185 (November 2019), 12 pages 
* 12 pages, Accepted by SIGGRAPH Asia 2019, coda and datasets: 

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Deep Attributes from Context-Aware Regional Neural Codes

Sep 08, 2015
Jianwei Luo, Jianguo Li, Jun Wang, Zhiguo Jiang, Yurong Chen

Recently, many researches employ middle-layer output of convolutional neural network models (CNN) as features for different visual recognition tasks. Although promising results have been achieved in some empirical studies, such type of representations still suffer from the well-known issue of semantic gap. This paper proposes so-called deep attribute framework to alleviate this issue from three aspects. First, we introduce object region proposals as intermedia to represent target images, and extract features from region proposals. Second, we study aggregating features from different CNN layers for all region proposals. The aggregation yields a holistic yet compact representation of input images. Results show that cross-region max-pooling of soft-max layer output outperform all other layers. As soft-max layer directly corresponds to semantic concepts, this representation is named "deep attributes". Third, we observe that only a small portion of generated regions by object proposals algorithm are correlated to classification target. Therefore, we introduce context-aware region refining algorithm to pick out contextual regions and build context-aware classifiers. We apply the proposed deep attributes framework for various vision tasks. Extensive experiments are conducted on standard benchmarks for three visual recognition tasks, i.e., image classification, fine-grained recognition and visual instance retrieval. Results show that deep attribute approaches achieve state-of-the-art results, and outperforms existing peer methods with a significant margin, even though some benchmarks have little overlap of concepts with the pre-trained CNN models.

* 10 pages, 8 figures 

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