Models, code, and papers for "Jiaqi Jiang":
Metasurfaces are subwavelength-structured artificial media that can shape and localize electromagnetic waves in unique ways. The inverse design of metasurfaces is a non-convex optimization problem in a high dimensional space, making global optimization a huge challenge. We present a new type of global optimization algorithm, based on the training of a generative neural network without a training set, which can produce high-performance metasurfaces. Instead of directly optimizing devices one at a time, we reframe the optimization as the training of a generator that iteratively enhances the probability of generating high-performance devices. The loss function used for backpropagation is defined as a function of generated patterns and their efficiency gradients, which are calculated by the adjoint variable method using the forward and adjoint electromagnetic simulations. We observe that distributions of devices generated by the network continuously shift towards high-performance design space regions over the course of optimization. Upon training completion, the best-generated devices have efficiencies comparable to or exceeding the best devices designed using standard topology optimization. We envision that our proposed global optimization algorithm generally applies to other gradient-based optimization problems in optics, mechanics and electronics.
Generative adversarial networks, which can generate metasurfaces based on a training set of high performance device layouts, have the potential to significantly reduce the computational cost of the metasurface design process. However, basic GAN architectures are unable to fully capture the detailed features of topologically complex metasurfaces, and generated devices therefore require additional computationally-expensive design refinement. In this Letter, we show that GANs can better learn spatially fine features from high-resolution training data by progressively growing its network architecture and training set. Our results indicate that with this training methodology, the best generated devices have performances that compare well with the best devices produced by gradient-based topology optimization, thereby eliminating the need for additional design refinement. We envision that this network training method can generalize to other physical systems where device performance is strongly correlated with fine geometric structuring.
Network structures in various backgrounds play important roles in social, technological, and biological systems. However, the observable network structures in real cases are often incomplete or unavailable due to measurement errors or private protection issues. Therefore, inferring the complete network structure is useful for understanding complex systems. The existing studies have not fully solved the problem of inferring network structure with partial or no information about connections or nodes. In this paper, we tackle the problem by utilizing time series data generated by network dynamics. We regard the network inference problem based on dynamical time series data as a problem of minimizing errors for predicting future states and proposed a novel data-driven deep learning model called Gumbel Graph Network (GGN) to solve the two kinds of network inference problems: Network Reconstruction and Network Completion. For the network reconstruction problem, the GGN framework includes two modules: the dynamics learner and the network generator. For the network completion problem, GGN adds a new module called the States Learner to infer missing parts of the network. We carried out experiments on discrete and continuous time series data. The experiments show that our method can reconstruct up to 100% network structure on the network reconstruction task. While the model can also infer the unknown parts of the structure with up to 90% accuracy when some nodes are missing. And the accuracy decays with the increase of the fractions of missing nodes. Our framework may have wide application areas where the network structure is hard to obtained and the time series data is rich.
A long-standing challenge with metasurface design is identifying computationally efficient methods that produce high performance devices. Design methods based on iterative optimization push the performance limits of metasurfaces, but they require extensive computational resources that limit their implementation to small numbers of microscale devices. We show that generative neural networks can learn from a small set of topology-optimized metasurfaces to produce large numbers of high-efficiency, topologically-complex metasurfaces operating across a large parameter space. This approach enables considerable savings in computation cost compared to brute force optimization. As a model system, we employ conditional generative adversarial networks to design highly-efficient metagratings over a broad range of deflection angles and operating wavelengths. Generated device designs can be further locally optimized and serve as additional training data for network refinement. Our design concept utilizes a relatively small initial training set of just a few hundred devices, and it serves as a more general blueprint for the AI-based analysis of physical systems where access to large datasets is limited. We envision that such data-driven design tools can be broadly utilized in other domains of optics, acoustics, mechanics, and electronics.
Large geometry (e.g., orientation) variances are the key challenges in the scene text detection. In this work, we first conduct experiments to investigate the capacity of networks for learning geometry variances on detecting scene texts, and find that networks can handle only limited text geometry variances. Then, we put forward a novel Geometry Normalization Module (GNM) with multiple branches, each of which is composed of one Scale Normalization Unit and one Orientation Normalization Unit, to normalize each text instance to one desired canonical geometry range through at least one branch. The GNM is general and readily plugged into existing convolutional neural network based text detectors to construct end-to-end Geometry Normalization Networks (GNNets). Moreover, we propose a geometry-aware training scheme to effectively train the GNNets by sampling and augmenting text instances from a uniform geometry variance distribution. Finally, experiments on popular benchmarks of ICDAR 2015 and ICDAR 2017 MLT validate that our method outperforms all the state-of-the-art approaches remarkably by obtaining one-forward test F-scores of 88.52 and 74.54 respectively.
Current object detection frameworks mainly rely on bounding box regression to localize objects. Despite the remarkable progress in recent years, the precision of bounding box regression remains unsatisfactory, hence limiting performance in object detection. We observe that precise localization requires careful placement of each side of the bounding box. However, the mainstream approach, which focuses on predicting centers and sizes, is not the most effective way to accomplish this task, especially when there exists displacements with large variance between the anchors and the targets.In this paper, we propose an alternative approach, named as Side-Aware Boundary Localization (SABL), where each side of the bounding box is respectively localized with a dedicated network branch. Moreover, to tackle the difficulty of precise localization in the presence of displacements with large variance, we further propose a two-step localization scheme, which first predicts a range of movement through bucket prediction and then pinpoints the precise position within the predicted bucket. We test the proposed method on both two-stage and single-stage detection frameworks. Replacing the standard bounding box regression branch with the proposed design leads to significant improvements on Faster R-CNN, RetinaNet, and Cascade R-CNN, by 3.0%, 1.6%, and 0.9%, respectively. Code and models will be available at https://github.com/open-mmlab/mmdetection.
Cascade is a classic yet powerful architecture that has boosted performance on various tasks. However, how to introduce cascade to instance segmentation remains an open question. A simple combination of Cascade R-CNN and Mask R-CNN only brings limited gain. In exploring a more effective approach, we find that the key to a successful instance segmentation cascade is to fully leverage the reciprocal relationship between detection and segmentation. In this work, we propose a new framework, Hybrid Task Cascade (HTC), which differs in two important aspects: (1) instead of performing cascaded refinement on these two tasks separately, it interweaves them for a joint multi-stage processing; (2) it adopts a fully convolutional branch to provide spatial context, which can help distinguishing hard foreground from cluttered background. Overall, this framework can learn more discriminative features progressively while integrating complementary features together in each stage. Without bells and whistles, a single HTC obtains 38.4% and 1.5% improvement over a strong Cascade Mask R-CNN baseline on MSCOCO dataset. More importantly, our overall system achieves 48.6 mask AP on the test-challenge dataset and 49.0 mask AP on test-dev, which are the state-of-the-art performance.
We present MMDetection, an object detection toolbox that contains a rich set of object detection and instance segmentation methods as well as related components and modules. The toolbox started from a codebase of MMDet team who won the detection track of COCO Challenge 2018. It gradually evolves into a unified platform that covers many popular detection methods and contemporary modules. It not only includes training and inference codes, but also provides weights for more than 200 network models. We believe this toolbox is by far the most complete detection toolbox. In this paper, we introduce the various features of this toolbox. In addition, we also conduct a benchmarking study on different methods, components, and their hyper-parameters. We wish that the toolbox and benchmark could serve the growing research community by providing a flexible toolkit to reimplement existing methods and develop their own new detectors. Code and models are available at https://github.com/open-mmlab/mmdetection. The project is under active development and we will keep this document updated.