Models, code, and papers for "Jie Ren":

Real-Time Robot Localization, Vision, and Speech Recognition on Nvidia Jetson TX1

May 31, 2017
Jie Tang, Yong Ren, Shaoshan Liu

Robotics systems are complex, often consisted of basic services including SLAM for localization and mapping, Convolution Neural Networks for scene understanding, and Speech Recognition for user interaction, etc. Meanwhile, robots are mobile and usually have tight energy constraints, integrating these services onto an embedded platform with around 10 W of power consumption is critical to the proliferation of mobile robots. In this paper, we present a case study on integrating real-time localization, vision, and speech recognition services on a mobile SoC, Nvidia Jetson TX1, within about 10 W of power envelope. In addition, we explore whether offloading some of the services to cloud platform can lead to further energy efficiency while meeting the real-time requirements

* 12 pages, 8 figures 

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Online Learning for Offloading and Autoscaling in Energy Harvesting Mobile Edge Computing

Mar 17, 2017
Jie Xu, Lixing Chen, Shaolei Ren

Mobile edge computing (a.k.a. fog computing) has recently emerged to enable in-situ processing of delay-sensitive applications at the edge of mobile networks. Providing grid power supply in support of mobile edge computing, however, is costly and even infeasible (in certain rugged or under-developed areas), thus mandating on-site renewable energy as a major or even sole power supply in increasingly many scenarios. Nonetheless, the high intermittency and unpredictability of renewable energy make it very challenging to deliver a high quality of service to users in energy harvesting mobile edge computing systems. In this paper, we address the challenge of incorporating renewables into mobile edge computing and propose an efficient reinforcement learning-based resource management algorithm, which learns on-the-fly the optimal policy of dynamic workload offloading (to the centralized cloud) and edge server provisioning to minimize the long-term system cost (including both service delay and operational cost). Our online learning algorithm uses a decomposition of the (offline) value iteration and (online) reinforcement learning, thus achieving a significant improvement of learning rate and run-time performance when compared to standard reinforcement learning algorithms such as Q-learning. We prove the convergence of the proposed algorithm and analytically show that the learned policy has a simple monotone structure amenable to practical implementation. Our simulation results validate the efficacy of our algorithm, which significantly improves the edge computing performance compared to fixed or myopic optimization schemes and conventional reinforcement learning algorithms.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1701.01090 by other authors 

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SummAE: Zero-Shot Abstractive Text Summarization using Length-Agnostic Auto-Encoders

Oct 02, 2019
Peter J. Liu, Yu-An Chung, Jie Ren

We propose an end-to-end neural model for zero-shot abstractive text summarization of paragraphs, and introduce a benchmark task, ROCSumm, based on ROCStories, a subset for which we collected human summaries. In this task, five-sentence stories (paragraphs) are summarized with one sentence, using human summaries only for evaluation. We show results for extractive and human baselines to demonstrate a large abstractive gap in performance. Our model, SummAE, consists of a denoising auto-encoder that embeds sentences and paragraphs in a common space, from which either can be decoded. Summaries for paragraphs are generated by decoding a sentence from the paragraph representations. We find that traditional sequence-to-sequence auto-encoders fail to produce good summaries and describe how specific architectural choices and pre-training techniques can significantly improve performance, outperforming extractive baselines. The data, training, evaluation code, and best model weights are open-sourced.

* first two authors contributed equally 

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Spatio-temporal Edge Service Placement: A Bandit Learning Approach

Oct 07, 2018
Lixing Chen, Jie Xu, Shaolei Ren, Pan Zhou

Shared edge computing platforms deployed at the radio access network are expected to significantly improve quality of service delivered by Application Service Providers (ASPs) in a flexible and economic way. However, placing edge service in every possible edge site by an ASP is practically infeasible due to the ASP's prohibitive budget requirement. In this paper, we investigate the edge service placement problem of an ASP under a limited budget, where the ASP dynamically rents computing/storage resources in edge sites to host its applications in close proximity to end users. Since the benefit of placing edge service in a specific site is usually unknown to the ASP a priori, optimal placement decisions must be made while learning this benefit. We pose this problem as a novel combinatorial contextual bandit learning problem. It is "combinatorial" because only a limited number of edge sites can be rented to provide the edge service given the ASP's budget. It is "contextual" because we utilize user context information to enable finer-grained learning and decision making. To solve this problem and optimize the edge computing performance, we propose SEEN, a Spatial-temporal Edge sErvice placemeNt algorithm. Furthermore, SEEN is extended to scenarios with overlapping service coverage by incorporating a disjunctively constrained knapsack problem. In both cases, we prove that our algorithm achieves a sublinear regret bound when it is compared to an oracle algorithm that knows the exact benefit information. Simulations are carried out on a real-world dataset, whose results show that SEEN significantly outperforms benchmark solutions.

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Active Learning for Wireless IoT Intrusion Detection

Aug 04, 2018
Kai Yang, Jie Ren, Yanqiao Zhu, Weiyi Zhang

Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming truly ubiquitous in our everyday life, but it also faces unique security challenges. Intrusion detection is critical for the security and safety of a wireless IoT network. This paper discusses the human-in-the-loop active learning approach for wireless intrusion detection. We first present the fundamental challenges against the design of a successful Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for wireless IoT network. We then briefly review the rudimentary concepts of active learning and propose its employment in the diverse applications of wireless intrusion detection. Experimental example is also presented to show the significant performance improvement of the active learning method over traditional supervised learning approach. While machine learning techniques have been widely employed for intrusion detection, the application of human-in-the-loop machine learning that leverages both machine and human intelligence to intrusion detection of IoT is still in its infancy. We hope this article can assist the readers in understanding the key concepts of active learning and spur further research in this area.

* 7 pages, 4 figures, accepted by IEEE Wireless Communications 

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Explaining Neural Networks Semantically and Quantitatively

Dec 18, 2018
Runjin Chen, Hao Chen, Ge Huang, Jie Ren, Quanshi Zhang

This paper presents a method to explain the knowledge encoded in a convolutional neural network (CNN) quantitatively and semantically. The analysis of the specific rationale of each prediction made by the CNN presents a key issue of understanding neural networks, but it is also of significant practical values in certain applications. In this study, we propose to distill knowledge from the CNN into an explainable additive model, so that we can use the explainable model to provide a quantitative explanation for the CNN prediction. We analyze the typical bias-interpreting problem of the explainable model and develop prior losses to guide the learning of the explainable additive model. Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of our method.

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Neural networks for stock price prediction

May 29, 2018
Yue-Gang Song, Yu-Long Zhou, Ren-Jie Han

Due to the extremely volatile nature of financial markets, it is commonly accepted that stock price prediction is a task full of challenge. However in order to make profits or understand the essence of equity market, numerous market participants or researchers try to forecast stock price using various statistical, econometric or even neural network models. In this work, we survey and compare the predictive power of five neural network models, namely, back propagation (BP) neural network, radial basis function (RBF) neural network, general regression neural network (GRNN), support vector machine regression (SVMR), least squares support vector machine regresssion (LS-SVMR). We apply the five models to make price prediction of three individual stocks, namely, Bank of China, Vanke A and Kweichou Moutai. Adopting mean square error and average absolute percentage error as criteria, we find BP neural network consistently and robustly outperforms the other four models.

* 13 pages, 3 figures, 4 tables 

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Gated Multi-layer Convolutional Feature Extraction Network for Robust Pedestrian Detection

Oct 25, 2019
Tianrui Liu, Jun-Jie Huang, Tianhong Dai, Guangyu Ren, Tania Stathaki

Pedestrian detection methods have been significantly improved with the development of deep convolutional neural networks. Nevertheless, robustly detecting pedestrians with a large variant on sizes and with occlusions remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a gated multi-layer convolutional feature extraction method which can adaptively generate discriminative features for candidate pedestrian regions. The proposed gated feature extraction framework consists of squeeze units, gate units and a concatenation layer which perform feature dimension squeezing, feature elements manipulation and convolutional features combination from multiple CNN layers, respectively. We proposed two different gate models which can manipulate the regional feature maps in a channel-wise selection manner and a spatial-wise selection manner, respectively. Experiments on the challenging CityPersons dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, especially on detecting those small-size and occluded pedestrians.

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Long Short-Term Memory Networks for CSI300 Volatility Prediction with Baidu Search Volume

May 29, 2018
Yu-Long Zhou, Ren-Jie Han, Qian Xu, Wei-Ke Zhang

Intense volatility in financial markets affect humans worldwide. Therefore, relatively accurate prediction of volatility is critical. We suggest that massive data sources resulting from human interaction with the Internet may offer a new perspective on the behavior of market participants in periods of large market movements. First we select 28 key words, which are related to finance as indicators of the public mood and macroeconomic factors. Then those 28 words of the daily search volume based on Baidu index are collected manually, from June 1, 2006 to October 29, 2017. We apply a Long Short-Term Memory neural network to forecast CSI300 volatility using those search volume data. Compared to the benchmark GARCH model, our forecast is more accurate, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the LSTM neural network in volatility forecasting.

* 7 pages, 3 figures, 2 tables. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1512.04916 by other authors 

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Direct and indirect reinforcement learning

Dec 23, 2019
Yang Guan, Shengbo Eben Li, Jingliang Duan, Jie Li, Yangang Ren, Bo Cheng

Reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms have been successfully applied to a range of challenging sequential decision making and control tasks. In this paper, we classify RL into direct and indirect methods according to how they seek optimal policy of the Markov Decision Process (MDP) problem. The former solves optimal policy by directly maximizing an objective function using gradient descent method, in which the objective function is usually the expectation of accumulative future rewards. The latter indirectly finds the optimal policy by solving the Bellman equation, which is the sufficient and necessary condition from Bellman's principle of optimality. We take vanilla policy gradient and approximate policy iteration to study their internal relationship, and reveal that both direct and indirect methods can be unified in actor-critic architecture and are equivalent if we always choose stationary state distribution of current policy as initial state distribution of MDP. Finally, we classify the current mainstream RL algorithms and compare the differences between other criteria including value-based and policy-based, model-based and model-free.

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An End-to-End Compression Framework Based on Convolutional Neural Networks

Aug 02, 2017
Feng Jiang, Wen Tao, Shaohui Liu, Jie Ren, Xun Guo, Debin Zhao

Deep learning, e.g., convolutional neural networks (CNNs), has achieved great success in image processing and computer vision especially in high level vision applications such as recognition and understanding. However, it is rarely used to solve low-level vision problems such as image compression studied in this paper. Here, we move forward a step and propose a novel compression framework based on CNNs. To achieve high-quality image compression at low bit rates, two CNNs are seamlessly integrated into an end-to-end compression framework. The first CNN, named compact convolutional neural network (ComCNN), learns an optimal compact representation from an input image, which preserves the structural information and is then encoded using an image codec (e.g., JPEG, JPEG2000 or BPG). The second CNN, named reconstruction convolutional neural network (RecCNN), is used to reconstruct the decoded image with high-quality in the decoding end. To make two CNNs effectively collaborate, we develop a unified end-to-end learning algorithm to simultaneously learn ComCNN and RecCNN, which facilitates the accurate reconstruction of the decoded image using RecCNN. Such a design also makes the proposed compression framework compatible with existing image coding standards. Experimental results validate that the proposed compression framework greatly outperforms several compression frameworks that use existing image coding standards with state-of-the-art deblocking or denoising post-processing methods.

* Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 

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More About Covariance Descriptors for Image Set Coding: Log-Euclidean Framework based Kernel Matrix Representation

Sep 26, 2019
Kai-Xuan Chen, Xiao-Jun Wu, Jie-Yi Ren, Rui Wang, Josef Kittler

We consider a family of structural descriptors for visual data, namely covariance descriptors (CovDs) that lie on a non-linear symmetric positive definite (SPD) manifold, a special type of Riemannian manifolds. We propose an improved version of CovDs for image set coding by extending the traditional CovDs from Euclidean space to the SPD manifold. Specifically, the manifold of SPD matrices is a complete inner product space with the operations of logarithmic multiplication and scalar logarithmic multiplication defined in the Log-Euclidean framework. In this framework, we characterise covariance structure in terms of the arc-cosine kernel which satisfies Mercer's condition and propose the operation of mean centralization on SPD matrices. Furthermore, we combine arc-cosine kernels of different orders using mixing parameters learnt by kernel alignment in a supervised manner. Our proposed framework provides a lower-dimensional and more discriminative data representation for the task of image set classification. The experimental results demonstrate its superior performance, measured in terms of recognition accuracy, as compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

* 10 pages 

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Reconstructing Perceived Images from Brain Activity by Visually-guided Cognitive Representation and Adversarial Learning

Jun 27, 2019
Ziqi Ren, Jie Li, Xuetong Xue, Xin Li, Fan Yang, Zhicheng Jiao, Xinbo Gao

Reconstructing perceived images based on brain signals measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a significant and meaningful task in brain-driven computer vision. However, the inconsistent distribution and representation between fMRI signals and visual images cause the heterogeneity gap, which makes it challenging to learn a reliable mapping between them. Moreover, considering that fMRI signals are extremely high-dimensional and contain a lot of visually-irrelevant information, effectively reducing the noise and encoding powerful visual representations for image reconstruction is also an open problem. We show that it is possible to overcome these challenges by learning a visually-relevant latent representation from fMRI signals guided by the corresponding visual features, and recovering the perceived images via adversarial learning. The resulting framework is called Dual-Variational Autoencoder/ Generative Adversarial Network (D-VAE/GAN). By using a novel 3-stage training strategy, it encodes both cognitive and visual features via a dual structure variational autoencoder (D-VAE) to adapt cognitive features to visual feature space, and then learns to reconstruct perceived images with generative adversarial network (GAN). Extensive experiments on three fMRI recording datasets show that D-VAE/GAN achieves more accurate visual reconstruction compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1704.07575 by other authors 

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To Compress, or Not to Compress: Characterizing Deep Learning Model Compression for Embedded Inference

Oct 21, 2018
Qing Qin, Jie Ren, Jialong Yu, Ling Gao, Hai Wang, Jie Zheng, Yansong Feng, Jianbin Fang, Zheng Wang

The recent advances in deep neural networks (DNNs) make them attractive for embedded systems. However, it can take a long time for DNNs to make an inference on resource-constrained computing devices. Model compression techniques can address the computation issue of deep inference on embedded devices. This technique is highly attractive, as it does not rely on specialized hardware, or computation-offloading that is often infeasible due to privacy concerns or high latency. However, it remains unclear how model compression techniques perform across a wide range of DNNs. To design efficient embedded deep learning solutions, we need to understand their behaviors. This work develops a quantitative approach to characterize model compression techniques on a representative embedded deep learning architecture, the NVIDIA Jetson Tx2. We perform extensive experiments by considering 11 influential neural network architectures from the image classification and the natural language processing domains. We experimentally show that how two mainstream compression techniques, data quantization and pruning, perform on these network architectures and the implications of compression techniques to the model storage size, inference time, energy consumption and performance metrics. We demonstrate that there are opportunities to achieve fast deep inference on embedded systems, but one must carefully choose the compression settings. Our results provide insights on when and how to apply model compression techniques and guidelines for designing efficient embedded deep learning systems.

* 8 pages, To appear in ISPA 2018 

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An Area and Energy Efficient Design of Domain-Wall Memory-Based Deep Convolutional Neural Networks using Stochastic Computing

Feb 03, 2018
Xiaolong Ma, Yipeng Zhang, Geng Yuan, Ao Ren, Zhe Li, Jie Han, Jingtong Hu, Yanzhi Wang

With recent trend of wearable devices and Internet of Things (IoTs), it becomes attractive to develop hardware-based deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) for embedded applications, which require low power/energy consumptions and small hardware footprints. Recent works demonstrated that the Stochastic Computing (SC) technique can radically simplify the hardware implementation of arithmetic units and has the potential to satisfy the stringent power requirements in embedded devices. However, in these works, the memory design optimization is neglected for weight storage, which will inevitably result in large hardware cost. Moreover, if conventional volatile SRAM or DRAM cells are utilized for weight storage, the weights need to be re-initialized whenever the DCNN platform is re-started. In order to overcome these limitations, in this work we adopt an emerging non-volatile Domain-Wall Memory (DWM), which can achieve ultra-high density, to replace SRAM for weight storage in SC-based DCNNs. We propose DW-CNN, the first comprehensive design optimization framework of DWM-based weight storage method. We derive the optimal memory type, precision, and organization, as well as whether to store binary or stochastic numbers. We present effective resource sharing scheme for DWM-based weight storage in the convolutional and fully-connected layers of SC-based DCNNs to achieve a desirable balance among area, power (energy) consumption, and application-level accuracy.

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Likelihood Ratios for Out-of-Distribution Detection

Jun 07, 2019
Jie Ren, Peter J. Liu, Emily Fertig, Jasper Snoek, Ryan Poplin, Mark A. DePristo, Joshua V. Dillon, Balaji Lakshminarayanan

Discriminative neural networks offer little or no performance guarantees when deployed on data not generated by the same process as the training distribution. On such out-of-distribution (OOD) inputs, the prediction may not only be erroneous, but confidently so, limiting the safe deployment of classifiers in real-world applications. One such challenging application is bacteria identification based on genomic sequences, which holds the promise of early detection of diseases, but requires a model that can output low confidence predictions on OOD genomic sequences from new bacteria that were not present in the training data. We introduce a genomics dataset for OOD detection that allows other researchers to benchmark progress on this important problem. We investigate deep generative model based approaches for OOD detection and observe that the likelihood score is heavily affected by population level background statistics. We propose a likelihood ratio method for deep generative models which effectively corrects for these confounding background statistics. We benchmark the OOD detection performance of the proposed method against existing approaches on the genomics dataset and show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance. We demonstrate the generality of the proposed method by showing that it significantly improves OOD detection when applied to deep generative models of images.

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Can You Trust Your Model's Uncertainty? Evaluating Predictive Uncertainty Under Dataset Shift

Jun 06, 2019
Yaniv Ovadia, Emily Fertig, Jie Ren, Zachary Nado, D Sculley, Sebastian Nowozin, Joshua V. Dillon, Balaji Lakshminarayanan, Jasper Snoek

Modern machine learning methods including deep learning have achieved great success in predictive accuracy for supervised learning tasks, but may still fall short in giving useful estimates of their predictive {\em uncertainty}. Quantifying uncertainty is especially critical in real-world settings, which often involve input distributions that are shifted from the training distribution due to a variety of factors including sample bias and non-stationarity. In such settings, well calibrated uncertainty estimates convey information about when a model's output should (or should not) be trusted. Many probabilistic deep learning methods, including Bayesian-and non-Bayesian methods, have been proposed in the literature for quantifying predictive uncertainty, but to our knowledge there has not previously been a rigorous large-scale empirical comparison of these methods under dataset shift. We present a large-scale benchmark of existing state-of-the-art methods on classification problems and investigate the effect of dataset shift on accuracy and calibration. We find that traditional post-hoc calibration does indeed fall short, as do several other previous methods. However, some methods that marginalize over models give surprisingly strong results across a broad spectrum of tasks.

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A Stochastic-Computing based Deep Learning Framework using Adiabatic Quantum-Flux-Parametron SuperconductingTechnology

Jul 22, 2019
Ruizhe Cai, Ao Ren, Olivia Chen, Ning Liu, Caiwen Ding, Xuehai Qian, Jie Han, Wenhui Luo, Nobuyuki Yoshikawa, Yanzhi Wang

The Adiabatic Quantum-Flux-Parametron (AQFP) superconducting technology has been recently developed, which achieves the highest energy efficiency among superconducting logic families, potentially huge gain compared with state-of-the-art CMOS. In 2016, the successful fabrication and testing of AQFP-based circuits with the scale of 83,000 JJs have demonstrated the scalability and potential of implementing large-scale systems using AQFP. As a result, it will be promising for AQFP in high-performance computing and deep space applications, with Deep Neural Network (DNN) inference acceleration as an important example. Besides ultra-high energy efficiency, AQFP exhibits two unique characteristics: the deep pipelining nature since each AQFP logic gate is connected with an AC clock signal, which increases the difficulty to avoid RAW hazards; the second is the unique opportunity of true random number generation (RNG) using a single AQFP buffer, far more efficient than RNG in CMOS. We point out that these two characteristics make AQFP especially compatible with the \emph{stochastic computing} (SC) technique, which uses a time-independent bit sequence for value representation, and is compatible with the deep pipelining nature. Further, the application of SC has been investigated in DNNs in prior work, and the suitability has been illustrated as SC is more compatible with approximate computations. This work is the first to develop an SC-based DNN acceleration framework using AQFP technology.

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Time-Series Anomaly Detection Service at Microsoft

Jun 10, 2019
Hansheng Ren, Bixiong Xu, Yujing Wang, Chao Yi, Congrui Huang, Xiaoyu Kou, Tony Xing, Mao Yang, Jie Tong, Qi Zhang

Large companies need to monitor various metrics (for example, Page Views and Revenue) of their applications and services in real time. At Microsoft, we develop a time-series anomaly detection service which helps customers to monitor the time-series continuously and alert for potential incidents on time. In this paper, we introduce the pipeline and algorithm of our anomaly detection service, which is designed to be accurate, efficient and general. The pipeline consists of three major modules, including data ingestion, experimentation platform and online compute. To tackle the problem of time-series anomaly detection, we propose a novel algorithm based on Spectral Residual (SR) and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Our work is the first attempt to borrow the SR model from visual saliency detection domain to time-series anomaly detection. Moreover, we innovatively combine SR and CNN together to improve the performance of SR model. Our approach achieves superior experimental results compared with state-of-the-art baselines on both public datasets and Microsoft production data.

* KDD 2019 

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