Models, code, and papers for "Jing Liao":
Recent neural style transfer frameworks have obtained astonishing visual quality and flexibility in Single-style Transfer (SST), but little attention has been paid to Multi-style Transfer (MST) which refers to simultaneously transferring multiple styles to the same image. Compared to SST, MST has the potential to create more diverse and visually pleasing stylization results. In this paper, we propose the first MST framework to automatically incorporate multiple styles into one result based on regional semantics. We first improve the existing SST backbone network by introducing a novel multi-level feature fusion module and a patch attention module to achieve better semantic correspondences and preserve richer style details. For MST, we designed a conceptually simple yet effective region-based style fusion module to insert into the backbone. It assigns corresponding styles to content regions based on semantic matching, and then seamlessly combines multiple styles together. Comprehensive evaluations demonstrate that our framework outperforms existing works of SST and MST.
Facial caricature is an art form of drawing faces in an exaggerated way to convey humor or sarcasm. In this paper, we propose the first Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) for unpaired photo-to-caricature translation, which we call "CariGANs". It explicitly models geometric exaggeration and appearance stylization using two components: CariGeoGAN, which only models the geometry-to-geometry transformation from face photos to caricatures, and CariStyGAN, which transfers the style appearance from caricatures to face photos without any geometry deformation. In this way, a difficult cross-domain translation problem is decoupled into two easier tasks. The perceptual study shows that caricatures generated by our CariGANs are closer to the hand-drawn ones, and at the same time better persevere the identity, compared to state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, our CariGANs allow users to control the shape exaggeration degree and change the color/texture style by tuning the parameters or giving an example caricature.
Geometric matching is a key step in computer vision tasks. Previous learning-based methods for geometric matching concentrate more on improving alignment quality, while we argue the importance of naturalness issue simultaneously. To deal with this, firstly, Pearson correlation is applied to handle large intra-class variations of features in feature matching stage. Then, we parametrize homography transformation with 9 parameters in full connected layer of our network, to better characterize large viewpoint variations compared with affine transformation. Furthermore, a novel loss function with Gaussian weights guarantees the model accuracy and efficiency in training procedure. Finally, we provide two choices for different purposes in geometric matching. When compositing homography with affine transformation, the alignment accuracy improves and all lines are preserved, which results in a more natural transformed image. When compositing homography with non-rigid thin-plate-spline transformation, the alignment accuracy further improves. Experimental results on Proposal Flow dataset show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art methods, both in terms of alignment accuracy and naturalness.
Seam-cutting and seam-driven techniques have been proven effective for handling imperfect image series in image stitching. Generally, seam-driven is to utilize seam-cutting to find a best seam from one or finite alignment hypotheses based on a predefined seam quality metric. However, the quality metrics in most methods are defined to measure the average performance of the pixels on the seam without considering the relevance and variance among them. This may cause that the seam with the minimal measure is not optimal (perception-inconsistent) in human perception. In this paper, we propose a novel coarse-to-fine seam estimation method which applies the evaluation in a different way. For pixels on the seam, we develop a patch-point evaluation algorithm concentrating more on the correlation and variation of them. The evaluations are then used to recalculate the difference map of the overlapping region and reestimate a stitching seam. This evaluation-reestimation procedure iterates until the current seam changes negligibly comparing with the previous seams. Experiments show that our proposed method can finally find a nearly perception-consistent seam after several iterations, which outperforms the conventional seam-cutting and other seam-driven methods.
The seam-driven approach has been proven fairly effective for parallax-tolerant image stitching, whose strategy is to search for an invisible seam from finite representative hypotheses of local alignment. In this paper, we propose a graph-based hypothesis generation and a seam-guided local alignment for improving the effectiveness and the efficiency of the seam-driven approach. The experiment demonstrates the significant reduction of number of hypotheses and the improved quality of naturalness of final stitching results, comparing to the state-of-the-art method SEAGULL.
A novel warp for natural image stitching is proposed that utilizes the property of cylindrical warp and a horizontal pixel selection strategy. The proposed ratio-preserving half-cylindrical warp is a combination of homography and cylindrical warps which guarantees alignment by homography and possesses less projective distortion by cylindrical warp. Unlike previous approaches applying cylindrical warp before homography, we use partition lines to divide the image into different parts and apply homography in the overlapping region while a composition of homography and cylindrical warps in the non-overlapping region. The pixel selection strategy then samples the points in horizontal and reconstructs the image via interpolation to further reduce horizontal distortion by maintaining the ratio as similarity. With applying half-cylindrical warp and horizontal pixel selection, the projective distortion in vertical and horizontal is mitigated simultaneously. Experiments show that our warp is efficient and produces a more natural-looking stitched result than previous methods.
Many image-to-image (I2I) translation problems are in nature of high diversity that a single input may have various counterparts. Prior works proposed the multi-modal network that can build a many-to-many mapping between two visual domains. However, most of them are guided by sampled noises. Some others encode the reference images into a latent vector, by which the semantic information of the reference image will be washed away. In this work, we aim to provide a solution to control the output based on references semantically. Given a reference image and an input in another domain, a semantic matching is first performed between the two visual contents and generates the auxiliary image, which is explicitly encouraged to preserve semantic characteristics of the reference. A deep network then is used for I2I translation and the final outputs are expected to be semantically similar to both the input and the reference; however, no such paired data can satisfy that dual-similarity in a supervised fashion, so we build up a self-supervised framework to serve the training purpose. We improve the quality and diversity of the outputs by employing non-local blocks and a multi-task architecture. We assess the proposed method through extensive qualitative and quantitative evaluations and also presented comparisons with several state-of-art models.
This paper introduces a novel method by reshuffling deep features (i.e., permuting the spacial locations of a feature map) of the style image for arbitrary style transfer. We theoretically prove that our new style loss based on reshuffle connects both global and local style losses respectively used by most parametric and non-parametric neural style transfer methods. This simple idea can effectively address the challenging issues in existing style transfer methods. On one hand, it can avoid distortions in local style patterns, and allow semantic-level transfer, compared with neural parametric methods. On the other hand, it can preserve globally similar appearance to the style image, and avoid wash-out artifacts, compared with neural non-parametric methods. Based on the proposed loss, we also present a progressive feature-domain optimization approach. The experiments show that our method is widely applicable to various styles, and produces better quality than existing methods.
We propose a new algorithm for color transfer between images that have perceptually similar semantic structures. We aim to achieve a more accurate color transfer that leverages semantically-meaningful dense correspondence between images. To accomplish this, our algorithm uses neural representations for matching. Additionally, the color transfer should be spatially-variant and globally coherent. Therefore, our algorithm optimizes a local linear model for color transfer satisfying both local and global constraints. Our proposed approach jointly optimize matching and color transfer, adopting a coarse-to-fine strategy. The proposed method can be successfully extended from "one-to-one" to "one-to-many" color transfers. The latter further addresses the problem of mismatching elements of the input image. We validate our proposed method by testing it on a large variety of image content.
Depthwise convolution has gradually become an indispensable operation for modern efficient neural networks and larger kernel sizes ($\ge5$) have been applied to it recently. In this paper, we propose a novel extremely separated convolutional block (XSepConv), which fuses spatially separable convolutions into depthwise convolution to further reduce both the computational cost and parameter size of large kernels. Furthermore, an extra $2\times2$ depthwise convolution coupled with improved symmetric padding strategy is employed to compensate for the side effect brought by spatially separable convolutions. XSepConv is designed to be an efficient alternative to vanilla depthwise convolution with large kernel sizes. To verify this, we use XSepConv for the state-of-the-art architecture MobileNetV3-Small and carry out extensive experiments on four highly competitive benchmark datasets (CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, SVHN and Tiny-ImageNet) to demonstrate that XSepConv can indeed strike a better trade-off between accuracy and efficiency.
We propose a novel learning method to rectify document images with various distortion types from a single input image. As opposed to previous learning-based methods, our approach seeks to first learn the distortion flow on input image patches rather than the entire image. We then present a robust technique to stitch the patch results into the rectified document by processing in the gradient domain. Furthermore, we propose a second network to correct the uneven illumination, further improving the readability and OCR accuracy. Due to the less complex distortion present on the smaller image patches, our patch-based approach followed by stitching and illumination correction can significantly improve the overall accuracy in both the synthetic and real datasets.
We propose the first general framework to automatically correct different types of geometric distortion in a single input image. Our proposed method employs convolutional neural networks (CNNs) trained by using a large synthetic distortion dataset to predict the displacement field between distorted images and corrected images. A model fitting method uses the CNN output to estimate the distortion parameters, achieving a more accurate prediction. The final corrected image is generated based on the predicted flow using an efficient, high-quality resampling method. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms traditional correction methods, and allows for interesting applications such as distortion transfer, distortion exaggeration, and co-occurring distortion correction.
Suffering from the multi-view data diversity and complexity for semi-supervised classification, most of existing graph convolutional networks focus on the networks architecture construction or the salient graph structure preservation, and ignore the the complete graph structure for semi-supervised classification contribution. To mine the more complete distribution structure from multi-view data with the consideration of the specificity and the commonality, we propose structure fusion based on graph convolutional networks (SF-GCN) for improving the performance of semi-supervised classification. SF-GCN can not only retain the special characteristic of each view data by spectral embedding, but also capture the common style of multi-view data by distance metric between multi-graph structures. Suppose the linear relationship between multi-graph structures, we can construct the optimization function of structure fusion model by balancing the specificity loss and the commonality loss. By solving this function, we can simultaneously obtain the fusion spectral embedding from the multi-view data and the fusion structure as adjacent matrix to input graph convolutional networks for semi-supervised classification. Experiments demonstrate that the performance of SF-GCN outperforms that of the state of the arts on three challenging datasets, which are Cora,Citeseer and Pubmed in citation networks.
We propose the first deep learning approach for exemplar-based local colorization. Given a reference color image, our convolutional neural network directly maps a grayscale image to an output colorized image. Rather than using hand-crafted rules as in traditional exemplar-based methods, our end-to-end colorization network learns how to select, propagate, and predict colors from the large-scale data. The approach performs robustly and generalizes well even when using reference images that are unrelated to the input grayscale image. More importantly, as opposed to other learning-based colorization methods, our network allows the user to achieve customizable results by simply feeding different references. In order to further reduce manual effort in selecting the references, the system automatically recommends references with our proposed image retrieval algorithm, which considers both semantic and luminance information. The colorization can be performed fully automatically by simply picking the top reference suggestion. Our approach is validated through a user study and favorable quantitative comparisons to the-state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, our approach can be naturally extended to video colorization. Our code and models will be freely available for public use.
This paper presents the first attempt at stereoscopic neural style transfer, which responds to the emerging demand for 3D movies or AR/VR. We start with a careful examination of applying existing monocular style transfer methods to left and right views of stereoscopic images separately. This reveals that the original disparity consistency cannot be well preserved in the final stylization results, which causes 3D fatigue to the viewers. To address this issue, we incorporate a new disparity loss into the widely adopted style loss function by enforcing the bidirectional disparity constraint in non-occluded regions. For a practical real-time solution, we propose the first feed-forward network by jointly training a stylization sub-network and a disparity sub-network, and integrate them in a feature level middle domain. Our disparity sub-network is also the first end-to-end network for simultaneous bidirectional disparity and occlusion mask estimation. Finally, our network is effectively extended to stereoscopic videos, by considering both temporal coherence and disparity consistency. We will show that the proposed method clearly outperforms the baseline algorithms both quantitatively and qualitatively.
We propose a new technique for visual attribute transfer across images that may have very different appearance but have perceptually similar semantic structure. By visual attribute transfer, we mean transfer of visual information (such as color, tone, texture, and style) from one image to another. For example, one image could be that of a painting or a sketch while the other is a photo of a real scene, and both depict the same type of scene. Our technique finds semantically-meaningful dense correspondences between two input images. To accomplish this, it adapts the notion of "image analogy" with features extracted from a Deep Convolutional Neutral Network for matching; we call our technique Deep Image Analogy. A coarse-to-fine strategy is used to compute the nearest-neighbor field for generating the results. We validate the effectiveness of our proposed method in a variety of cases, including style/texture transfer, color/style swap, sketch/painting to photo, and time lapse.
We propose StyleBank, which is composed of multiple convolution filter banks and each filter bank explicitly represents one style, for neural image style transfer. To transfer an image to a specific style, the corresponding filter bank is operated on top of the intermediate feature embedding produced by a single auto-encoder. The StyleBank and the auto-encoder are jointly learnt, where the learning is conducted in such a way that the auto-encoder does not encode any style information thanks to the flexibility introduced by the explicit filter bank representation. It also enables us to conduct incremental learning to add a new image style by learning a new filter bank while holding the auto-encoder fixed. The explicit style representation along with the flexible network design enables us to fuse styles at not only the image level, but also the region level. Our method is the first style transfer network that links back to traditional texton mapping methods, and hence provides new understanding on neural style transfer. Our method is easy to train, runs in real-time, and produces results that qualitatively better or at least comparable to existing methods.
Training a feed-forward network for fast neural style transfer of images is proven to be successful. However, the naive extension to process video frame by frame is prone to producing flickering results. We propose the first end-to-end network for online video style transfer, which generates temporally coherent stylized video sequences in near real-time. Two key ideas include an efficient network by incorporating short-term coherence, and propagating short-term coherence to long-term, which ensures the consistency over larger period of time. Our network can incorporate different image stylization networks. We show that the proposed method clearly outperforms the per-frame baseline both qualitatively and quantitatively. Moreover, it can achieve visually comparable coherence to optimization-based video style transfer, but is three orders of magnitudes faster in runtime.
Completing a corrupted image with correct structures and reasonable textures for a mixed scene remains an elusive challenge. Since the missing hole in a mixed scene of a corrupted image often contains various semantic information, conventional two-stage approaches utilizing structural information often lead to the problem of unreliable structural prediction and ambiguous image texture generation. In this paper, we propose a Semantic Guidance and Evaluation Network (SGE-Net) to iteratively update the structural priors and the inpainted image in an interplay framework of semantics extraction and image inpainting. It utilizes semantic segmentation map as guidance in each scale of inpainting, under which location-dependent inferences are re-evaluated, and, accordingly, poorly-inferred regions are refined in subsequent scales. Extensive experiments on real-world images of mixed scenes demonstrated the superiority of our proposed method over state-of-the-art approaches, in terms of clear boundaries and photo-realistic textures.