Models, code, and papers for "Kavita Bala":
Image datasets with high-quality pixel-level annotations are valuable for semantic segmentation: labelling every pixel in an image ensures that rare classes and small objects are annotated. However, full-image annotations are expensive, with experts spending up to 90 minutes per image. We propose block sub-image annotation as a replacement for full-image annotation. Despite the attention cost of frequent task switching, we find that block annotations can be crowdsourced at higher quality compared to full-image annotation with equal monetary cost using existing annotation tools developed for full-image annotation. Surprisingly, we find that 50% pixels annotated with blocks allows semantic segmentation to achieve equivalent performance to 100% pixels annotated. Furthermore, as little as 12% of pixels annotated allows performance as high as 98% of the performance with dense annotation. In weakly-supervised settings, block annotation outperforms existing methods by 3-4% (absolute) given equivalent annotation time. To recover the necessary global structure for applications such as characterizing spatial context and affordance relationships, we propose an effective method to inpaint block-annotated images with high-quality labels without additional human effort. As such, fewer annotations can also be used for these applications compared to full-image annotation.
Each day billions of photographs are uploaded to photo-sharing services and social media platforms. These images are packed with information about how people live around the world. In this paper we exploit this rich trove of data to understand fashion and style trends worldwide. We present a framework for visual discovery at scale, analyzing clothing and fashion across millions of images of people around the world and spanning several years. We introduce a large-scale dataset of photos of people annotated with clothing attributes, and use this dataset to train attribute classifiers via deep learning. We also present a method for discovering visually consistent style clusters that capture useful visual correlations in this massive dataset. Using these tools, we analyze millions of photos to derive visual insight, producing a first-of-its-kind analysis of global and per-city fashion choices and spatio-temporal trends.
We propose a new neural network architecture for solving single-image analogies - the generation of an entire set of stylistically similar images from just a single input image. Solving this problem requires separating image style from content. Our network is a modified variational autoencoder (VAE) that supports supervised training of single-image analogies and in-network evaluation of outputs with a structured similarity objective that captures pixel covariances. On the challenging task of generating a 62-letter font from a single example letter we produce images with 22.4% lower dissimilarity to the ground truth than state-of-the-art.
Understanding shading effects in images is critical for a variety of vision and graphics problems, including intrinsic image decomposition, shadow removal, image relighting, and inverse rendering. As is the case with other vision tasks, machine learning is a promising approach to understanding shading - but there is little ground truth shading data available for real-world images. We introduce Shading Annotations in the Wild (SAW), a new large-scale, public dataset of shading annotations in indoor scenes, comprised of multiple forms of shading judgments obtained via crowdsourcing, along with shading annotations automatically generated from RGB-D imagery. We use this data to train a convolutional neural network to predict per-pixel shading information in an image. We demonstrate the value of our data and network in an application to intrinsic images, where we can reduce decomposition artifacts produced by existing algorithms. Our database is available at http://opensurfaces.cs.cornell.edu/saw/.
This paper introduces a deep-learning approach to photographic style transfer that handles a large variety of image content while faithfully transferring the reference style. Our approach builds upon the recent work on painterly transfer that separates style from the content of an image by considering different layers of a neural network. However, as is, this approach is not suitable for photorealistic style transfer. Even when both the input and reference images are photographs, the output still exhibits distortions reminiscent of a painting. Our contribution is to constrain the transformation from the input to the output to be locally affine in colorspace, and to express this constraint as a custom fully differentiable energy term. We show that this approach successfully suppresses distortion and yields satisfying photorealistic style transfers in a broad variety of scenarios, including transfer of the time of day, weather, season, and artistic edits.
Recognizing materials in real-world images is a challenging task. Real-world materials have rich surface texture, geometry, lighting conditions, and clutter, which combine to make the problem particularly difficult. In this paper, we introduce a new, large-scale, open dataset of materials in the wild, the Materials in Context Database (MINC), and combine this dataset with deep learning to achieve material recognition and segmentation of images in the wild. MINC is an order of magnitude larger than previous material databases, while being more diverse and well-sampled across its 23 categories. Using MINC, we train convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for two tasks: classifying materials from patches, and simultaneous material recognition and segmentation in full images. For patch-based classification on MINC we found that the best performing CNN architectures can achieve 85.2% mean class accuracy. We convert these trained CNN classifiers into an efficient fully convolutional framework combined with a fully connected conditional random field (CRF) to predict the material at every pixel in an image, achieving 73.1% mean class accuracy. Our experiments demonstrate that having a large, well-sampled dataset such as MINC is crucial for real-world material recognition and segmentation.
It is well known that contextual and multi-scale representations are important for accurate visual recognition. In this paper we present the Inside-Outside Net (ION), an object detector that exploits information both inside and outside the region of interest. Contextual information outside the region of interest is integrated using spatial recurrent neural networks. Inside, we use skip pooling to extract information at multiple scales and levels of abstraction. Through extensive experiments we evaluate the design space and provide readers with an overview of what tricks of the trade are important. ION improves state-of-the-art on PASCAL VOC 2012 object detection from 73.9% to 76.4% mAP. On the new and more challenging MS COCO dataset, we improve state-of-art-the from 19.7% to 33.1% mAP. In the 2015 MS COCO Detection Challenge, our ION model won the Best Student Entry and finished 3rd place overall. As intuition suggests, our detection results provide strong evidence that context and multi-scale representations improve small object detection.
Understanding fashion styles and trends is of great potential interest to retailers and consumers alike. The photos people upload to social media are a historical and public data source of how people dress across the world and at different times. While we now have tools to automatically recognize the clothing and style attributes of what people are wearing in these photographs, we lack the ability to analyze spatial and temporal trends in these attributes or make predictions about the future. In this paper, we address this need by providing an automatic framework that analyzes large corpora of street imagery to (a) discover and forecast long-term trends of various fashion attributes as well as automatically discovered styles, and (b) identify spatio-temporally localized events that affect what people wear. We show that our framework makes long term trend forecasts that are >20% more accurate than the prior art, and identifies hundreds of socially meaningful events that impact fashion across the globe.
We introduce inverse transport networks as a learning architecture for inverse rendering problems where, given input image measurements, we seek to infer physical scene parameters such as shape, material, and illumination. During training, these networks are evaluated not only in terms of how close they can predict groundtruth parameters, but also in terms of whether the parameters they produce can be used, together with physically-accurate graphics renderers, to reproduce the input image measurements. To en- able training of inverse transport networks using stochastic gradient descent, we additionally create a general-purpose, physically-accurate differentiable renderer, which can be used to estimate derivatives of images with respect to arbitrary physical scene parameters. Our experiments demonstrate that inverse transport networks can be trained efficiently using differentiable rendering, and that they generalize to scenes with completely unseen geometry and illumination better than networks trained without appearance- matching regularization.
With the rapid proliferation of smart mobile devices, users now take millions of photos every day. These include large numbers of clothing and accessory images. We would like to answer questions like `What outfit goes well with this pair of shoes?' To answer these types of questions, one has to go beyond learning visual similarity and learn a visual notion of compatibility across categories. In this paper, we propose a novel learning framework to help answer these types of questions. The main idea of this framework is to learn a feature transformation from images of items into a latent space that expresses compatibility. For the feature transformation, we use a Siamese Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture, where training examples are pairs of items that are either compatible or incompatible. We model compatibility based on co-occurrence in large-scale user behavior data; in particular co-purchase data from Amazon.com. To learn cross-category fit, we introduce a strategic method to sample training data, where pairs of items are heterogeneous dyads, i.e., the two elements of a pair belong to different high-level categories. While this approach is applicable to a wide variety of settings, we focus on the representative problem of learning compatible clothing style. Our results indicate that the proposed framework is capable of learning semantic information about visual style and is able to generate outfits of clothes, with items from different categories, that go well together.
We propose Deep Feature Interpolation (DFI), a new data-driven baseline for automatic high-resolution image transformation. As the name suggests, it relies only on simple linear interpolation of deep convolutional features from pre-trained convnets. We show that despite its simplicity, DFI can perform high-level semantic transformations like "make older/younger", "make bespectacled", "add smile", among others, surprisingly well - sometimes even matching or outperforming the state-of-the-art. This is particularly unexpected as DFI requires no specialized network architecture or even any deep network to be trained for these tasks. DFI therefore can be used as a new baseline to evaluate more complex algorithms and provides a practical answer to the question of which image transformation tasks are still challenging in the rise of deep learning.
Material understanding is critical for design, geometric modeling, and analysis of functional objects. We enable material-aware 3D shape analysis by employing a projective convolutional neural network architecture to learn material- aware descriptors from view-based representations of 3D points for point-wise material classification or material- aware retrieval. Unfortunately, only a small fraction of shapes in 3D repositories are labeled with physical mate- rials, posing a challenge for learning methods. To address this challenge, we crowdsource a dataset of 3080 3D shapes with part-wise material labels. We focus on furniture models which exhibit interesting structure and material variabil- ity. In addition, we also contribute a high-quality expert- labeled benchmark of 115 shapes from Herman-Miller and IKEA for evaluation. We further apply a mesh-aware con- ditional random field, which incorporates rotational and reflective symmetries, to smooth our local material predic- tions across neighboring surface patches. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our learned descriptors for automatic texturing, material-aware retrieval, and physical simulation. The dataset and code will be publicly available.
Many tasks in computer vision can be cast as a "label changing" problem, where the goal is to make a semantic change to the appearance of an image or some subject in an image in order to alter the class membership. Although successful task-specific methods have been developed for some label changing applications, to date no general purpose method exists. Motivated by this we propose deep manifold traversal, a method that addresses the problem in its most general form: it first approximates the manifold of natural images then morphs a test image along a traversal path away from a source class and towards a target class while staying near the manifold throughout. The resulting algorithm is surprisingly effective and versatile. It is completely data driven, requiring only an example set of images from the desired source and target domains. We demonstrate deep manifold traversal on highly diverse label changing tasks: changing an individual's appearance (age and hair color), changing the season of an outdoor image, and transforming a city skyline towards nighttime.