Models, code, and papers for "Lingxiao He":

Recognizing Partial Biometric Patterns

Oct 17, 2018
Lingxiao He, Zhenan Sun, Yuhao Zhu, Yunbo Wang

Biometric recognition on partial captured targets is challenging, where only several partial observations of objects are available for matching. In this area, deep learning based methods are widely applied to match these partial captured objects caused by occlusions, variations of postures or just partial out of view in person re-identification and partial face recognition. However, most current methods are not able to identify an individual in case that some parts of the object are not obtainable, while the rest are specialized to certain constrained scenarios. To this end, we propose a robust general framework for arbitrary biometric matching scenarios without the limitations of alignment as well as the size of inputs. We introduce a feature post-processing step to handle the feature maps from FCN and a dictionary learning based Spatial Feature Reconstruction (SFR) to match different sized feature maps in this work. Moreover, the batch hard triplet loss function is applied to optimize the model. The applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by the results from experiments on three person re-identification datasets (Market1501, CUHK03, DukeMTMC-reID), two partial person datasets (Partial REID and Partial iLIDS) and two partial face datasets (CASIA-NIR-Distance and Partial LFW), on which state-of-the-art performance is ensured in comparison with several state-of-the-art approaches. The code is released online and can be found on the website:

* 13 pages, 11 figures 

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PairNorm: Tackling Oversmoothing in GNNs

Sep 26, 2019
Lingxiao Zhao, Leman Akoglu

The performance of graph neural nets (GNNs) is known to gradually decrease with increasing number of layers. This decay is partly attributed to oversmoothing, where repeated graph convolutions eventually make node embeddings indistinguishable. We take a closer look at two different interpretations, aiming to quantify oversmoothing. Our main contribution is \method, a novel normalization layer that is based on a careful analysis of the graph convolution operator, which prevents all node embeddings from becoming too similar. What is more, \method is fast, easy to implement without any change to network architecture nor any additional parameters, and is broadly applicable to any GNN. Experiments on real-world graphs demonstrate that \method makes deeper GCN, GAT, and SGC models more robust against oversmoothing, and significantly boosts performance for a new problem setting that benefits from deeper GNNs.

* 15 pages 

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A Knowledge Transfer Framework for Differentially Private Sparse Learning

Sep 13, 2019
Lingxiao Wang, Quanquan Gu

We study the problem of estimating high dimensional models with underlying sparse structures while preserving the privacy of each training example. We develop a differentially private high-dimensional sparse learning framework using the idea of knowledge transfer. More specifically, we propose to distill the knowledge from a "teacher" estimator trained on a private dataset, by creating a new dataset from auxiliary features, and then train a differentially private "student" estimator using this new dataset. In addition, we establish the linear convergence rate as well as the utility guarantee for our proposed method. For sparse linear regression and sparse logistic regression, our method achieves improved utility guarantees compared with the best known results (Kifer et al., 2012; Wang and Gu, 2019). We further demonstrate the superiority of our framework through both synthetic and real-world data experiments.

* 24 pages, 2 figures, 3 tables 

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Stable and Fair Classification

Feb 26, 2019
Lingxiao Huang, Nisheeth K. Vishnoi

Fair classification has been a topic of intense study in machine learning, and several algorithms have been proposed towards this important task. However, in a recent study, Friedler et al. observed that fair classification algorithms may not be stable with respect to variations in the training dataset -- a crucial consideration in several real-world applications. Motivated by their work, we study the problem of designing classification algorithms that are both fair and stable. We propose an extended framework based on fair classification algorithms that are formulated as optimization problems, by introducing a stability-focused regularization term. Theoretically, we prove a stability guarantee, that was lacking in fair classification algorithms, and also provide an accuracy guarantee for our extended framework. Our accuracy guarantee can be used to inform the selection of the regularization parameter in our framework. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that combines stability and fairness in automated decision-making tasks. We assess the benefits of our approach empirically by extending several fair classification algorithms that are shown to achieve the best balance between fairness and accuracy over the Adult dataset. Our empirical results show that our framework indeed improves the stability at only a slight sacrifice in accuracy.

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Adversarial Occlusion-aware Face Detection

Sep 29, 2018
Yujia Chen, Lingxiao Song, Ran He

Occluded face detection is a challenging detection task due to the large appearance variations incurred by various real-world occlusions. This paper introduces an Adversarial Occlusion-aware Face Detector (AOFD) by simultaneously detecting occluded faces and segmenting occluded areas. Specifically, we employ an adversarial training strategy to generate occlusion-like face features that are difficult for a face detector to recognize. Occlusion mask is predicted simultaneously while detecting occluded faces and the occluded area is utilized as an auxiliary instead of being regarded as a hindrance. Moreover, the supervisory signals from the segmentation branch will reversely affect the features, aiding in detecting heavily-occluded faces accordingly. Consequently, AOFD is able to find the faces with few exposed facial landmarks with very high confidences and keeps high detection accuracy even for masked faces. Extensive experiments demonstrate that AOFD not only significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods on the MAFA occluded face detection dataset, but also achieves competitive detection accuracy on benchmark dataset for general face detection such as FDDB.

* Accepted by ACPR2018 

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Video-based Person Re-identification via 3D Convolutional Networks and Non-local Attention

Jul 18, 2018
Xingyu Liao, Lingxiao He, Zhouwang Yang

Video-based person re-identification (ReID) is a challenging problem, where some video tracks of people across non-overlapping cameras are available for matching. Feature aggregation from a video track is a key step for video-based person ReID. Many existing methods tackle this problem by average/maximum temporal pooling or RNNs with attention. However, these methods cannot deal with temporal dependency and spatial misalignment problems at the same time. We are inspired by video action recognition that involves the identification of different actions from video tracks. Firstly, we use 3D convolutions on video volume, instead of using 2D convolutions across frames, to extract spatial and temporal features simultaneously. Secondly, we use a non-local block to tackle the misalignment problem and capture spatial-temporal long-range dependencies. As a result, the network can learn useful spatial-temporal information as a weighted sum of the features in all space and temporal positions in the input feature map. Experimental results on three datasets show that our framework outperforms state-of-the-art approaches by a large margin on multiple metrics.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1805.02104, arXiv:1711.07971, arXiv:1803.09882 by other authors 

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DeepDeblur: Fast one-step blurry face images restoration

Nov 27, 2017
Lingxiao Wang, Yali Li, Shengjin Wang

We propose a very fast and effective one-step restoring method for blurry face images. In the last decades, many blind deblurring algorithms have been proposed to restore latent sharp images. However, these algorithms run slowly because of involving two steps: kernel estimation and following non-blind deconvolution or latent image estimation. Also they cannot handle face images in small size. Our proposed method restores sharp face images directly in one step using Convolutional Neural Network. Unlike previous deep learning involved methods that can only handle a single blur kernel at one time, our network is trained on totally random and numerous training sample pairs to deal with the variances due to different blur kernels in practice. A smoothness regularization as well as a facial regularization are added to keep facial identity information which is the key to face image applications. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed method can handle various blur kenels and achieve state-of-the-art results for small size blurry face images restoration. Moreover, the proposed method shows significant improvement in face recognition accuracy along with increasing running speed by more than 100 times.

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A Quest for Structure: Jointly Learning the Graph Structure and Semi-Supervised Classification

Sep 26, 2019
Xuan Wu, Lingxiao Zhao, Leman Akoglu

Semi-supervised learning (SSL) is effectively used for numerous classification problems, thanks to its ability to make use of abundant unlabeled data. The main assumption of various SSL algorithms is that the nearby points on the data manifold are likely to share a label. Graph-based SSL constructs a graph from point-cloud data as an approximation to the underlying manifold, followed by label inference. It is no surprise that the quality of the constructed graph in capturing the essential structure of the data is critical to the accuracy of the subsequent inference step [6]. How should one construct a graph from the input point-cloud data for graph-based SSL? In this work we introduce a new, parallel graph learning framework (called PG-learn) for the graph construction step of SSL. Our solution has two main ingredients: (1) a gradient-based optimization of the edge weights (more specifically, different kernel bandwidths in each dimension) based on a validation loss function, and (2) a parallel hyperparameter search algorithm with an adaptive resource allocation scheme. In essence, (1) allows us to search around a (random) initial hyperparameter configuration for a better one with lower validation loss. Since the search space of hyperparameters is huge for high-dimensional problems, (2) empowers our gradient-based search to go through as many different initial configurations as possible, where runs for relatively unpromising starting configurations are terminated early to allocate the time for others. As such, PG-learn is a carefully-designed hybrid of random and adaptive search. Through experiments on multi-class classification problems, we show that PG-learn significantly outperforms a variety of existing graph construction schemes in accuracy (per fixed time budget for hyperparameter tuning), and scales more effectively to high dimensional problems.

* 11 pages, CIKM-2018 

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Hierarchical Learning of Cross-Language Mappings through Distributed Vector Representations for Code

Mar 13, 2018
Nghi D. Q. Bui, Lingxiao Jiang

Translating a program written in one programming language to another can be useful for software development tasks that need functionality implementations in different languages. Although past studies have considered this problem, they may be either specific to the language grammars, or specific to certain kinds of code elements (e.g., tokens, phrases, API uses). This paper proposes a new approach to automatically learn cross-language representations for various kinds of structural code elements that may be used for program translation. Our key idea is two folded: First, we normalize and enrich code token streams with additional structural and semantic information, and train cross-language vector representations for the tokens (a.k.a. shared embeddings based on word2vec, a neural-network-based technique for producing word embeddings; Second, hierarchically from bottom up, we construct shared embeddings for code elements of higher levels of granularity (e.g., expressions, statements, methods) from the embeddings for their constituents, and then build mappings among code elements across languages based on similarities among embeddings. Our preliminary evaluations on about 40,000 Java and C# source files from 9 software projects show that our approach can automatically learn shared embeddings for various code elements in different languages and identify their cross-language mappings with reasonable Mean Average Precision scores. When compared with an existing tool for mapping library API methods, our approach identifies many more mappings accurately. The mapping results and code can be accessed at We believe that our idea for learning cross-language vector representations with code structural information can be a useful step towards automated program translation.

* Accepted at ICSE'18 

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A Unified Framework for Low-Rank plus Sparse Matrix Recovery

Feb 20, 2018
Xiao Zhang, Lingxiao Wang, Quanquan Gu

We propose a unified framework to solve general low-rank plus sparse matrix recovery problems based on matrix factorization, which covers a broad family of objective functions satisfying the restricted strong convexity and smoothness conditions. Based on projected gradient descent and the double thresholding operator, our proposed generic algorithm is guaranteed to converge to the unknown low-rank and sparse matrices at a locally linear rate, while matching the best-known robustness guarantee (i.e., tolerance for sparsity). At the core of our theory is a novel structural Lipschitz gradient condition for low-rank plus sparse matrices, which is essential for proving the linear convergence rate of our algorithm, and we believe is of independent interest to prove fast rates for general superposition-structured models. We illustrate the application of our framework through two concrete examples: robust matrix sensing and robust PCA. Experiments on both synthetic and real datasets corroborate our theory.

* 49 pages, 3 figures, 3 tables 

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SVM via Saddle Point Optimization: New Bounds and Distributed Algorithms

Jan 28, 2018
Yifei Jin, Lingxiao Huang, Jian Li

We study two important SVM variants: hard-margin SVM (for linearly separable cases) and $\nu$-SVM (for linearly non-separable cases). We propose new algorithms from the perspective of saddle point optimization. Our algorithms achieve $(1-\epsilon)$-approximations with running time $\tilde{O}(nd+n\sqrt{d / \epsilon})$ for both variants, where $n$ is the number of points and $d$ is the dimensionality. To the best of our knowledge, the current best algorithm for $\nu$-SVM is based on quadratic programming approach which requires $\Omega(n^2 d)$ time in worst case~\cite{joachims1998making,platt199912}. In the paper, we provide the first nearly linear time algorithm for $\nu$-SVM. The current best algorithm for hard margin SVM achieved by Gilbert algorithm~\cite{gartner2009coresets} requires $O(nd / \epsilon )$ time. Our algorithm improves the running time by a factor of $\sqrt{d}/\sqrt{\epsilon}$. Moreover, our algorithms can be implemented in the distributed settings naturally. We prove that our algorithms require $\tilde{O}(k(d +\sqrt{d/\epsilon}))$ communication cost, where $k$ is the number of clients, which almost matches the theoretical lower bound. Numerical experiments support our theory and show that our algorithms converge faster on high dimensional, large and dense data sets, as compared to previous methods.

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A Universal Variance Reduction-Based Catalyst for Nonconvex Low-Rank Matrix Recovery

Jan 19, 2017
Lingxiao Wang, Xiao Zhang, Quanquan Gu

We propose a generic framework based on a new stochastic variance-reduced gradient descent algorithm for accelerating nonconvex low-rank matrix recovery. Starting from an appropriate initial estimator, our proposed algorithm performs projected gradient descent based on a novel semi-stochastic gradient specifically designed for low-rank matrix recovery. Based upon the mild restricted strong convexity and smoothness conditions, we derive a projected notion of the restricted Lipschitz continuous gradient property, and prove that our algorithm enjoys linear convergence rate to the unknown low-rank matrix with an improved computational complexity. Moreover, our algorithm can be employed to both noiseless and noisy observations, where the optimal sample complexity and the minimax optimal statistical rate can be attained respectively. We further illustrate the superiority of our generic framework through several specific examples, both theoretically and experimentally.

* 42 pages, 3 figures 

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Stochastic Variance-reduced Gradient Descent for Low-rank Matrix Recovery from Linear Measurements

Jan 16, 2017
Xiao Zhang, Lingxiao Wang, Quanquan Gu

We study the problem of estimating low-rank matrices from linear measurements (a.k.a., matrix sensing) through nonconvex optimization. We propose an efficient stochastic variance reduced gradient descent algorithm to solve a nonconvex optimization problem of matrix sensing. Our algorithm is applicable to both noisy and noiseless settings. In the case with noisy observations, we prove that our algorithm converges to the unknown low-rank matrix at a linear rate up to the minimax optimal statistical error. And in the noiseless setting, our algorithm is guaranteed to linearly converge to the unknown low-rank matrix and achieves exact recovery with optimal sample complexity. Most notably, the overall computational complexity of our proposed algorithm, which is defined as the iteration complexity times per iteration time complexity, is lower than the state-of-the-art algorithms based on gradient descent. Experiments on synthetic data corroborate the superiority of the proposed algorithm over the state-of-the-art algorithms.

* 24 pages, 1 table, 1 figure 

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A Unified Computational and Statistical Framework for Nonconvex Low-Rank Matrix Estimation

Oct 17, 2016
Lingxiao Wang, Xiao Zhang, Quanquan Gu

We propose a unified framework for estimating low-rank matrices through nonconvex optimization based on gradient descent algorithm. Our framework is quite general and can be applied to both noisy and noiseless observations. In the general case with noisy observations, we show that our algorithm is guaranteed to linearly converge to the unknown low-rank matrix up to minimax optimal statistical error, provided an appropriate initial estimator. While in the generic noiseless setting, our algorithm converges to the unknown low-rank matrix at a linear rate and enables exact recovery with optimal sample complexity. In addition, we develop a new initialization algorithm to provide a desired initial estimator, which outperforms existing initialization algorithms for nonconvex low-rank matrix estimation. We illustrate the superiority of our framework through three examples: matrix regression, matrix completion, and one-bit matrix completion. We also corroborate our theory through extensive experiments on synthetic data.

* 33 pages, 3 figures 

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Neural Policy Gradient Methods: Global Optimality and Rates of Convergence

Oct 07, 2019
Lingxiao Wang, Qi Cai, Zhuoran Yang, Zhaoran Wang

Policy gradient methods with actor-critic schemes demonstrate tremendous empirical successes, especially when the actors and critics are parameterized by neural networks. However, it remains less clear whether such "neural" policy gradient methods converge to globally optimal policies and whether they even converge at all. We answer both the questions affirmatively in the overparameterized regime. In detail, we prove that neural natural policy gradient converges to a globally optimal policy at a sublinear rate. Also, we show that neural vanilla policy gradient converges sublinearly to a stationary point. Meanwhile, by relating the suboptimality of the stationary points to the representation power of neural actor and critic classes, we prove the global optimality of all stationary points under mild regularity conditions. Particularly, we show that a key to the global optimality and convergence is the "compatibility" between the actor and critic, which is ensured by sharing neural architectures and random initializations across the actor and critic. To the best of our knowledge, our analysis establishes the first global optimality and convergence guarantees for neural policy gradient methods.

* 70 pages. The first two authors contribute equally 

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Deep Spatial Feature Reconstruction for Partial Person Re-identification: Alignment-Free Approach

Sep 04, 2018
Lingxiao He, Jian Liang, Haiqing Li, Zhenan Sun

Partial person re-identification (re-id) is a challenging problem, where only several partial observations (images) of people are available for matching. However, few studies have provided flexible solutions to identifying a person in an image containing arbitrary part of the body. In this paper, we propose a fast and accurate matching method to address this problem. The proposed method leverages Fully Convolutional Network (FCN) to generate fix-sized spatial feature maps such that pixel-level features are consistent. To match a pair of person images of different sizes, a novel method called Deep Spatial feature Reconstruction (DSR) is further developed to avoid explicit alignment. Specifically, DSR exploits the reconstructing error from popular dictionary learning models to calculate the similarity between different spatial feature maps. In that way, we expect that the proposed FCN can decrease the similarity of coupled images from different persons and increase that from the same person. Experimental results on two partial person datasets demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method in comparison with several state-of-the-art partial person re-id approaches. Additionally, DSR achieves competitive results on a benchmark person dataset Market1501 with 83.58\% Rank-1 accuracy.

* 8 pages, 11 figures, accepted by CVPR 2018 

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Coupled Deep Learning for Heterogeneous Face Recognition

Nov 16, 2017
Xiang Wu, Lingxiao Song, Ran He, Tieniu Tan

Heterogeneous face matching is a challenge issue in face recognition due to large domain difference as well as insufficient pairwise images in different modalities during training. This paper proposes a coupled deep learning (CDL) approach for the heterogeneous face matching. CDL seeks a shared feature space in which the heterogeneous face matching problem can be approximately treated as a homogeneous face matching problem. The objective function of CDL mainly includes two parts. The first part contains a trace norm and a block-diagonal prior as relevance constraints, which not only make unpaired images from multiple modalities be clustered and correlated, but also regularize the parameters to alleviate overfitting. An approximate variational formulation is introduced to deal with the difficulties of optimizing low-rank constraint directly. The second part contains a cross modal ranking among triplet domain specific images to maximize the margin for different identities and increase data for a small amount of training samples. Besides, an alternating minimization method is employed to iteratively update the parameters of CDL. Experimental results show that CDL achieves better performance on the challenging CASIA NIR-VIS 2.0 face recognition database, the IIIT-D Sketch database, the CUHK Face Sketch (CUFS), and the CUHK Face Sketch FERET (CUFSF), which significantly outperforms state-of-the-art heterogeneous face recognition methods.

* AAAI 2018 

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Adversarial Discriminative Heterogeneous Face Recognition

Sep 12, 2017
Lingxiao Song, Man Zhang, Xiang Wu, Ran He

The gap between sensing patterns of different face modalities remains a challenging problem in heterogeneous face recognition (HFR). This paper proposes an adversarial discriminative feature learning framework to close the sensing gap via adversarial learning on both raw-pixel space and compact feature space. This framework integrates cross-spectral face hallucination and discriminative feature learning into an end-to-end adversarial network. In the pixel space, we make use of generative adversarial networks to perform cross-spectral face hallucination. An elaborate two-path model is introduced to alleviate the lack of paired images, which gives consideration to both global structures and local textures. In the feature space, an adversarial loss and a high-order variance discrepancy loss are employed to measure the global and local discrepancy between two heterogeneous distributions respectively. These two losses enhance domain-invariant feature learning and modality independent noise removing. Experimental results on three NIR-VIS databases show that our proposed approach outperforms state-of-the-art HFR methods, without requiring of complex network or large-scale training dataset.

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