Models, code, and papers for "Liting Sun":
Accurately predicting future behaviors of surrounding vehicles is an essential capability for autonomous vehicles in order to plan safe and feasible trajectories. The behaviors of others, however, are full of uncertainties. Both rational and irrational behaviors exist, and the autonomous vehicles need to be aware of this in their prediction module. The prediction module is also expected to generate reasonable results in the presence of unseen and corner scenarios. Two types of prediction models are typically used to solve the prediction problem: learning-based model and planning-based model. Learning-based model utilizes real driving data to model the human behaviors. Depending on the structure of the data, learning-based models can predict both rational and irrational behaviors. But the balance between them cannot be customized, which creates challenges in generalizing the prediction results. Planning-based model, on the other hand, usually assumes human as a rational agent, i.e., it anticipates only rational behavior of human drivers. In this paper, a generic prediction architecture is proposed to address various rationalities in human behavior. We leverage the advantages from both learning-based and planning-based prediction models. The proposed approach is able to predict continuous trajectories that well-reflect possible future situations of other drivers. Moreover, the prediction performance remains stable under various unseen driving scenarios. A case study under a real-world roundabout scenario is provided to demonstrate the performance and capability of the proposed prediction architecture.
Human robot collaboration (HRC) is becoming increasingly important as the paradigm of manufacturing is shifting from mass production to mass customization. The introduction of HRC can significantly improve the flexibility and intelligence of automation. However, due to the stochastic and time-varying nature of human collaborators, it is challenging for the robot to efficiently and accurately identify the plan of human and respond in a safe manner. To address this challenge, we propose an integrated human robot collaboration framework in this paper which includes both plan recognition and trajectory prediction. Such a framework enables the robots to perceive, predict and adapt their actions to the human's plan and intelligently avoid collisions with the human based on the predicted human trajectory. Moreover, by explicitly leveraging the hierarchical relationship between the plan and trajectories, more robust plan recognition performance can be achieved. Experiments are conducted on an industrial robot to verify the proposed framework, which shows that our proposed framework can not only assure safe HRC, but also improve the time efficiency of the HRC team, and the plan recognition module is not sensitive to noises.
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are on the road. To safely and efficiently interact with other road participants, AVs have to accurately predict the behavior of surrounding vehicles and plan accordingly. Such prediction should be probabilistic, to address the uncertainties in human behavior. Such prediction should also be interactive, since the distribution over all possible trajectories of the predicted vehicle depends not only on historical information, but also on future plans of other vehicles that interact with it. To achieve such interaction-aware predictions, we propose a probabilistic prediction approach based on hierarchical inverse reinforcement learning (IRL). First, we explicitly consider the hierarchical trajectory-generation process of human drivers involving both discrete and continuous driving decisions. Based on this, the distribution over all future trajectories of the predicted vehicle is formulated as a mixture of distributions partitioned by the discrete decisions. Then we apply IRL hierarchically to learn the distributions from real human demonstrations. A case study for the ramp-merging driving scenario is provided. The quantitative results show that the proposed approach can accurately predict both the discrete driving decisions such as yield or pass as well as the continuous trajectories.
Human motion prediction is non-trivial in modern industrial settings. Accurate prediction of human motion can not only improve efficiency in human robot collaboration, but also enhance human safety in close proximity to robots. Among existing prediction models, the parameterization and identification methods of those models vary. It remains unclear what is the necessary parameterization of a prediction model, whether online adaptation of the model is necessary, and whether prediction can help improve safety and efficiency during human robot collaboration. These problems result from the difficulty to quantitatively evaluate various prediction models in a closed-loop fashion in real human-robot interaction settings. This paper develops a method to evaluate the closed-loop performance of different prediction models. In particular, we compare models with different parameterizations and models with or without online parameter adaptation. Extensive experiments were conducted on a human robot collaboration platform. The experimental results demonstrated that human motion prediction significantly enhanced the collaboration efficiency and human safety. Adaptable prediction models that were parameterized by neural networks achieved the best performance.
Simulation has long been an essential part of testing autonomous driving systems, but only recently has simulation been useful for building and training self-driving vehicles. Vehicle behavioural models are necessary to simulate the interactions between robot cars. This paper proposed a new method to formalize the lane-changing model in urban driving scenarios. We define human incentives from different perspectives, speed incentive, route change incentive, comfort incentive and courtesy incentive etc. We applied a decision-theoretical tool, called Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) to take these incentive policies into account. The strategy of combination is according to different driving style which varies for each driving. Thus a lane-changing decision selection algorithm is proposed. Not only our method allows for varying the motivation of lane-changing from the purely egoistic desire to a more courtesy concern, but also they can mimic drivers' state, inattentive or concentrate, which influences their driving Behaviour. We define some cost functions and calibrate the parameters with different scenarios of traffic data. Distinguishing driving styles are used to aggregate decision-makers' assessments about various criteria weightings to obtain the action drivers desire most. Our result demonstrates the proposed method can produce varied lane-changing behaviour. Unlike other lane-changing models based on artificial intelligence methods, our model has more flexible controllability.
Understanding human driving behavior is important for autonomous vehicles. In this paper, we propose an interpretable human behavior model in interactive driving scenarios based on the cumulative prospect theory (CPT). As a non-expected utility theory, CPT can well explain some systematically biased or ``irrational'' behavior/decisions of human that cannot be explained by the expected utility theory. Hence, the goal of this work is to formulate the human drivers' behavior generation model with CPT so that some ``irrational'' behavior or decisions of human can be better captured and predicted. Towards such a goal, we first develop a CPT-driven decision-making model focusing on driving scenarios with two interacting agents. A hierarchical learning algorithm is proposed afterward to learn the utility function, the value function, and the decision weighting function in the CPT model. A case study for roundabout merging is also provided as verification. With real driving data, the prediction performances of three different models are compared: a predefined model based on time-to-collision (TTC), a learning-based model based on neural networks, and the proposed CPT-based model. The results show that the proposed model outperforms the TTC model and achieves similar performance as the learning-based model with much less training data and better interpretability.
For safe and efficient planning and control in autonomous driving, we need a driving policy which can achieve desirable driving quality in long-term horizon with guaranteed safety and feasibility. Optimization-based approaches, such as Model Predictive Control (MPC), can provide such optimal policies, but their computational complexity is generally unacceptable for real-time implementation. To address this problem, we propose a fast integrated planning and control framework that combines learning- and optimization-based approaches in a two-layer hierarchical structure. The first layer, defined as the "policy layer", is established by a neural network which learns the long-term optimal driving policy generated by MPC. The second layer, called the "execution layer", is a short-term optimization-based controller that tracks the reference trajecotries given by the "policy layer" with guaranteed short-term safety and feasibility. Moreover, with efficient and highly-representative features, a small-size neural network is sufficient in the "policy layer" to handle many complicated driving scenarios. This renders online imitation learning with Dataset Aggregation (DAgger) so that the performance of the "policy layer" can be improved rapidly and continuously online. Several exampled driving scenarios are demonstrated to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed framework.
Autonomous cars have to navigate in dynamic environment which can be full of uncertainties. The uncertainties can come either from sensor limitations such as occlusions and limited sensor range, or from probabilistic prediction of other road participants, or from unknown social behavior in a new area. To safely and efficiently drive in the presence of these uncertainties, the decision-making and planning modules of autonomous cars should intelligently utilize all available information and appropriately tackle the uncertainties so that proper driving strategies can be generated. In this paper, we propose a social perception scheme which treats all road participants as distributed sensors in a sensor network. By observing the individual behaviors as well as the group behaviors, uncertainties of the three types can be updated uniformly in a belief space. The updated beliefs from the social perception are then explicitly incorporated into a probabilistic planning framework based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). The cost function of the MPC is learned via inverse reinforcement learning (IRL). Such an integrated probabilistic planning module with socially enhanced perception enables the autonomous vehicles to generate behaviors which are defensive but not overly conservative, and socially compatible. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is verified in simulation on an representative scenario with sensor occlusions.
Typically, autonomous cars optimize for a combination of safety, efficiency, and driving quality. But as we get better at this optimization, we start seeing behavior go from too conservative to too aggressive. The car's behavior exposes the incentives we provide in its cost function. In this work, we argue for cars that are not optimizing a purely selfish cost, but also try to be courteous to other interactive drivers. We formalize courtesy as a term in the objective that measures the increase in another driver's cost induced by the autonomous car's behavior. Such a courtesy term enables the robot car to be aware of possible irrationality of the human behavior, and plan accordingly. We analyze the effect of courtesy in a variety of scenarios. We find, for example, that courteous robot cars leave more space when merging in front of a human driver. Moreover, we find that such a courtesy term can help explain real human driver behavior on the NGSIM dataset.
In the modern content-based image retrieval systems, there is an increasingly interest in constructing a computationally effective model to predict the interestingness of images since the measure of image interestingness could improve the human-centered search satisfaction and the user experience in different applications. In this paper, we propose a unified framework to predict the binary interestingness of images based on discriminant correlation analysis (DCA) and multiple kernel learning (MKL) techniques. More specially, on the one hand, to reduce feature redundancy in describing the interestingness cues of images, the DCA or multi-set discriminant correlation analysis (MDCA) technique is adopted to fuse multiple feature sets of the same type for individual cues by taking into account the class structure among the samples involved to describe the three classical interestingness cues, unusualness,aesthetics as well as general preferences, with three sets of compact and representative features; on the other hand, to make good use of the heterogeneity from the three sets of high-level features for describing the interestingness cues, the SimpleMKL method is employed to enhance the generalization ability of the built model for the task of the binary interestingness classification. Experimental results on the publicly-released interestingness prediction data set have demonstrated the rationality and effectiveness of the proposed framework in the binary prediction of image interestingness where we have conducted several groups of comparative studies across different interestingness feature combinations, different interestingness cues, as well as different feature types for the three interestingness cues.
Autonomous vehicles should be able to generate accurate probabilistic predictions for uncertain behavior of other road users. Moreover, reactive predictions are necessary in highly interactive driving scenarios to answer "what if I take this action in the future" for autonomous vehicles. There is no existing unified framework to homogenize the problem formulation, representation simplification, and evaluation metric for various prediction methods, such as probabilistic graphical models (PGM), neural networks (NN) and inverse reinforcement learning (IRL). In this paper, we formulate a probabilistic reaction prediction problem, and reveal the relationship between reaction and situation prediction problems. We employ prototype trajectories with designated motion patterns other than "intention" to homogenize the representation so that probabilities corresponding to each trajectory generated by different methods can be evaluated. We also discuss the reasons why "intention" is not suitable to serve as a motion indicator in highly interactive scenarios. We propose to use Brier score as the baseline metric for evaluation. In order to reveal the fatality of the consequences when the predictions are adopted by decision-making and planning, we propose a fatality-aware metric, which is a weighted Brier score based on the criticality of the trajectory pairs of the interacting entities. Conservatism and non-defensiveness are defined from the weighted Brier score to indicate the consequences caused by inaccurate predictions. Modified methods based on PGM, NN and IRL are provided to generate probabilistic reaction predictions in an exemplar scenario of nudging from a highway ramp. The results are evaluated by the baseline and proposed metrics to construct a mini benchmark. Analysis on the properties of each method is also provided by comparing the baseline and proposed metric scores.
Behavior-related research areas such as motion prediction/planning, representation/imitation learning, behavior modeling/generation, and algorithm testing, require support from high-quality motion datasets containing interactive driving scenarios with different driving cultures. In this paper, we present an INTERnational, Adversarial and Cooperative moTION dataset (INTERACTION dataset) in interactive driving scenarios with semantic maps. Five features of the dataset are highlighted. 1) The interactive driving scenarios are diverse, including urban/highway/ramp merging and lane changes, roundabouts with yield/stop signs, signalized intersections, intersections with one/two/all-way stops, etc. 2) Motion data from different countries and different continents are collected so that driving preferences and styles in different cultures are naturally included. 3) The driving behavior is highly interactive and complex with adversarial and cooperative motions of various traffic participants. Highly complex behavior such as negotiations, aggressive/irrational decisions and traffic rule violations are densely contained in the dataset, while regular behavior can also be found from cautious car-following, stop, left/right/U-turn to rational lane-change and cycling and pedestrian crossing, etc. 4) The levels of criticality span wide, from regular safe operations to dangerous, near-collision maneuvers. Real collision, although relatively slight, is also included. 5) Maps with complete semantic information are provided with physical layers, reference lines, lanelet connections and traffic rules. The data is recorded from drones and traffic cameras. Statistics of the dataset in terms of number of entities and interaction density are also provided, along with some utilization examples in a variety of behavior-related research areas. The dataset can be downloaded via https://interaction-dataset.com.