Models, code, and papers for "Mark Neumann":

Learning to Reason With Adaptive Computation

Nov 10, 2016
Mark Neumann, Pontus Stenetorp, Sebastian Riedel

Multi-hop inference is necessary for machine learning systems to successfully solve tasks such as Recognising Textual Entailment and Machine Reading. In this work, we demonstrate the effectiveness of adaptive computation for learning the number of inference steps required for examples of different complexity and that learning the correct number of inference steps is difficult. We introduce the first model involving Adaptive Computation Time which provides a small performance benefit on top of a similar model without an adaptive component as well as enabling considerable insight into the reasoning process of the model.

* Presented at NIPS 2016 Workshop on Interpretable Machine Learning in Complex Systems 

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ScispaCy: Fast and Robust Models for Biomedical Natural Language Processing

Feb 21, 2019
Mark Neumann, Daniel King, Iz Beltagy, Waleed Ammar

Despite recent advances in natural language processing, many statistical models for processing text perform extremely poorly under domain shift. Processing biomedical and clinical text is a critically important application area of natural language processing, for which there are few robust, practical, publicly available models. This paper describes scispaCy, a new tool for practical biomedical/scientific text processing, which heavily leverages the spaCy library. We detail the performance of two packages of models released in scispaCy and demonstrate their robustness on several tasks and datasets. Models and code are available at

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Transfer Learning versus Multi-agent Learning regarding Distributed Decision-Making in Highway Traffic

Oct 19, 2018
Mark Schutera, Niklas Goby, Dirk Neumann, Markus Reischl

Transportation and traffic are currently undergoing a rapid increase in terms of both scale and complexity. At the same time, an increasing share of traffic participants are being transformed into agents driven or supported by artificial intelligence resulting in mixed-intelligence traffic. This work explores the implications of distributed decision-making in mixed-intelligence traffic. The investigations are carried out on the basis of an online-simulated highway scenario, namely the MIT \emph{DeepTraffic} simulation. In the first step traffic agents are trained by means of a deep reinforcement learning approach, being deployed inside an elitist evolutionary algorithm for hyperparameter search. The resulting architectures and training parameters are then utilized in order to either train a single autonomous traffic agent and transfer the learned weights onto a multi-agent scenario or else to conduct multi-agent learning directly. Both learning strategies are evaluated on different ratios of mixed-intelligence traffic. The strategies are assessed according to the average speed of all agents driven by artificial intelligence. Traffic patterns that provoke a reduction in traffic flow are analyzed with respect to the different strategies.

* CEUR Workshop Proceedings 2018 
* Proc. of the 10th International Workshop on Agents in Traffic and Transportation (ATT 2018), co-located with ECAI/IJCAI, AAMAS and ICML 2018 conferences (FAIM 2018) 

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Grammar-based Neural Text-to-SQL Generation

May 30, 2019
Kevin Lin, Ben Bogin, Mark Neumann, Jonathan Berant, Matt Gardner

The sequence-to-sequence paradigm employed by neural text-to-SQL models typically performs token-level decoding and does not consider generating SQL hierarchically from a grammar. Grammar-based decoding has shown significant improvements for other semantic parsing tasks, but SQL and other general programming languages have complexities not present in logical formalisms that make writing hierarchical grammars difficult. We introduce techniques to handle these complexities, showing how to construct a schema-dependent grammar with minimal over-generation. We analyze these techniques on ATIS and Spider, two challenging text-to-SQL datasets, demonstrating that they yield 14--18\% relative reductions in error.

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Dissecting Contextual Word Embeddings: Architecture and Representation

Sep 27, 2018
Matthew E. Peters, Mark Neumann, Luke Zettlemoyer, Wen-tau Yih

Contextual word representations derived from pre-trained bidirectional language models (biLMs) have recently been shown to provide significant improvements to the state of the art for a wide range of NLP tasks. However, many questions remain as to how and why these models are so effective. In this paper, we present a detailed empirical study of how the choice of neural architecture (e.g. LSTM, CNN, or self attention) influences both end task accuracy and qualitative properties of the representations that are learned. We show there is a tradeoff between speed and accuracy, but all architectures learn high quality contextual representations that outperform word embeddings for four challenging NLP tasks. Additionally, all architectures learn representations that vary with network depth, from exclusively morphological based at the word embedding layer through local syntax based in the lower contextual layers to longer range semantics such coreference at the upper layers. Together, these results suggest that unsupervised biLMs, independent of architecture, are learning much more about the structure of language than previously appreciated.

* EMNLP 2018 

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GORC: A large contextual citation graph of academic papers

Nov 07, 2019
Kyle Lo, Lucy Lu Wang, Mark Neumann, Rodney Kinney, Dan S. Weld

We introduce the Semantic Scholar Graph of References in Context (GORC), a large contextual citation graph of 81.1M academic publications, including parsed full text for 8.1M open access papers, across broad domains of science. Each paper is represented with rich paper metadata (title, authors, abstract, etc.), and where available: cleaned full text, section headers, figure and table captions, and parsed bibliography entries. In-line citation mentions in full text are linked to their corresponding bibliography entries, which are in turn linked to in-corpus cited papers, forming the edges of a contextual citation graph. To our knowledge, this is the largest publicly available contextual citation graph; the full text alone is the largest parsed academic text corpus publicly available. We demonstrate the ability to identify similar papers using these citation contexts and propose several applications for language modeling and citation-related tasks.

* 12 pages, 2 figures, 5 appendices 

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Ontology Alignment in the Biomedical Domain Using Entity Definitions and Context

Jun 20, 2018
Lucy Lu Wang, Chandra Bhagavatula, Mark Neumann, Kyle Lo, Chris Wilhelm, Waleed Ammar

Ontology alignment is the task of identifying semantically equivalent entities from two given ontologies. Different ontologies have different representations of the same entity, resulting in a need to de-duplicate entities when merging ontologies. We propose a method for enriching entities in an ontology with external definition and context information, and use this additional information for ontology alignment. We develop a neural architecture capable of encoding the additional information when available, and show that the addition of external data results in an F1-score of 0.69 on the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) largebio SNOMED-NCI subtask, comparable with the entity-level matchers in a SOTA system.

* ACL 2018 BioNLP workshop 

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Deep contextualized word representations

Mar 22, 2018
Matthew E. Peters, Mark Neumann, Mohit Iyyer, Matt Gardner, Christopher Clark, Kenton Lee, Luke Zettlemoyer

We introduce a new type of deep contextualized word representation that models both (1) complex characteristics of word use (e.g., syntax and semantics), and (2) how these uses vary across linguistic contexts (i.e., to model polysemy). Our word vectors are learned functions of the internal states of a deep bidirectional language model (biLM), which is pre-trained on a large text corpus. We show that these representations can be easily added to existing models and significantly improve the state of the art across six challenging NLP problems, including question answering, textual entailment and sentiment analysis. We also present an analysis showing that exposing the deep internals of the pre-trained network is crucial, allowing downstream models to mix different types of semi-supervision signals.

* NAACL 2018. Originally posted to openreview 27 Oct 2017. v2 updated for NAACL camera ready 

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Knowledge Enhanced Contextual Word Representations

Sep 09, 2019
Matthew E. Peters, Mark Neumann, Robert L. Logan IV, Roy Schwartz, Vidur Joshi, Sameer Singh, Noah A. Smith

Contextual word representations, typically trained on unstructured, unlabeled text, do not contain any explicit grounding to real world entities and are often unable to remember facts about those entities. We propose a general method to embed multiple knowledge bases (KBs) into large scale models, and thereby enhance their representations with structured, human-curated knowledge. For each KB, we first use an integrated entity linker to retrieve relevant entity embeddings, then update contextual word representations via a form of word-to-entity attention. In contrast to previous approaches, the entity linkers and self-supervised language modeling objective are jointly trained end-to-end in a multitask setting that combines a small amount of entity linking supervision with a large amount of raw text. After integrating WordNet and a subset of Wikipedia into BERT, the knowledge enhanced BERT (KnowBert) demonstrates improved perplexity, ability to recall facts as measured in a probing task and downstream performance on relationship extraction, entity typing, and word sense disambiguation. KnowBert's runtime is comparable to BERT's and it scales to large KBs.

* EMNLP 2019 

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AllenNLP: A Deep Semantic Natural Language Processing Platform

May 31, 2018
Matt Gardner, Joel Grus, Mark Neumann, Oyvind Tafjord, Pradeep Dasigi, Nelson Liu, Matthew Peters, Michael Schmitz, Luke Zettlemoyer

This paper describes AllenNLP, a platform for research on deep learning methods in natural language understanding. AllenNLP is designed to support researchers who want to build novel language understanding models quickly and easily. It is built on top of PyTorch, allowing for dynamic computation graphs, and provides (1) a flexible data API that handles intelligent batching and padding, (2) high-level abstractions for common operations in working with text, and (3) a modular and extensible experiment framework that makes doing good science easy. It also includes reference implementations of high quality approaches for both core semantic problems (e.g. semantic role labeling (Palmer et al., 2005)) and language understanding applications (e.g. machine comprehension (Rajpurkar et al., 2016)). AllenNLP is an ongoing open-source effort maintained by engineers and researchers at the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence.

* Describes the initial version of AllenNLP. Many features and models have been added since the first release. This is the paper to cite if you use AllenNLP in your research. Updated 5/31/2018 with version accepted to the NLP OSS workshop help at ACL 2018 

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Agricultural Robotics: The Future of Robotic Agriculture

Aug 02, 2018
Tom Duckett, Simon Pearson, Simon Blackmore, Bruce Grieve, Wen-Hua Chen, Grzegorz Cielniak, Jason Cleaversmith, Jian Dai, Steve Davis, Charles Fox, Pål From, Ioannis Georgilas, Richie Gill, Iain Gould, Marc Hanheide, Alan Hunter, Fumiya Iida, Lyudmila Mihalyova, Samia Nefti-Meziani, Gerhard Neumann, Paolo Paoletti, Tony Pridmore, Dave Ross, Melvyn Smith, Martin Stoelen, Mark Swainson, Sam Wane, Peter Wilson, Isobel Wright, Guang-Zhong Yang

Agri-Food is the largest manufacturing sector in the UK. It supports a food chain that generates over {\pounds}108bn p.a., with 3.9m employees in a truly international industry and exports {\pounds}20bn of UK manufactured goods. However, the global food chain is under pressure from population growth, climate change, political pressures affecting migration, population drift from rural to urban regions and the demographics of an aging global population. These challenges are recognised in the UK Industrial Strategy white paper and backed by significant investment via a Wave 2 Industrial Challenge Fund Investment ("Transforming Food Production: from Farm to Fork"). Robotics and Autonomous Systems (RAS) and associated digital technologies are now seen as enablers of this critical food chain transformation. To meet these challenges, this white paper reviews the state of the art in the application of RAS in Agri-Food production and explores research and innovation needs to ensure these technologies reach their full potential and deliver the necessary impacts in the Agri-Food sector.

* UK-RAS Network White Papers, ISSN 2398-4414 

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A Survey of Neuromorphic Computing and Neural Networks in Hardware

May 19, 2017
Catherine D. Schuman, Thomas E. Potok, Robert M. Patton, J. Douglas Birdwell, Mark E. Dean, Garrett S. Rose, James S. Plank

Neuromorphic computing has come to refer to a variety of brain-inspired computers, devices, and models that contrast the pervasive von Neumann computer architecture. This biologically inspired approach has created highly connected synthetic neurons and synapses that can be used to model neuroscience theories as well as solve challenging machine learning problems. The promise of the technology is to create a brain-like ability to learn and adapt, but the technical challenges are significant, starting with an accurate neuroscience model of how the brain works, to finding materials and engineering breakthroughs to build devices to support these models, to creating a programming framework so the systems can learn, to creating applications with brain-like capabilities. In this work, we provide a comprehensive survey of the research and motivations for neuromorphic computing over its history. We begin with a 35-year review of the motivations and drivers of neuromorphic computing, then look at the major research areas of the field, which we define as neuro-inspired models, algorithms and learning approaches, hardware and devices, supporting systems, and finally applications. We conclude with a broad discussion on the major research topics that need to be addressed in the coming years to see the promise of neuromorphic computing fulfilled. The goals of this work are to provide an exhaustive review of the research conducted in neuromorphic computing since the inception of the term, and to motivate further work by illuminating gaps in the field where new research is needed.

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Depth-aware CNN for RGB-D Segmentation

Mar 19, 2018
Weiyue Wang, Ulrich Neumann

Convolutional neural networks (CNN) are limited by the lack of capability to handle geometric information due to the fixed grid kernel structure. The availability of depth data enables progress in RGB-D semantic segmentation with CNNs. State-of-the-art methods either use depth as additional images or process spatial information in 3D volumes or point clouds. These methods suffer from high computation and memory cost. To address these issues, we present Depth-aware CNN by introducing two intuitive, flexible and effective operations: depth-aware convolution and depth-aware average pooling. By leveraging depth similarity between pixels in the process of information propagation, geometry is seamlessly incorporated into CNN. Without introducing any additional parameters, both operators can be easily integrated into existing CNNs. Extensive experiments and ablation studies on challenging RGB-D semantic segmentation benchmarks validate the effectiveness and flexibility of our approach.

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Computational Complexity Results for Genetic Programming and the Sorting Problem

May 06, 2011
Markus Wagner, Frank Neumann

Genetic Programming (GP) has found various applications. Understanding this type of algorithm from a theoretical point of view is a challenging task. The first results on the computational complexity of GP have been obtained for problems with isolated program semantics. With this paper, we push forward the computational complexity analysis of GP on a problem with dependent program semantics. We study the well-known sorting problem in this context and analyze rigorously how GP can deal with different measures of sortedness.

* 12 pages 

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Fast Re-Optimization via Structural Diversity

Apr 16, 2019
Benjamin Doerr, Carola Doerr, Frank Neumann

When a problem instance is perturbed by a small modification, one would hope to find a good solution for the new instance by building on a known good solution for the previous one. Via a rigorous mathematical analysis, we show that evolutionary algorithms, despite usually being robust problem solvers, can have unexpected difficulties to solve such re-optimization problems. When started with a random Hamming neighbor of the optimum, the (1+1) evolutionary algorithm takes $\Omega(n^2)$ time to optimize the LeadingOnes benchmark function, which is the same asymptotic optimization time when started in a randomly chosen solution. There is hence no significant advantage from re-optimizing a structurally good solution. We then propose a way to overcome such difficulties. As our mathematical analysis reveals, the reason for this undesired behavior is that during the optimization structurally good solutions can easily be replaced by structurally worse solutions of equal or better fitness. We propose a simple diversity mechanism that prevents this behavior, thereby reducing the re-optimization time for LeadingOnes to $O(\gamma\delta n)$, where $\gamma$ is the population size used by the diversity mechanism and $\delta \le \gamma$ the Hamming distance of the new optimum from the previous solution. We show similarly fast re-optimization times for the optimization of linear functions with changing constraints and for the minimum spanning tree problem.

* To appear at Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO '19) 

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Evolutionary Image Transition Based on Theoretical Insights of Random Processes

Apr 21, 2016
Aneta Neumann, Bradley Alexander, Frank Neumann

Evolutionary algorithms have been widely studied from a theoretical perspective. In particular, the area of runtime analysis has contributed significantly to a theoretical understanding and provided insights into the working behaviour of these algorithms. We study how these insights into evolutionary processes can be used for evolutionary art. We introduce the notion of evolutionary image transition which transfers a given starting image into a target image through an evolutionary process. Combining standard mutation effects known from the optimization of the classical benchmark function OneMax and different variants of random walks, we present ways of performing evolutionary image transition with different artistic effects.

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Statistical Inferences for Polarity Identification in Natural Language

Apr 05, 2018
Nicolas Pröllochs, Stefan Feuerriegel, Dirk Neumann

Information forms the basis for all human behavior, including the ubiquitous decision-making that people constantly perform in their every day lives. It is thus the mission of researchers to understand how humans process information to reach decisions. In order to facilitate this task, this work proposes a novel method of studying the reception of granular expressions in natural language. The approach utilizes LASSO regularization as a statistical tool to extract decisive words from textual content and draw statistical inferences based on the correspondence between the occurrences of words and an exogenous response variable. Accordingly, the method immediately suggests significant implications for social sciences and Information Systems research: everyone can now identify text segments and word choices that are statistically relevant to authors or readers and, based on this knowledge, test hypotheses from behavioral research. We demonstrate the contribution of our method by examining how authors communicate subjective information through narrative materials. This allows us to answer the question of which words to choose when communicating negative information. On the other hand, we show that investors trade not only upon facts in financial disclosures but are distracted by filler words and non-informative language. Practitioners - for example those in the fields of investor communications or marketing - can exploit our insights to enhance their writings based on the true perception of word choice.

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Recurrent Slice Networks for 3D Segmentation of Point Clouds

Mar 29, 2018
Qiangui Huang, Weiyue Wang, Ulrich Neumann

Point clouds are an efficient data format for 3D data. However, existing 3D segmentation methods for point clouds either do not model local dependencies \cite{pointnet} or require added computations \cite{kd-net,pointnet2}. This work presents a novel 3D segmentation framework, RSNet\footnote{Codes are released here}, to efficiently model local structures in point clouds. The key component of the RSNet is a lightweight local dependency module. It is a combination of a novel slice pooling layer, Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) layers, and a slice unpooling layer. The slice pooling layer is designed to project features of unordered points onto an ordered sequence of feature vectors so that traditional end-to-end learning algorithms (RNNs) can be applied. The performance of RSNet is validated by comprehensive experiments on the S3DIS\cite{stanford}, ScanNet\cite{scannet}, and ShapeNet \cite{shapenet} datasets. In its simplest form, RSNets surpass all previous state-of-the-art methods on these benchmarks. And comparisons against previous state-of-the-art methods \cite{pointnet, pointnet2} demonstrate the efficiency of RSNets.

* camera ready version for cvpr 2018 spotlight. codes are available here 

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A Fast and Effective Local Search Algorithm for Optimizing the Placement of Wind Turbines

Apr 20, 2012
Markus Wagner, Jareth Day, Frank Neumann

The placement of wind turbines on a given area of land such that the wind farm produces a maximum amount of energy is a challenging optimization problem. In this article, we tackle this problem, taking into account wake effects that are produced by the different turbines on the wind farm. We significantly improve upon existing results for the minimization of wake effects by developing a new problem-specific local search algorithm. One key step in the speed-up of our algorithm is the reduction in computation time needed to assess a given wind farm layout compared to previous approaches. Our new method allows the optimization of large real-world scenarios within a single night on a standard computer, whereas weeks on specialized computing servers were required for previous approaches.

* 16 pages, 2 algorithms, 4 figures, 1 table 

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