Models, code, and papers for "Philipp Krähenbühl":
Most state-of-the-art techniques for multi-class image segmentation and labeling use conditional random fields defined over pixels or image regions. While region-level models often feature dense pairwise connectivity, pixel-level models are considerably larger and have only permitted sparse graph structures. In this paper, we consider fully connected CRF models defined on the complete set of pixels in an image. The resulting graphs have billions of edges, making traditional inference algorithms impractical. Our main contribution is a highly efficient approximate inference algorithm for fully connected CRF models in which the pairwise edge potentials are defined by a linear combination of Gaussian kernels. Our experiments demonstrate that dense connectivity at the pixel level substantially improves segmentation and labeling accuracy.
Computer vision produces representations of scene content. Much computer vision research is predicated on the assumption that these intermediate representations are useful for action. Recent work at the intersection of machine learning and robotics calls this assumption into question by training sensorimotor systems directly for the task at hand, from pixels to actions, with no explicit intermediate representations. Thus the central question of our work: Does computer vision matter for action? We probe this question and its offshoots via immersive simulation, which allows us to conduct controlled reproducible experiments at scale. We instrument immersive three-dimensional environments to simulate challenges such as urban driving, off-road trail traversal, and battle. Our main finding is that computer vision does matter. Models equipped with intermediate representations train faster, achieve higher task performance, and generalize better to previously unseen environments. A video that summarizes the work and illustrates the results can be found at https://youtu.be/4MfWa2yZ0Jc
Detection identifies objects as axis-aligned boxes in an image. Most successful object detectors enumerate a nearly exhaustive list of potential object locations and classify each. This is wasteful, inefficient, and requires additional post-processing. In this paper, we take a different approach. We model an object as a single point --- the center point of its bounding box. Our detector uses keypoint estimation to find center points and regresses to all other object properties, such as size, 3D location, orientation, and even pose. Our center point based approach, CenterNet, is end-to-end differentiable, simpler, faster, and more accurate than corresponding bounding box based detectors. CenterNet achieves the best speed-accuracy trade-off on the MS COCO dataset, with 28.1% AP at 142 FPS, 37.4% AP at 52 FPS, and 45.1% AP with multi-scale testing at 1.4 FPS. We use the same approach to estimate 3D bounding box in the KITTI benchmark and human pose on the COCO keypoint dataset. Our method performs competitively with sophisticated multi-stage methods and runs in real-time.
With the advent of deep learning, object detection drifted from a bottom-up to a top-down recognition problem. State of the art algorithms enumerate a near-exhaustive list of object locations and classify each into: object or not. In this paper, we show that bottom-up approaches still perform competitively. We detect four extreme points (top-most, left-most, bottom-most, right-most) and one center point of objects using a standard keypoint estimation network. We group the five keypoints into a bounding box if they are geometrically aligned. Object detection is then a purely appearance-based keypoint estimation problem, without region classification or implicit feature learning. The proposed method performs on-par with the state-of-the-art region based detection methods, with a bounding box AP of 43.2% on COCO test-dev. In addition, our estimated extreme points directly span a coarse octagonal mask, with a COCO Mask AP of 18.9%, much better than the Mask AP of vanilla bounding boxes. Extreme point guided segmentation further improves this to 34.6% Mask AP.
The ability of the Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) framework to learn generative models mapping from simple latent distributions to arbitrarily complex data distributions has been demonstrated empirically, with compelling results showing that the latent space of such generators captures semantic variation in the data distribution. Intuitively, models trained to predict these semantic latent representations given data may serve as useful feature representations for auxiliary problems where semantics are relevant. However, in their existing form, GANs have no means of learning the inverse mapping -- projecting data back into the latent space. We propose Bidirectional Generative Adversarial Networks (BiGANs) as a means of learning this inverse mapping, and demonstrate that the resulting learned feature representation is useful for auxiliary supervised discrimination tasks, competitive with contemporary approaches to unsupervised and self-supervised feature learning.
We present an approach to learn a dense pixel-wise labeling from image-level tags. Each image-level tag imposes constraints on the output labeling of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier. We propose Constrained CNN (CCNN), a method which uses a novel loss function to optimize for any set of linear constraints on the output space (i.e. predicted label distribution) of a CNN. Our loss formulation is easy to optimize and can be incorporated directly into standard stochastic gradient descent optimization. The key idea is to phrase the training objective as a biconvex optimization for linear models, which we then relax to nonlinear deep networks. Extensive experiments demonstrate the generality of our new learning framework. The constrained loss yields state-of-the-art results on weakly supervised semantic image segmentation. We further demonstrate that adding slightly more supervision can greatly improve the performance of the learning algorithm.
We propose a data-driven approach for intrinsic image decomposition, which is the process of inferring the confounding factors of reflectance and shading in an image. We pose this as a two-stage learning problem. First, we train a model to predict relative reflectance ordering between image patches (`brighter', `darker', `same') from large-scale human annotations, producing a data-driven reflectance prior. Second, we show how to naturally integrate this learned prior into existing energy minimization frameworks for intrinsic image decomposition. We compare our method to the state-of-the-art approach of Bell et al. on both decomposition and image relighting tasks, demonstrating the benefits of the simple relative reflectance prior, especially for scenes under challenging lighting conditions.
An ever increasing amount of our digital communication, media consumption, and content creation revolves around videos. We share, watch, and archive many aspects of our lives through them, all of which are powered by strong video compression. Traditional video compression is laboriously hand designed and hand optimized. This paper presents an alternative in an end-to-end deep learning codec. Our codec builds on one simple idea: Video compression is repeated image interpolation. It thus benefits from recent advances in deep image interpolation and generation. Our deep video codec outperforms today's prevailing codecs, such as H.261, MPEG-4 Part 2, and performs on par with H.264.
Vision-based urban driving is hard. The autonomous system needs to learn to perceive the world and act in it. We show that this challenging learning problem can be simplified by decomposing it into two stages. We first train an agent that has access to privileged information. This privileged agent cheats by observing the ground-truth layout of the environment and the positions of all traffic participants. In the second stage, the privileged agent acts as a teacher that trains a purely vision-based sensorimotor agent. The resulting sensorimotor agent does not have access to any privileged information and does not cheat. This two-stage training procedure is counter-intuitive at first, but has a number of important advantages that we analyze and empirically demonstrate. We use the presented approach to train a vision-based autonomous driving system that substantially outperforms the state of the art on the CARLA benchmark and the recent NoCrash benchmark. Our approach achieves, for the first time, 100% success rate on all tasks in the original CARLA benchmark, sets a new record on the NoCrash benchmark, and reduces the frequency of infractions by an order of magnitude compared to the prior state of the art. For the video that summarizes this work, see https://youtu.be/u9ZCxxD-UUw
Convolutional Neural Networks spread through computer vision like a wildfire, impacting almost all visual tasks imaginable. Despite this, few researchers dare to train their models from scratch. Most work builds on one of a handful of ImageNet pre-trained models, and fine-tunes or adapts these for specific tasks. This is in large part due to the difficulty of properly initializing these networks from scratch. A small miscalibration of the initial weights leads to vanishing or exploding gradients, as well as poor convergence properties. In this work we present a fast and simple data-dependent initialization procedure, that sets the weights of a network such that all units in the network train at roughly the same rate, avoiding vanishing or exploding gradients. Our initialization matches the current state-of-the-art unsupervised or self-supervised pre-training methods on standard computer vision tasks, such as image classification and object detection, while being roughly three orders of magnitude faster. When combined with pre-training methods, our initialization significantly outperforms prior work, narrowing the gap between supervised and unsupervised pre-training.
Realistic image manipulation is challenging because it requires modifying the image appearance in a user-controlled way, while preserving the realism of the result. Unless the user has considerable artistic skill, it is easy to "fall off" the manifold of natural images while editing. In this paper, we propose to learn the natural image manifold directly from data using a generative adversarial neural network. We then define a class of image editing operations, and constrain their output to lie on that learned manifold at all times. The model automatically adjusts the output keeping all edits as realistic as possible. All our manipulations are expressed in terms of constrained optimization and are applied in near-real time. We evaluate our algorithm on the task of realistic photo manipulation of shape and color. The presented method can further be used for changing one image to look like the other, as well as generating novel imagery from scratch based on user's scribbles.
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have recently emerged as the dominant model in computer vision. If provided with enough training data, they predict almost any visual quantity. In a discrete setting, such as classification, CNNs are not only able to predict a label but often predict a confidence in the form of a probability distribution over the output space. In continuous regression tasks, such a probability estimate is often lacking. We present a regression framework which models the output distribution of neural networks. This output distribution allows us to infer the most likely labeling following a set of physical or modeling constraints. These constraints capture the intricate interplay between different input and output variables, and complement the output of a CNN. However, they may not hold everywhere. Our setup further allows to learn a confidence with which a constraint holds, in the form of a distribution of the constrain satisfaction. We evaluate our approach on the problem of intrinsic image decomposition, and show that constrained structured regression significantly increases the state-of-the-art.
What makes an image appear realistic? In this work, we are answering this question from a data-driven perspective by learning the perception of visual realism directly from large amounts of data. In particular, we train a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model that distinguishes natural photographs from automatically generated composite images. The model learns to predict visual realism of a scene in terms of color, lighting and texture compatibility, without any human annotations pertaining to it. Our model outperforms previous works that rely on hand-crafted heuristics, for the task of classifying realistic vs. unrealistic photos. Furthermore, we apply our learned model to compute optimal parameters of a compositing method, to maximize the visual realism score predicted by our CNN model. We demonstrate its advantage against existing methods via a human perception study.
Training competitive deep video models is an order of magnitude slower than training their counterpart image models. Slow training causes long research cycles, which hinders progress in video understanding research. Following standard practice for training image models, video model training assumes a fixed mini-batch shape: a specific number of clips, frames, and spatial size. However, what is the optimal shape? High resolution models perform well, but train slowly. Low resolution models train faster, but they are inaccurate. Inspired by multigrid methods in numerical optimization, we propose to use variable mini-batch shapes with different spatial-temporal resolutions that are varied according to a schedule. The different shapes arise from resampling the training data on multiple sampling grids. Training is accelerated by scaling up the mini-batch size and learning rate when shrinking the other dimensions. We empirically demonstrate a general and robust grid schedule that yields a significant out-of-the-box training speedup without a loss in accuracy for different models (I3D, non-local, SlowFast), datasets (Kinetics, Something-Something, Charades), and training settings (with and without pre-training, 128 GPUs or 1 GPU). As an illustrative example, the proposed multigrid method trains a ResNet-50 SlowFast network 4.5x faster (wall-clock time, same hardware) while also improving accuracy (+0.8% absolute) on Kinetics-400 compared to the baseline training method.
Deep embeddings answer one simple question: How similar are two images? Learning these embeddings is the bedrock of verification, zero-shot learning, and visual search. The most prominent approaches optimize a deep convolutional network with a suitable loss function, such as contrastive loss or triplet loss. While a rich line of work focuses solely on the loss functions, we show in this paper that selecting training examples plays an equally important role. We propose distance weighted sampling, which selects more informative and stable examples than traditional approaches. In addition, we show that a simple margin based loss is sufficient to outperform all other loss functions. We evaluate our approach on the Stanford Online Products, CAR196, and the CUB200-2011 datasets for image retrieval and clustering, and on the LFW dataset for face verification. Our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on all of them.
We present an unsupervised visual feature learning algorithm driven by context-based pixel prediction. By analogy with auto-encoders, we propose Context Encoders -- a convolutional neural network trained to generate the contents of an arbitrary image region conditioned on its surroundings. In order to succeed at this task, context encoders need to both understand the content of the entire image, as well as produce a plausible hypothesis for the missing part(s). When training context encoders, we have experimented with both a standard pixel-wise reconstruction loss, as well as a reconstruction plus an adversarial loss. The latter produces much sharper results because it can better handle multiple modes in the output. We found that a context encoder learns a representation that captures not just appearance but also the semantics of visual structures. We quantitatively demonstrate the effectiveness of our learned features for CNN pre-training on classification, detection, and segmentation tasks. Furthermore, context encoders can be used for semantic inpainting tasks, either stand-alone or as initialization for non-parametric methods.
Discriminative deep learning approaches have shown impressive results for problems where human-labeled ground truth is plentiful, but what about tasks where labels are difficult or impossible to obtain? This paper tackles one such problem: establishing dense visual correspondence across different object instances. For this task, although we do not know what the ground-truth is, we know it should be consistent across instances of that category. We exploit this consistency as a supervisory signal to train a convolutional neural network to predict cross-instance correspondences between pairs of images depicting objects of the same category. For each pair of training images we find an appropriate 3D CAD model and render two synthetic views to link in with the pair, establishing a correspondence flow 4-cycle. We use ground-truth synthetic-to-synthetic correspondences, provided by the rendering engine, to train a ConvNet to predict synthetic-to-real, real-to-real and real-to-synthetic correspondences that are cycle-consistent with the ground-truth. At test time, no CAD models are required. We demonstrate that our end-to-end trained ConvNet supervised by cycle-consistency outperforms state-of-the-art pairwise matching methods in correspondence-related tasks.
Convolutions on monocular dash cam videos capture spatial invariances in the image plane but do not explicitly reason about distances and depth. We propose a simple transformation of observations into a bird's eye view, also known as plan view, for end-to-end control. We detect vehicles and pedestrians in the first person view and project them into an overhead plan view. This representation provides an abstraction of the environment from which a deep network can easily deduce the positions and directions of entities. Additionally, the plan view enables us to leverage advances in 3D object detection in conjunction with deep policy learning. We evaluate our monocular plan view network on the photo-realistic Grand Theft Auto V simulator. A network using both a plan view and front view causes less than half as many collisions as previous detection-based methods and an order of magnitude fewer collisions than pure pixel-based policies.