Models, code, and papers for "Rodrigo F":

Are pre-trained CNNs good feature extractors for anomaly detection in surveillance videos?

Nov 20, 2018
Tiago S. Nazare, Rodrigo F. de Mello, Moacir A. Ponti

Recently, several techniques have been explored to detect unusual behaviour in surveillance videos. Nevertheless, few studies leverage features from pre-trained CNNs and none of then present a comparison of features generate by different models. Motivated by this gap, we compare features extracted by four state-of-the-art image classification networks as a way of describing patches from security video frames. We carry out experiments on the Ped1 and Ped2 datasets and analyze the usage of different feature normalization techniques. Our results indicate that choosing the appropriate normalization is crucial to improve the anomaly detection performance when working with CNN features. Also, in the Ped2 dataset our approach was able to obtain results comparable to the ones of several state-of-the-art methods. Lastly, as our method only considers the appearance of each frame, we believe that it can be combined with approaches that focus on motion patterns to further improve performance.


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Ego-Lane Analysis System (ELAS): Dataset and Algorithms

Jun 15, 2018
Rodrigo F. Berriel, Edilson de Aguiar, Alberto F. de Souza, Thiago Oliveira-Santos

Decreasing costs of vision sensors and advances in embedded hardware boosted lane related research detection, estimation, and tracking in the past two decades. The interest in this topic has increased even more with the demand for advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and self-driving cars. Although extensively studied independently, there is still need for studies that propose a combined solution for the multiple problems related to the ego-lane, such as lane departure warning (LDW), lane change detection, lane marking type (LMT) classification, road markings detection and classification, and detection of adjacent lanes (i.e., immediate left and right lanes) presence. In this paper, we propose a real-time Ego-Lane Analysis System (ELAS) capable of estimating ego-lane position, classifying LMTs and road markings, performing LDW and detecting lane change events. The proposed vision-based system works on a temporal sequence of images. Lane marking features are extracted in perspective and Inverse Perspective Mapping (IPM) images that are combined to increase robustness. The final estimated lane is modeled as a spline using a combination of methods (Hough lines with Kalman filter and spline with particle filter). Based on the estimated lane, all other events are detected. To validate ELAS and cover the lack of lane datasets in the literature, a new dataset with more than 20 different scenes (in more than 15,000 frames) and considering a variety of scenarios (urban road, highways, traffic, shadows, etc.) was created. The dataset was manually annotated and made publicly available to enable evaluation of several events that are of interest for the research community (i.e., lane estimation, change, and centering; road markings; intersections; LMTs; crosswalks and adjacent lanes). ELAS achieved high detection rates in all real-world events and proved to be ready for real-time applications.

* Image and Vision Computing 68 (2017) 64-75 
* 13 pages, 17 figures, github.com/rodrigoberriel/ego-lane-analysis-system, and published by Image and Vision Computing (IMAVIS) 

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Automatic Large-Scale Data Acquisition via Crowdsourcing for Crosswalk Classification: A Deep Learning Approach

May 30, 2018
Rodrigo F. Berriel, Franco Schmidt Rossi, Alberto F. de Souza, Thiago Oliveira-Santos

Correctly identifying crosswalks is an essential task for the driving activity and mobility autonomy. Many crosswalk classification, detection and localization systems have been proposed in the literature over the years. These systems use different perspectives to tackle the crosswalk classification problem: satellite imagery, cockpit view (from the top of a car or behind the windshield), and pedestrian perspective. Most of the works in the literature are designed and evaluated using small and local datasets, i.e. datasets that present low diversity. Scaling to large datasets imposes a challenge for the annotation procedure. Moreover, there is still need for cross-database experiments in the literature because it is usually hard to collect the data in the same place and conditions of the final application. In this paper, we present a crosswalk classification system based on deep learning. For that, crowdsourcing platforms, such as OpenStreetMap and Google Street View, are exploited to enable automatic training via automatic acquisition and annotation of a large-scale database. Additionally, this work proposes a comparison study of models trained using fully-automatic data acquisition and annotation against models that were partially annotated. Cross-database experiments were also included in the experimentation to show that the proposed methods enable use with real world applications. Our results show that the model trained on the fully-automatic database achieved high overall accuracy (94.12%), and that a statistically significant improvement (to 96.30%) can be achieved by manually annotating a specific part of the database. Finally, the results of the cross-database experiments show that both models are robust to the many variations of image and scenarios, presenting a consistent behavior.

* Computers & Graphics, 2017, vol. 68, pp. 32-42 
* 13 pages, 13 figures, 3 videos, and GitHub with models 

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Deep Learning Based Large-Scale Automatic Satellite Crosswalk Classification

Jul 05, 2017
Rodrigo F. Berriel, Andre Teixeira Lopes, Alberto F. de Souza, Thiago Oliveira-Santos

High-resolution satellite imagery have been increasingly used on remote sensing classification problems. One of the main factors is the availability of this kind of data. Even though, very little effort has been placed on the zebra crossing classification problem. In this letter, crowdsourcing systems are exploited in order to enable the automatic acquisition and annotation of a large-scale satellite imagery database for crosswalks related tasks. Then, this dataset is used to train deep-learning-based models in order to accurately classify satellite images that contains or not zebra crossings. A novel dataset with more than 240,000 images from 3 continents, 9 countries and more than 20 cities was used in the experiments. Experimental results showed that freely available crowdsourcing data can be used to accurately (97.11%) train robust models to perform crosswalk classification on a global scale.

* 5 pages, 3 figures, accepted by IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters 

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Acoustic Modeling Using a Shallow CNN-HTSVM Architecture

Jun 27, 2017
Christopher Dane Shulby, Martha Dais Ferreira, Rodrigo F. de Mello, Sandra Maria Aluisio

High-accuracy speech recognition is especially challenging when large datasets are not available. It is possible to bridge this gap with careful and knowledge-driven parsing combined with the biologically inspired CNN and the learning guarantees of the Vapnik Chervonenkis (VC) theory. This work presents a Shallow-CNN-HTSVM (Hierarchical Tree Support Vector Machine classifier) architecture which uses a predefined knowledge-based set of rules with statistical machine learning techniques. Here we show that gross errors present even in state-of-the-art systems can be avoided and that an accurate acoustic model can be built in a hierarchical fashion. The CNN-HTSVM acoustic model outperforms traditional GMM-HMM models and the HTSVM structure outperforms a MLP multi-class classifier. More importantly we isolate the performance of the acoustic model and provide results on both the frame and phoneme level considering the true robustness of the model. We show that even with a small amount of data accurate and robust recognition rates can be obtained.

* Pre-review version of Bracis 2017 

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Counterexample Guided Inductive Optimization Applied to Mobile Robots Path Planning (Extended Version)

Aug 14, 2017
Rodrigo F. Araújo, Alexandre Ribeiro, Iury V. Bessa, Lucas C. Cordeiro, João E. C. Filho

We describe and evaluate a novel optimization-based off-line path planning algorithm for mobile robots based on the Counterexample-Guided Inductive Optimization (CEGIO) technique. CEGIO iteratively employs counterexamples generated from Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) and Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) solvers, in order to guide the optimization process and to ensure global optimization. This paper marks the first application of CEGIO for planning mobile robot path. In particular, CEGIO has been successfully applied to obtain optimal two-dimensional paths for autonomous mobile robots using off-the-shelf SAT and SMT solvers.

* 7 pages, 14rd Latin American Robotics Symposium (LARS'2017) 

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Copycat CNN: Stealing Knowledge by Persuading Confession with Random Non-Labeled Data

Jun 14, 2018
Jacson Rodrigues Correia-Silva, Rodrigo F. Berriel, Claudine Badue, Alberto F. de Souza, Thiago Oliveira-Santos

In the past few years, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been achieving state-of-the-art performance on a variety of problems. Many companies employ resources and money to generate these models and provide them as an API, therefore it is in their best interest to protect them, i.e., to avoid that someone else copies them. Recent studies revealed that state-of-the-art CNNs are vulnerable to adversarial examples attacks, and this weakness indicates that CNNs do not need to operate in the problem domain (PD). Therefore, we hypothesize that they also do not need to be trained with examples of the PD in order to operate in it. Given these facts, in this paper, we investigate if a target black-box CNN can be copied by persuading it to confess its knowledge through random non-labeled data. The copy is two-fold: i) the target network is queried with random data and its predictions are used to create a fake dataset with the knowledge of the network; and ii) a copycat network is trained with the fake dataset and should be able to achieve similar performance as the target network. This hypothesis was evaluated locally in three problems (facial expression, object, and crosswalk classification) and against a cloud-based API. In the copy attacks, images from both non-problem domain and PD were used. All copycat networks achieved at least 93.7% of the performance of the original models with non-problem domain data, and at least 98.6% using additional data from the PD. Additionally, the copycat CNN successfully copied at least 97.3% of the performance of the Microsoft Azure Emotion API. Our results show that it is possible to create a copycat CNN by simply querying a target network as black-box with random non-labeled data.

* 8 pages, 3 figures, accepted by IJCNN 2018 

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Counterexample Guided Inductive Optimization

Apr 11, 2017
Rodrigo F. Araujo, Higo F. Albuquerque, Iury V. de Bessa, Lucas C. Cordeiro, Joao Edgar C. Filho

This paper describes three variants of a counterexample guided inductive optimization (CEGIO) approach based on Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) solvers. In particular, CEGIO relies on iterative executions to constrain a verification procedure, in order to perform inductive generalization, based on counterexamples extracted from SMT solvers. CEGIO is able to successfully optimize a wide range of functions, including non-linear and non-convex optimization problems based on SMT solvers, in which data provided by counterexamples are employed to guide the verification engine, thus reducing the optimization domain. The present algorithms are evaluated using a large set of benchmarks typically employed for evaluating optimization techniques. Experimental results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms, which find the optimal solution in all evaluated benchmarks, while traditional techniques are usually trapped by local minima.


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General Fragment Model for Information Artifacts

Sep 09, 2019
Sandro Rama Fiorini, Wallas Sousa dos Santos, Rodrigo Costa Mesquita, Guilherme Ferreira Lima, Marcio F. Moreno

The use of semantic descriptions in data intensive domains require a systematic model for linking semantic descriptions with their manifestations in fragments of heterogeneous information and data objects. Such information heterogeneity requires a fragment model that is general enough to support the specification of anchors from conceptual models to multiple types of information artifacts. While diverse proposals of anchoring models exist in the literature, they are usually focused in audiovisual information. We propose a generalized fragment model that can be instantiated to different kinds of information artifacts. Our objective is to systematize the way in which fragments and anchors can be described in conceptual models, without committing to a specific vocabulary.


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Hybrid Model For Word Prediction Using Naive Bayes and Latent Information

Mar 02, 2018
Henrique X. Goulart, Mauro D. L. Tosi, Daniel Soares Gonçalves, Rodrigo F. Maia, Guilherme A. Wachs-Lopes

Historically, the Natural Language Processing area has been given too much attention by many researchers. One of the main motivation beyond this interest is related to the word prediction problem, which states that given a set words in a sentence, one can recommend the next word. In literature, this problem is solved by methods based on syntactic or semantic analysis. Solely, each of these analysis cannot achieve practical results for end-user applications. For instance, the Latent Semantic Analysis can handle semantic features of text, but cannot suggest words considering syntactical rules. On the other hand, there are models that treat both methods together and achieve state-of-the-art results, e.g. Deep Learning. These models can demand high computational effort, which can make the model infeasible for certain types of applications. With the advance of the technology and mathematical models, it is possible to develop faster systems with more accuracy. This work proposes a hybrid word suggestion model, based on Naive Bayes and Latent Semantic Analysis, considering neighbouring words around unfilled gaps. Results show that this model could achieve 44.2% of accuracy in the MSR Sentence Completion Challenge.


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Adaptive Modulation and Coding based on Reinforcement Learning for 5G Networks

Nov 25, 2019
Mateus P. Mota, Daniel C. Araujo, Francisco Hugo Costa Neto, Andre L. F. de Almeida, F. Rodrigo P. Cavalcanti

We design a self-exploratory reinforcement learning (RL) framework, based on the Q-learning algorithm, that enables the base station (BS) to choose a suitable modulation and coding scheme (MCS) that maximizes the spectral efficiency while maintaining a low block error rate (BLER). In this framework, the BS chooses the MCS based on the channel quality indicator (CQI) reported by the user equipment (UE). A transmission is made with the chosen MCS and the results of this transmission are converted by the BS into rewards that the BS uses to learn the suitable mapping from CQI to MCS. Comparing with a conventional fixed look-up table and the outer loop link adaptation, the proposed framework achieves superior performance in terms of spectral efficiency and BLER.

* Accepted for presentation at the IEEE GLOBECOM 2019 

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Cross-Domain Car Detection Using Unsupervised Image-to-Image Translation: From Day to Night

Jul 19, 2019
Vinicius F. Arruda, Thiago M. Paixão, Rodrigo F. Berriel, Alberto F. De Souza, Claudine Badue, Nicu Sebe, Thiago Oliveira-Santos

Deep learning techniques have enabled the emergence of state-of-the-art models to address object detection tasks. However, these techniques are data-driven, delegating the accuracy to the training dataset which must resemble the images in the target task. The acquisition of a dataset involves annotating images, an arduous and expensive process, generally requiring time and manual effort. Thus, a challenging scenario arises when the target domain of application has no annotated dataset available, making tasks in such situation to lean on a training dataset of a different domain. Sharing this issue, object detection is a vital task for autonomous vehicles where the large amount of driving scenarios yields several domains of application requiring annotated data for the training process. In this work, a method for training a car detection system with annotated data from a source domain (day images) without requiring the image annotations of the target domain (night images) is presented. For that, a model based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) is explored to enable the generation of an artificial dataset with its respective annotations. The artificial dataset (fake dataset) is created translating images from day-time domain to night-time domain. The fake dataset, which comprises annotated images of only the target domain (night images), is then used to train the car detector model. Experimental results showed that the proposed method achieved significant and consistent improvements, including the increasing by more than 10% of the detection performance when compared to the training with only the available annotated data (i.e., day images).

* 8 pages, 8 figures, https://github.com/viniciusarruda/cross-domain-car-detection and accepted at IJCNN 2019 

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Effortless Deep Training for Traffic Sign Detection Using Templates and Arbitrary Natural Images

Jul 23, 2019
Lucas Tabelini Torres, Thiago M. Paixão, Rodrigo F. Berriel, Alberto F. De Souza, Claudine Badue, Nicu Sebe, Thiago Oliveira-Santos

Deep learning has been successfully applied to several problems related to autonomous driving. Often, these solutions rely on large networks that require databases of real image samples of the problem (i.e., real world) for proper training. The acquisition of such real-world data sets is not always possible in the autonomous driving context, and sometimes their annotation is not feasible (e.g., takes too long or is too expensive). Moreover, in many tasks, there is an intrinsic data imbalance that most learning-based methods struggle to cope with. It turns out that traffic sign detection is a problem in which these three issues are seen altogether. In this work, we propose a novel database generation method that requires only (i) arbitrary natural images, i.e., requires no real image from the domain of interest, and (ii) templates of the traffic signs, i.e., templates synthetically created to illustrate the appearance of the category of a traffic sign. The effortlessly generated training database is shown to be effective for the training of a deep detector (such as Faster R-CNN) on German traffic signs, achieving 95.66% of mAP on average. In addition, the proposed method is able to detect traffic signs with an average precision, recall and F1-score of about 94%, 91% and 93%, respectively. The experiments surprisingly show that detectors can be trained with simple data generation methods and without problem domain data for the background, which is in the opposite direction of the common sense for deep learning.


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Fast(er) Reconstruction of Shredded Text Documents via Self-Supervised Deep Asymmetric Metric Learning

Mar 29, 2020
Thiago M. Paixão, Rodrigo F. Berriel, Maria C. S. Boeres, Alessando L. Koerich, Claudine Badue, Alberto F. De Souza, Thiago Oliveira-Santos

The reconstruction of shredded documents consists in arranging the pieces of paper (shreds) in order to reassemble the original aspect of such documents. This task is particularly relevant for supporting forensic investigation as documents may contain criminal evidence. As an alternative to the laborious and time-consuming manual process, several researchers have been investigating ways to perform automatic digital reconstruction. A central problem in automatic reconstruction of shredded documents is the pairwise compatibility evaluation of the shreds, notably for binary text documents. In this context, deep learning has enabled great progress for accurate reconstructions in the domain of mechanically-shredded documents. A sensitive issue, however, is that current deep model solutions require an inference whenever a pair of shreds has to be evaluated. This work proposes a scalable deep learning approach for measuring pairwise compatibility in which the number of inferences scales linearly (rather than quadratically) with the number of shreds. Instead of predicting compatibility directly, deep models are leveraged to asymmetrically project the raw shred content onto a common metric space in which distance is proportional to the compatibility. Experimental results show that our method has accuracy comparable to the state-of-the-art with a speed-up of about 22 times for a test instance with 505 shreds (20 mixed shredded-pages from different documents).

* Accepted to CVPR 2020. Main Paper (9 pages, 10 figures) and Supplementary Material (5 pages, 9 figures) 

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Deep Reinforcement Learning for QoS-Constrained Resource Allocation in Multiservice Networks

Mar 03, 2020
Juno V. Saraiva, Iran M. Braga Jr., Victor F. Monteiro, F. Rafael M. Lima, Tarcisio F. Maciel, Walter C. Freitas Jr., F. Rodrigo P. Cavalcanti

In this article, we study a Radio Resource Allocation (RRA) that was formulated as a non-convex optimization problem whose main aim is to maximize the spectral efficiency subject to satisfaction guarantees in multiservice wireless systems. This problem has already been previously investigated in the literature and efficient heuristics have been proposed. However, in order to assess the performance of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms when solving optimization problems in the context of RRA, we revisit that problem and propose a solution based on a Reinforcement Learning (RL) framework. Specifically, a distributed optimization method based on multi-agent deep RL is developed, where each agent makes its decisions to find a policy by interacting with the local environment, until reaching convergence. Thus, this article focuses on an application of RL and our main proposal consists in a new deep RL based approach to jointly deal with RRA, satisfaction guarantees and Quality of Service (QoS) constraints in multiservice celular networks. Lastly, through computational simulations we compare the state-of-art solutions of the literature with our proposal and we show a near optimal performance of the latter in terms of throughput and outage rate.

* Submitted to "Journal of Communication and Information System" 

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Traffic Light Recognition Using Deep Learning and Prior Maps for Autonomous Cars

Jun 04, 2019
Lucas C. Possatti, Rânik Guidolini, Vinicius B. Cardoso, Rodrigo F. Berriel, Thiago M. Paixão, Claudine Badue, Alberto F. De Souza, Thiago Oliveira-Santos

Autonomous terrestrial vehicles must be capable of perceiving traffic lights and recognizing their current states to share the streets with human drivers. Most of the time, human drivers can easily identify the relevant traffic lights. To deal with this issue, a common solution for autonomous cars is to integrate recognition with prior maps. However, additional solution is required for the detection and recognition of the traffic light. Deep learning techniques have showed great performance and power of generalization including traffic related problems. Motivated by the advances in deep learning, some recent works leveraged some state-of-the-art deep detectors to locate (and further recognize) traffic lights from 2D camera images. However, none of them combine the power of the deep learning-based detectors with prior maps to recognize the state of the relevant traffic lights. Based on that, this work proposes to integrate the power of deep learning-based detection with the prior maps used by our car platform IARA (acronym for Intelligent Autonomous Robotic Automobile) to recognize the relevant traffic lights of predefined routes. The process is divided in two phases: an offline phase for map construction and traffic lights annotation; and an online phase for traffic light recognition and identification of the relevant ones. The proposed system was evaluated on five test cases (routes) in the city of Vit\'oria, each case being composed of a video sequence and a prior map with the relevant traffic lights for the route. Results showed that the proposed technique is able to correctly identify the relevant traffic light along the trajectory.

* Accepted in 2019 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN) 

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On the Shattering Coefficient of Supervised Learning Algorithms

Nov 13, 2019
Rodrigo Fernandes de Mello

The Statistical Learning Theory (SLT) provides the theoretical background to ensure that a supervised algorithm generalizes the mapping $f: \mathcal{X} \to \mathcal{Y}$ given $f$ is selected from its search space bias $\mathcal{F}$. This formal result depends on the Shattering coefficient function $\mathcal{N}(\mathcal{F},2n)$ to upper bound the empirical risk minimization principle, from which one can estimate the necessary training sample size to ensure the probabilistic learning convergence and, most importantly, the characterization of the capacity of $\mathcal{F}$, including its under and overfitting abilities while addressing specific target problems. In this context, we propose a new approach to estimate the maximal number of hyperplanes required to shatter a given sample, i.e., to separate every pair of points from one another, based on the recent contributions by Har-Peled and Jones in the dataset partitioning scenario, and use such foundation to analytically compute the Shattering coefficient function for both binary and multi-class problems. As main contributions, one can use our approach to study the complexity of the search space bias $\mathcal{F}$, estimate training sample sizes, and parametrize the number of hyperplanes a learning algorithm needs to address some supervised task, what is specially appealing to deep neural networks. Experiments were performed to illustrate the advantages of our approach while studying the search space $\mathcal{F}$ on synthetic and one toy datasets and on two widely-used deep learning benchmarks (MNIST and CIFAR-10). In order to permit reproducibility and the use of our approach, our source code is made available at~\url{https://bitbucket.org/rodrigo_mello/shattering-rcode}.


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An empirical evaluation of imbalanced data strategies from a practitioner's point of view

Oct 16, 2018
Jacques Wainer, Rodrigo A. Franceschinell

This research tested the following well known strategies to deal with binary imbalanced data on 82 different real life data sets (sampled to imbalance rates of 5%, 3%, 1%, and 0.1%): class weight, SMOTE, Underbagging, and a baseline (just the base classifier). As base classifiers we used SVM with RBF kernel, random forests, and gradient boosting machines and we measured the quality of the resulting classifier using 6 different metrics (Area under the curve, Accuracy, F-measure, G-mean, Matthew's correlation coefficient and Balanced accuracy). The best strategy strongly depends on the metric used to measure the quality of the classifier. For AUC and accuracy class weight and the baseline perform better; for F-measure and MCC, SMOTE performs better; and for G-mean and balanced accuracy, underbagging.


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Computing the Shattering Coefficient of Supervised Learning Algorithms

May 14, 2018
Rodrigo Fernandes de Mello, Moacir Antonelli Ponti, Carlos Henrique Grossi Ferreira

The Statistical Learning Theory (SLT) provides the theoretical guarantees for supervised machine learning based on the Empirical Risk Minimization Principle (ERMP). Such principle defines an upper bound to ensure the uniform convergence of the empirical risk Remp(f), i.e., the error measured on a given data sample, to the expected value of risk R(f) (a.k.a. actual risk), which depends on the Joint Probability Distribution P(X x Y) mapping input examples x in X to class labels y in Y. The uniform convergence is only ensured when the Shattering coefficient N(F,2n) has a polynomial growing behavior. This paper proves the Shattering coefficient for any Hilbert space H containing the input space X and discusses its effects in terms of learning guarantees for supervised machine algorithms.


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