Models, code, and papers for "Sanja Fidler":
Robots will eventually be part of every household. It is thus critical to enable algorithms to learn from and be guided by non-expert users. In this paper, we bring a human in the loop, and enable a human teacher to give feedback to a learning agent in the form of natural language. We argue that a descriptive sentence can provide a much stronger learning signal than a numeric reward in that it can easily point to where the mistakes are and how to correct them. We focus on the problem of image captioning in which the quality of the output can easily be judged by non-experts. We propose a hierarchical phrase-based captioning model trained with policy gradients, and design a feedback network that provides reward to the learner by conditioning on the human-provided feedback. We show that by exploiting descriptive feedback our model learns to perform better than when given independently written human captions.
Transfer learning has proven to be a successful technique to train deep learning models in the domains where little training data is available. The dominant approach is to pretrain a model on a large generic dataset such as ImageNet and finetune its weights on the target domain. However, in the new era of an ever-increasing number of massive datasets, selecting the relevant data for pretraining is a critical issue. We introduce Neural Data Server (NDS), a large-scale search engine for finding the most useful transfer learning data to the target domain. Our NDS consists of a dataserver which indexes several large popular image datasets, and aims to recommend data to a client, an end-user with a target application with its own small labeled dataset. As in any search engine that serves information to possibly numerous users, we want the online computation performed by the dataserver to be minimal. The dataserver represents large datasets with a much more compact mixture-of experts model, and employs it to perform data search in a series of dataserver-client transactions at a low computational cost. We show the effectiveness of NDS in various transfer learning scenarios, demonstrating state-of-the-art performance on several target datasets and tasks such as image classification, object detection and instance segmentation. Our Neural Data Server is available as a web-service at http://aidemos.cs.toronto.edu/nds/, recommending data to users with the aim to improve performance of their A.I. application.
Few-shot classification is the task of predicting the category of an example from a set of few labeled examples. The number of labeled examples per category is called the number of shots (or shot number). Recent works tackle this task through meta-learning, where a meta-learner extracts information from observed tasks during meta-training to quickly adapt to new tasks during meta-testing. In this formulation, the number of shots exploited during meta-training has an impact on the recognition performance at meta-test time. Generally, the shot number used in meta-training should match the one used in meta-testing to obtain the best performance. We introduce a theoretical analysis of the impact of the shot number on Prototypical Networks, a state-of-the-art few-shot classification method. From our analysis, we propose a simple method that is robust to the choice of shot number used during meta-training, which is a crucial hyperparameter. The performance of our model trained for an arbitrary meta-training shot number shows great performance for different values of meta-testing shot numbers. We experimentally demonstrate our approach on different few-shot classification benchmarks.
We tackle the problem of semantic boundary prediction, which aims to identify pixels that belong to object(class) boundaries. We notice that relevant datasets consist of a significant level of label noise, reflecting the fact that precise annotations are laborious to get and thus annotators trade-off quality with efficiency. We aim to learn sharp and precise semantic boundaries by explicitly reasoning about annotation noise during training. We propose a simple new layer and loss that can be used with existing learning-based boundary detectors. Our layer/loss enforces the detector to predict a maximum response along the normal direction at an edge, while also regularizing its direction. We further reason about true object boundaries during training using a level set formulation, which allows the network to learn from misaligned labels in an end-to-end fashion. Experiments show that we improve over the CASENet backbone network by more than 4% in terms of MF(ODS) and 18.61% in terms of AP, outperforming all current state-of-the-art methods including those that deal with alignment. Furthermore, we show that our learned network can be used to significantly improve coarse segmentation labels, lending itself as an efficient way to label new data.
Recognising actions in videos relies on labelled supervision during training, typically the start and end times of each action instance. This supervision is not only subjective, but also expensive to acquire. Weak video-level supervision has been successfully exploited for recognition in untrimmed videos, however it is challenged when the number of different actions in training videos increases. We propose a method that is supervised by single timestamps located around each action instance, in untrimmed videos. We replace expensive action bounds with sampling distributions initialised from these timestamps. We then use the classifier's response to iteratively update the sampling distributions. We demonstrate that these distributions converge to the location and extent of discriminative action segments. We evaluate our method on three datasets for fine-grained recognition, with increasing number of different actions per video, and show that single timestamps offer a reasonable compromise between recognition performance and labelling effort, performing comparably to full temporal supervision. Our update method improves top-1 test accuracy by up to 5.4%. across the evaluated datasets.
Neural networks have recently become good at engaging in dialog. However, current approaches are based solely on verbal text, lacking the richness of a real face-to-face conversation. We propose a neural conversation model that aims to read and generate facial gestures alongside with text. This allows our model to adapt its response based on the "mood" of the conversation. In particular, we introduce an RNN encoder-decoder that exploits the movement of facial muscles, as well as the verbal conversation. The decoder consists of two layers, where the lower layer aims at generating the verbal response and coarse facial expressions, while the second layer fills in the subtle gestures, making the generated output more smooth and natural. We train our neural network by having it "watch" 250 movies. We showcase our joint face-text model in generating more natural conversations through automatic metrics and a human study. We demonstrate an example application with a face-to-face chatting avatar.
In order to bring artificial agents into our lives, we will need to go beyond supervised learning on closed datasets to having the ability to continuously expand knowledge. Inspired by a student learning in a classroom, we present an agent that can continuously learn by posing natural language questions to humans. Our agent is composed of three interacting modules, one that performs captioning, another that generates questions and a decision maker that learns when to ask questions by implicitly reasoning about the uncertainty of the agent and expertise of the teacher. As compared to current active learning methods which query images for full captions, our agent is able to ask pointed questions to improve the generated captions. The agent trains on the improved captions, expanding its knowledge. We show that our approach achieves better performance using less human supervision than the baselines on the challenging MSCOCO dataset.
Mainstream captioning models often follow a sequential structure to generate captions, leading to issues such as introduction of irrelevant semantics, lack of diversity in the generated captions, and inadequate generalization performance. In this paper, we present an alternative paradigm for image captioning, which factorizes the captioning procedure into two stages: (1) extracting an explicit semantic representation from the given image; and (2) constructing the caption based on a recursive compositional procedure in a bottom-up manner. Compared to conventional ones, our paradigm better preserves the semantic content through an explicit factorization of semantics and syntax. By using the compositional generation procedure, caption construction follows a recursive structure, which naturally fits the properties of human language. Moreover, the proposed compositional procedure requires less data to train, generalizes better, and yields more diverse captions.
Pose estimation is a widely explored problem, enabling many robotic tasks such as grasping and manipulation. In this paper, we tackle the problem of pose estimation for objects that exhibit rotational symmetry, which are common in man-made and industrial environments. In particular, our aim is to infer poses for objects not seen at training time, but for which their 3D CAD models are available at test time. Previous work has tackled this problem by learning to compare captured views of real objects with the rendered views of their 3D CAD models, by embedding them in a joint latent space using neural networks. We show that sidestepping the issue of symmetry in this scenario during training leads to poor performance at test time. We propose a model that reasons about rotational symmetry during training by having access to only a small set of symmetry-labeled objects, whereby exploiting a large collection of unlabeled CAD models. We demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms a naively trained neural network on a new pose dataset containing images of tools and hardware.
We present a novel framework for generating pop music. Our model is a hierarchical Recurrent Neural Network, where the layers and the structure of the hierarchy encode our prior knowledge about how pop music is composed. In particular, the bottom layers generate the melody, while the higher levels produce the drums and chords. We conduct several human studies that show strong preference of our generated music over that produced by the recent method by Google. We additionally show two applications of our framework: neural dancing and karaoke, as well as neural story singing.
Our aim is to provide a pixel-wise instance-level labeling of a monocular image in the context of autonomous driving. We build on recent work [Zhang et al., ICCV15] that trained a convolutional neural net to predict instance labeling in local image patches, extracted exhaustively in a stride from an image. A simple Markov random field model using several heuristics was then proposed in [Zhang et al., ICCV15] to derive a globally consistent instance labeling of the image. In this paper, we formulate the global labeling problem with a novel densely connected Markov random field and show how to encode various intuitive potentials in a way that is amenable to efficient mean field inference [Kr\"ahenb\"uhl et al., NIPS11]. Our potentials encode the compatibility between the global labeling and the patch-level predictions, contrast-sensitive smoothness as well as the fact that separate regions form different instances. Our experiments on the challenging KITTI benchmark [Geiger et al., CVPR12] demonstrate that our method achieves a significant performance boost over the baseline [Zhang et al., ICCV15].
In this work, we propose a novel way of efficiently localizing a soccer field from a single broadcast image of the game. Related work in this area relies on manually annotating a few key frames and extending the localization to similar images, or installing fixed specialized cameras in the stadium from which the layout of the field can be obtained. In contrast, we formulate this problem as a branch and bound inference in a Markov random field where an energy function is defined in terms of field cues such as grass, lines and circles. Moreover, our approach is fully automatic and depends only on single images from the broadcast video of the game. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by applying it to various games and obtain promising results. Finally, we posit that our approach can be applied easily to other sports such as hockey and basketball.
Hierarchies allow feature sharing between objects at multiple levels of representation, can code exponential variability in a very compact way and enable fast inference. This makes them potentially suitable for learning and recognizing a higher number of object classes. However, the success of the hierarchical approaches so far has been hindered by the use of hand-crafted features or predetermined grouping rules. This paper presents a novel framework for learning a hierarchical compositional shape vocabulary for representing multiple object classes. The approach takes simple contour fragments and learns their frequent spatial configurations. These are recursively combined into increasingly more complex and class-specific shape compositions, each exerting a high degree of shape variability. At the top-level of the vocabulary, the compositions are sufficiently large and complex to represent the whole shapes of the objects. We learn the vocabulary layer after layer, by gradually increasing the size of the window of analysis and reducing the spatial resolution at which the shape configurations are learned. The lower layers are learned jointly on images of all classes, whereas the higher layers of the vocabulary are learned incrementally, by presenting the algorithm with one object class after another. The experimental results show that the learned multi-class object representation scales favorably with the number of object classes and achieves a state-of-the-art detection performance at both, faster inference as well as shorter training times.
Understanding videos such as TV series and movies requires analyzing who the characters are and what they are doing. We address the challenging problem of clustering face tracks based on their identity. Different from previous work in this area, we choose to operate in a realistic and difficult setting where: (i) the number of characters is not known a priori; and (ii) face tracks belonging to minor or background characters are not discarded. To this end, we propose Ball Cluster Learning (BCL), a supervised approach to carve the embedding space into balls of equal size, one for each cluster. The learned ball radius is easily translated to a stopping criterion for iterative merging algorithms. This gives BCL the ability to estimate the number of clusters as well as their assignment, achieving promising results on commonly used datasets. We also present a thorough discussion of how existing metric learning literature can be adapted for this task.
Humans learn to solve tasks of increasing complexity by building on top of previously acquired knowledge. Typically, there exists a natural progression in the tasks that we learn - most do not require completely independent solutions, but can be broken down into simpler subtasks. We propose to represent a solver for each task as a neural module that calls existing modules (solvers for simpler tasks) in a functional program-like manner. Lower modules are a black box to the calling module, and communicate only via a query and an output. Thus, a module for a new task learns to query existing modules and composes their outputs in order to produce its own output. Our model effectively combines previous skill-sets, does not suffer from forgetting, and is fully differentiable. We test our model in learning a set of visual reasoning tasks, and demonstrate improved performances in all tasks by learning progressively. By evaluating the reasoning process using human judges, we show that our model is more interpretable than an attention-based baseline.
Applying resolution-preserving blocks is a common practice to maximize information preservation in video prediction, yet their high memory consumption greatly limits their application scenarios. We propose CrevNet, a Conditionally Reversible Network that uses reversible architectures to build a bijective two-way autoencoder and its complementary recurrent predictor. Our model enjoys the theoretically guaranteed property of no information loss during the feature extraction, much lower memory consumption and computational efficiency.
Current state-of-the-art methods for image segmentation form a dense image representation where the color, shape and texture information are all processed together inside a deep CNN. This however may not be ideal as they contain very different type of information relevant for recognition. Here, we propose a new two-stream CNN architecture for semantic segmentation that explicitly wires shape information as a separate processing branch, i.e. shape stream, that processes information in parallel to the classical stream. Key to this architecture is a new type of gates that connect the intermediate layers of the two streams. Specifically, we use the higher-level activations in the classical stream to gate the lower-level activations in the shape stream, effectively removing noise and helping the shape stream to only focus on processing the relevant boundary-related information. This enables us to use a very shallow architecture for the shape stream that operates on the image-level resolution. Our experiments show that this leads to a highly effective architecture that produces sharper predictions around object boundaries and significantly boosts performance on thinner and smaller objects. Our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on the Cityscapes benchmark, in terms of both mask (mIoU) and boundary (F-score) quality, improving by 2% and 4% over strong baselines.
Despite the recent successes in robotic locomotion control, the design of robot relies heavily on human engineering. Automatic robot design has been a long studied subject, but the recent progress has been slowed due to the large combinatorial search space and the difficulty in evaluating the found candidates. To address the two challenges, we formulate automatic robot design as a graph search problem and perform evolution search in graph space. We propose Neural Graph Evolution (NGE), which performs selection on current candidates and evolves new ones iteratively. Different from previous approaches, NGE uses graph neural networks to parameterize the control policies, which reduces evaluation cost on new candidates with the help of skill transfer from previously evaluated designs. In addition, NGE applies Graph Mutation with Uncertainty (GM-UC) by incorporating model uncertainty, which reduces the search space by balancing exploration and exploitation. We show that NGE significantly outperforms previous methods by an order of magnitude. As shown in experiments, NGE is the first algorithm that can automatically discover kinematically preferred robotic graph structures, such as a fish with two symmetrical flat side-fins and a tail, or a cheetah with athletic front and back legs. Instead of using thousands of cores for weeks, NGE efficiently solves searching problem within a day on a single 64 CPU-core Amazon EC2 machine.
Reducing the test time resource requirements of a neural network while preserving test accuracy is crucial for running inference on resource-constrained devices. To achieve this goal, we introduce a novel network reparameterization based on the Kronecker-factored eigenbasis (KFE), and then apply Hessian-based structured pruning methods in this basis. As opposed to existing Hessian-based pruning algorithms which do pruning in parameter coordinates, our method works in the KFE where different weights are approximately independent, enabling accurate pruning and fast computation. We demonstrate empirically the effectiveness of the proposed method through extensive experiments. In particular, we highlight that the improvements are especially significant for more challenging datasets and networks. With negligible loss of accuracy, an iterative-pruning version gives a 10$\times$ reduction in model size and a 8$\times$ reduction in FLOPs on wide ResNet32.