Models, code, and papers for "Tao Chen":

On Using Retrained and Incremental Machine Learning for Modeling Performance of Adaptable Software: An Empirical Comparison

Mar 25, 2019
Tao Chen

Given the ever-increasing complexity of adaptable software systems and their commonly hidden internal information (e.g., software runs in the public cloud), machine learning based performance modeling has gained momentum for evaluating, understanding and predicting software performance, which facilitates better informed self-adaptations. As performance data accumulates during the run of the software, updating the performance models becomes necessary. To this end, there are two conventional modeling methods: the retrained modeling that always discard the old model and retrain a new one using all available data; or the incremental modeling that retains the existing model and tunes it using one newly arrival data sample. Generally, literature on machine learning based performance modeling for adaptable software chooses either of those methods according to a general belief, but they provide insufficient evidences or references to justify their choice. This paper is the first to report on a comprehensive empirical study that examines both modeling methods under distinct domains of adaptable software, 5 performance indicators, 8 learning algorithms and settings, covering a total of 1,360 different conditions. Our findings challenge the general belief, which is shown to be only partially correct, and reveal some of the important, statistically significant factors that are often overlooked in existing work, providing evidence-based insights on the choice.

* preprint of the accepted paper for the 14th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS 2019) 

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Convolutional Regression for Visual Tracking

Nov 15, 2016
Kai Chen, Wenbing Tao

Recently, discriminatively learned correlation filters (DCF) has drawn much attention in visual object tracking community. The success of DCF is potentially attributed to the fact that a large amount of samples are utilized to train the ridge regression model and predict the location of object. To solve the regression problem in an efficient way, these samples are all generated by circularly shifting from a search patch. However, these synthetic samples also induce some negative effects which weaken the robustness of DCF based trackers. In this paper, we propose a Convolutional Regression framework for visual tracking (CRT). Instead of learning the linear regression model in a closed form, we try to solve the regression problem by optimizing a one-channel-output convolution layer with Gradient Descent (GD). In particular, the receptive field size of the convolution layer is set to the size of object. Contrary to DCF, it is possible to incorporate all "real" samples clipped from the whole image. A critical issue of the GD approach is that most of the convolutional samples are negative and the contribution of positive samples will be suppressed. To address this problem, we propose a novel Automatic Hard Negative Mining method to eliminate easy negatives and enhance positives. Extensive experiments are conducted on a widely-used benchmark with 100 sequences. The results show that the proposed algorithm achieves outstanding performance and outperforms almost all the existing DCF based algorithms.

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Once for All: a Two-flow Convolutional Neural Network for Visual Tracking

Apr 26, 2016
Kai Chen, Wenbing Tao

One of the main challenges of visual object tracking comes from the arbitrary appearance of objects. Most existing algorithms try to resolve this problem as an object-specific task, i.e., the model is trained to regenerate or classify a specific object. As a result, the model need to be initialized and retrained for different objects. In this paper, we propose a more generic approach utilizing a novel two-flow convolutional neural network (named YCNN). The YCNN takes two inputs (one is object image patch, the other is search image patch), then outputs a response map which predicts how likely the object appears in a specific location. Unlike those object-specific approach, the YCNN is trained to measure the similarity between two image patches. Thus it will not be confined to any specific object. Furthermore the network can be end-to-end trained to extract both shallow and deep convolutional features which are dedicated for visual tracking. And once properly trained, the YCNN can be applied to track all kinds of objects without further training and updating. Benefiting from the once-for-all model, our algorithm is able to run at a very high speed of 45 frames-per-second. The experiments on 51 sequences also show that our algorithm achieves an outstanding performance.

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A Gegenbauer Neural Network with Regularized Weights Direct Determination for Classification

Oct 25, 2019
Jie He, Tao Chen, Zhijun Zhang

Single-hidden layer feed forward neural networks (SLFNs) are widely used in pattern classification problems, but a huge bottleneck encountered is the slow speed and poor performance of the traditional iterative gradient-based learning algorithms. Although the famous extreme learning machine (ELM) has successfully addressed the problems of slow convergence, it still has computational robustness problems brought by input weights and biases randomly assigned. Thus, in order to overcome the aforementioned problems, in this paper, a novel type neural network based on Gegenbauer orthogonal polynomials, termed as GNN, is constructed and investigated. This model could overcome the computational robustness problems of ELM, while still has comparable structural simplicity and approximation capability. Based on this, we propose a regularized weights direct determination (R-WDD) based on equality-constrained optimization to determine the optimal output weights. The R-WDD tends to minimize the empirical risks and structural risks of the network, thus to lower the risk of over fitting and improve the generalization ability. This leads us to a the final GNN with R-WDD, which is a unified learning mechanism for binary and multi-class classification problems. Finally, as is verified in the various comparison experiments, GNN with R-WDD tends to have comparable (or even better) generalization performances, computational scalability and efficiency, and classification robustness, compared to least square support vector machine (LS-SVM), ELM with Gaussian kernel.

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Learning Exploration Policies for Navigation

Mar 05, 2019
Tao Chen, Saurabh Gupta, Abhinav Gupta

Numerous past works have tackled the problem of task-driven navigation. But, how to effectively explore a new environment to enable a variety of down-stream tasks has received much less attention. In this work, we study how agents can autonomously explore realistic and complex 3D environments without the context of task-rewards. We propose a learning-based approach and investigate different policy architectures, reward functions, and training paradigms. We find that the use of policies with spatial memory that are bootstrapped with imitation learning and finally finetuned with coverage rewards derived purely from on-board sensors can be effective at exploring novel environments. We show that our learned exploration policies can explore better than classical approaches based on geometry alone and generic learning-based exploration techniques. Finally, we also show how such task-agnostic exploration can be used for down-stream tasks. Code and Videos are available at:

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Creating a Live, Public Short Message Service Corpus: The NUS SMS Corpus

Dec 12, 2011
Tao Chen, Min-Yen Kan

Short Message Service (SMS) messages are largely sent directly from one person to another from their mobile phones. They represent a means of personal communication that is an important communicative artifact in our current digital era. As most existing studies have used private access to SMS corpora, comparative studies using the same raw SMS data has not been possible up to now. We describe our efforts to collect a public SMS corpus to address this problem. We use a battery of methodologies to collect the corpus, paying particular attention to privacy issues to address contributors' concerns. Our live project collects new SMS message submissions, checks their quality and adds the valid messages, releasing the resultant corpus as XML and as SQL dumps, along with corpus statistics, every month. We opportunistically collect as much metadata about the messages and their sender as possible, so as to enable different types of analyses. To date, we have collected about 60,000 messages, focusing on English and Mandarin Chinese.

* Language Resources and Evaluation, Aug 2012 
* It contains 31 pages, 6 figures, and 10 tables. It has been submitted to Language Resource and Evaluation Journal 

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How to Evaluate Solutions in Pareto-based Search-Based Software Engineering? A Critical Review and Methodological Guidance

Feb 27, 2020
Miqing Li, Tao Chen, Xin Yao

With modern requirements, there is an increasing tendancy of considering multiple objectives/criteria simultaneously in many Software Engineering (SE) scenarios. Such a multi-objective optimization scenario comes with an important issue --- how to evaluate the outcome of optimization algorithms, which typically is a set of incomparable solutions (i.e., being Pareto non-dominated to each other). This issue can be challenging for the SE community, particularly for practitioners of Search-Based SE (SBSE). On one hand, multiobjective optimization may still be relatively new to SE/SBSE researchers, who may not be able to identify right evaluation methods for their problems. On the other hand, simply following the evaluation methods for general multiobjective optimisation problems may not be appropriate for specific SE problems, especially when the problem nature or decision maker's preferences are explicitly/implicitly available. This has been well echoed in the literature by various inappropriate/inadequate selection and inaccurate/misleading uses of evaluation methods. In this paper, we carry out a critical review of quality evaluation for multiobjective optimization in SBSE. We survey 717 papers published between 2009 and 2019 from 36 venues in 7 repositories, and select 97 prominent studies, through which we identify five important but overlooked issues in the area. We then conduct an in-depth analysis of quality evaluation indicators and general situations in SBSE, which, together with the identified issues, enables us to provide a methodological guidance to selecting and using evaluation methods in different SBSE scenarios.

* submitted, 7 figures and 5 tables 

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Towards High Performance Human Keypoint Detection

Feb 03, 2020
Jing Zhang, Zhe Chen, Dacheng Tao

Human keypoint detection from a single image is very challenging due to occlusion, blur, illumination and scale variance. In this paper, we address this problem from three aspects by devising an efficient network structure, proposing three effective training strategies, and exploiting four useful postprocessing techniques. First, we find that context information plays an important role in reasoning human body configuration and invisible keypoints. Inspired by this, we propose a cascaded context mixer (CCM), which efficiently integrates spatial and channel context information and progressively refines them. Then, to maximize CCM's representation capability, we develop a hard-negative person detection mining strategy and a joint-training strategy by exploiting abundant unlabeled data. It enables CCM to learn discriminative features from massive diverse poses. Third, we present several sub-pixel refinement techniques for postprocessing keypoint predictions to improve detection accuracy. Extensive experiments on the MS COCO keypoint detection benchmark demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over representative state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods. Our single model achieves comparable performance with the winner of the 2018 COCO Keypoint Detection Challenge. The final ensemble model sets a new SOTA on this benchmark.

* 20pages, 11 figures. The source code will be released at 

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Synergizing Domain Expertise with Self-Awareness in Software Systems: A Patternized Architecture Guideline

Jan 20, 2020
Tao Chen, Rami Bahsoon, Xin Yao

Architectural patterns provide a reusable architectural solution for commonly recurring problems that can assist in designing software systems. In this regard, self-awareness architectural patterns are specialized patterns that leverage good engineering practices and experiences to help in designing self-awareness and self-adaptation of a software system. However, domain knowledge and engineers' expertise that is built over time are not explicitly linked to these patterns and the self-aware process. This linkage is important, as it can enrich the design patterns of these systems, which consequently leads to more effective and efficient self-aware and self-adaptive behaviours. This paper is an introductory work that highlights the importance of synergizing domain expertise into the self-awareness in software systems, relying on well-defined underlying approaches. In particular, we present a holistic framework that classifies widely known representations used to obtain and maintain the domain expertise, documenting their nature and specifics rules that permits different levels of synergies with self-awareness. Drawing on such, we describe mechanisms that can enrich existing patterns with engineers' expertise and knowledge of the domain. This, together with the framework, allow us to codify an intuitive step-by-step methodology that guides engineer in making design decisions when synergizing domain expertise into self-awareness and reveal their importances, in an attempt to keep 'engineers-in-the-loop'. Through three case studies, we demonstrate how the enriched patterns, the proposed framework and methodology can be applied in different domains, within which we quantitatively compare the actual benefits of incorporating engineers' expertise into self-awareness, at alternative levels of synergies.

* submitted; 31 pages, 10 tables and 29 figures 

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Human Keypoint Detection by Progressive Context Refinement

Oct 27, 2019
Jing Zhang, Zhe Chen, Dacheng Tao

Human keypoint detection from a single image is very challenging due to occlusion, blur, illumination and scale variance of person instances. In this paper, we find that context information plays an important role in addressing these issues, and propose a novel method named progressive context refinement (PCR) for human keypoint detection. First, we devise a simple but effective context-aware module (CAM) that can efficiently integrate spatial and channel context information to aid feature learning for locating hard keypoints. Then, we construct the PCR model by stacking several CAMs sequentially with shortcuts and employ multi-task learning to progressively refine the context information and predictions. Besides, to maximize PCR's potential for the aforementioned hard case inference, we propose a hard-negative person detection mining strategy together with a joint-training strategy by exploiting the unlabeled coco dataset and external dataset. Extensive experiments on the COCO keypoint detection benchmark demonstrate the superiority of PCR over representative state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods. Our single model achieves comparable performance with the winner of the 2018 COCO Keypoint Detection Challenge. The final ensemble model sets a new SOTA on this benchmark.

* Technical Report for "Joint COCO and MapillaryWorkshop at ICCV 2019: COCO Keypoint Detection Challenge Track" 

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GLA-Net: An Attention Network with Guided Loss for Mismatch Removal

Sep 28, 2019
Zhi Chen, Fan Yang, Wenbing Tao

Mismatch removal is a critical prerequisite in many feature-based tasks. Recent attempts cast the mismatch removal task as a binary classification problem and solve it through deep learning based methods. In these methods, the imbalance between positive and negative classes is important, which affects network performance, i.e., Fn-score. To establish the link between Fn-score and loss, we propose to guide the loss with the Fn-score directly. We theoretically demonstrate the direct link between our Guided Loss and Fn-score during training. Moreover, we discover that outliers often impair global context in mismatch removal networks. To address this issue, we introduce the attention mechanism to mismatch removal task and propose a novel Inlier Attention Block (IA Block). To evaluate the effectiveness of our loss and IA Block, we design an end-to-end network for mismatch removal, called GLA-Net \footnote{Our code will be available in Github later.}. Experiments have shown that our network achieves the state-of-the-art performance on benchmark datasets.

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Understanding and Improving One-shot Neural Architecture Optimization

Sep 24, 2019
Renqian Luo, Tao Qin, Enhong Chen

The ability of accurately ranking candidate architectures is the key to the performance of neural architecture search~(NAS). One-shot NAS is proposed to cut the expense but shows inferior performance against conventional NAS and is not adequately stable. We find that the ranking correlation between architectures under one-shot training and the ones under stand-alone training is poor, which misleads the algorithm to discover better architectures. We conjecture that this is owing to the gaps between one-shot training and stand-alone complete training. In this work, we empirically investigate several main factors that lead to the gaps and so weak ranking correlation. We then propose NAO-V2 to alleviate such gaps where we: (1) Increase the average updates for individual architecture to a relatively adequate extent. (2) Encourage more updates for large and complex architectures than small and simple architectures to balance them by sampling architectures in proportion to their model sizes. (3) Make the one-shot training of the supernet independent at each iteration. Comprehensive experiments verify that our proposed method is effective and robust. It leads to a more stable search that all the top architectures perform well enough compared to baseline methods. The final discovered architecture shows significant improvements against baselines with a test error rate of 2.60% on CIFAR-10 and top-1 accuracy of 74.4% on ImageNet under the mobile setting. Code and model checkpoints are publicly available at

* Code and model checkpoints are publicly available at 

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Visual and Semantic Prototypes-Jointly Guided CNN for Generalized Zero-shot Learning

Aug 14, 2019
Chuanxing Geng, Lue Tao, Songcan Chen

In the process of exploring the world, the curiosity constantly drives humans to cognize new things. Supposing you are a zoologist, for a presented animal image, you can recognize it immediately if you know its class. Otherwise, you would more likely attempt to cognize it by exploiting the side-information (e.g., semantic information, etc.) you have accumulated. Inspired by this, this paper decomposes the generalized zero-shot learning (G-ZSL) task into an open set recognition (OSR) task and a zero-shot learning (ZSL) task, where OSR recognizes seen classes (if we have seen (or known) them) and rejects unseen classes (if we have never seen (or known) them before), while ZSL identifies the unseen classes rejected by the former. Simultaneously, without violating OSR's assumptions (only known class knowledge is available in training), we also first attempt to explore a new generalized open set recognition (G-OSR) by introducing the accumulated side-information from known classes to OSR. For G-ZSL, such a decomposition effectively solves the class overfitting problem with easily misclassifying unseen classes as seen classes. The problem is ubiquitous in most existing G-ZSL methods. On the other hand, for G-OSR, introducing such semantic information of known classes not only improves the recognition performance but also endows OSR with the cognitive ability of unknown classes. Specifically, a visual and semantic prototypes-jointly guided convolutional neural network (VSG-CNN) is proposed to fulfill these two tasks (G-ZSL and G-OSR) in a unified end-to-end learning framework. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate the advantages of our learning framework.

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Dynamic Network Embeddings for Network Evolution Analysis

Jun 24, 2019
Chuanchang Chen, Yubo Tao, Hai Lin

Network embeddings learn to represent nodes as low-dimensional vectors to preserve the proximity between nodes and communities of the network for network analysis. The temporal edges (e.g., relationships, contacts, and emails) in dynamic networks are important for network evolution analysis, but few existing methods in network embeddings can capture the dynamic information from temporal edges. In this paper, we propose a novel dynamic network embedding method to analyze evolution patterns of dynamic networks effectively. Our method uses random walk to keep the proximity between nodes and applies dynamic Bernoulli embeddings to train discrete-time network embeddings in the same vector space without alignments to preserve the temporal continuity of stable nodes. We compare our method with several state-of-the-art methods by link prediction and evolving node detection, and the experiments demonstrate that our method generally has better performance in these tasks. Our method is further verified by two real-world dynamic networks via detecting evolving nodes and visualizing their temporal trajectories in the embedded space.

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Progressive LiDAR Adaptation for Road Detection

Apr 02, 2019
Zhe Chen, Jing Zhang, Dacheng Tao

Despite rapid developments in visual image-based road detection, robustly identifying road areas in visual images remains challenging due to issues like illumination changes and blurry images. To this end, LiDAR sensor data can be incorporated to improve the visual image-based road detection, because LiDAR data is less susceptible to visual noises. However, the main difficulty in introducing LiDAR information into visual image-based road detection is that LiDAR data and its extracted features do not share the same space with the visual data and visual features. Such gaps in spaces may limit the benefits of LiDAR information for road detection. To overcome this issue, we introduce a novel Progressive LiDAR Adaptation-aided Road Detection (PLARD) approach to adapt LiDAR information into visual image-based road detection and improve detection performance. In PLARD, progressive LiDAR adaptation consists of two subsequent modules: 1) data space adaptation, which transforms the LiDAR data to the visual data space to align with the perspective view by applying altitude difference-based transformation; and 2) feature space adaptation, which adapts LiDAR features to visual features through a cascaded fusion structure. Comprehensive empirical studies on the well-known KITTI road detection benchmark demonstrate that PLARD takes advantage of both the visual and LiDAR information, achieving much more robust road detection even in challenging urban scenes. In particular, PLARD outperforms other state-of-the-art road detection models and is currently top of the publicly accessible benchmark leader-board.

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Hardware Conditioned Policies for Multi-Robot Transfer Learning

Jan 13, 2019
Tao Chen, Adithyavairavan Murali, Abhinav Gupta

Deep reinforcement learning could be used to learn dexterous robotic policies but it is challenging to transfer them to new robots with vastly different hardware properties. It is also prohibitively expensive to learn a new policy from scratch for each robot hardware due to the high sample complexity of modern state-of-the-art algorithms. We propose a novel approach called \textit{Hardware Conditioned Policies} where we train a universal policy conditioned on a vector representation of robot hardware. We considered robots in simulation with varied dynamics, kinematic structure, kinematic lengths and degrees-of-freedom. First, we use the kinematic structure directly as the hardware encoding and show great zero-shot transfer to completely novel robots not seen during training. For robots with lower zero-shot success rate, we also demonstrate that fine-tuning the policy network is significantly more sample-efficient than training a model from scratch. In tasks where knowing the agent dynamics is important for success, we learn an embedding for robot hardware and show that policies conditioned on the encoding of hardware tend to generalize and transfer well. The code and videos are available on the project webpage:

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Follow Me at the Edge: Mobility-Aware Dynamic Service Placement for Mobile Edge Computing

Sep 14, 2018
Tao Ouyang, Zhi Zhou, Xu Chen

Mobile edge computing is a new computing paradigm, which pushes cloud computing capabilities away from the centralized cloud to the network edge. However, with the sinking of computing capabilities, the new challenge incurred by user mobility arises: since end-users typically move erratically, the services should be dynamically migrated among multiple edges to maintain the service performance, i.e., user-perceived latency. Tackling this problem is non-trivial since frequent service migration would greatly increase the operational cost. To address this challenge in terms of the performance-cost trade-off, in this paper we study the mobile edge service performance optimization problem under long-term cost budget constraint. To address user mobility which is typically unpredictable, we apply Lyapunov optimization to decompose the long-term optimization problem into a series of real-time optimization problems which do not require a priori knowledge such as user mobility. As the decomposed problem is NP-hard, we first design an approximation algorithm based on Markov approximation to seek a near-optimal solution. To make our solution scalable and amenable to future 5G application scenario with large-scale user devices, we further propose a distributed approximation scheme with greatly reduced time complexity, based on the technique of best response update. Rigorous theoretical analysis and extensive evaluations demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed centralized and distributed schemes.

* The paper is accepted by IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Aug. 2018 

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