Models, code, and papers for "Wei Zhan":
For autonomous agents to successfully operate in real world, the ability to anticipate future motions of surrounding entities in the scene can greatly enhance their safety levels since potentially dangerous situations could be avoided in advance. While impressive results have been shown on predicting each agent's behavior independently, we argue that it is not valid to consider road entities individually since transitions of vehicle states are highly coupled. Moreover, as the predicted horizon becomes longer, modeling prediction uncertainties and multi-modal distributions over future sequences will turn into a more challenging task. In this paper, we address this challenge by presenting a multi-modal probabilistic prediction approach. The proposed method is based on a generative model and is capable of jointly predicting sequential motions of each pair of interacting agents. Most importantly, our model is interpretable, which can explain the underneath logic as well as obtain more reliability to use in real applications. A complicate real-world roundabout scenario is utilized to implement and examine the proposed method.
A novel color image enhancement method is proposed based on Retinex to enhance color images under non-uniform illumination or poor visibility conditions. Different from the conventional Retinex algorithms, the Weighted Guided Image Filter is used as a surround function instead of the Gaussian filter to estimate the background illumination, which can overcome the drawbacks of local blur and halo artifact that may appear by Gaussian filter. To avoid color distortion, the image is converted to the HSI color model, and only the intensity channel is enhanced. Then a linear color restoration algorithm is adopted to convert the enhanced intensity image back to the RGB color model, which ensures the hue is constant and undistorted. Experimental results show that the proposed method is effective to enhance both color and gray images with low exposure and non-uniform illumination, resulting in better visual quality than traditional method. At the same time, the objective evaluation indicators are also superior to the conventional methods. In addition, the efficiency of the proposed method is also improved thanks to the linear color restoration algorithm.
In a given scenario, simultaneously and accurately predicting every possible interaction of traffic participants is an important capability for autonomous vehicles. The majority of current researches focused on the prediction of an single entity without incorporating the environment information. Although some approaches aimed to predict multiple vehicles, they either predicted each vehicle independently with no considerations on possible interaction with surrounding entities or generated discretized joint motions which cannot be directly used in decision making and motion planning for autonomous vehicle. In this paper, we present a probabilistic framework that is able to jointly predict continuous motions for multiple interacting road participants under any driving scenarios and is capable of forecasting the duration of each interaction, which can enhance the prediction performance and efficiency. The proposed traffic scene prediction framework contains two hierarchical modules: the upper module and the lower module. The upper module forecasts the intention of the predicted vehicle, while the lower module predicts motions for interacting scene entities. An exemplar real-world scenario is used to implement and examine the proposed framework.
Accurate and robust tracking of surrounding road participants plays an important role in autonomous driving. However, there is usually no prior knowledge of the number of tracking targets due to object emergence, object disappearance and false alarms. To overcome this challenge, we propose a generic vehicle tracking framework based on modified mixture particle filter, which can make the number of tracking targets adaptive to real-time observations and track all the vehicles within sensor range simultaneously in a uniform architecture without explicit data association. Each object corresponds to a mixture component whose distribution is non-parametric and approximated by particle hypotheses. Most tracking approaches employ vehicle kinematic models as the prediction model. However, it is hard for these models to make proper predictions when sensor measurements are lost or become low quality due to partial or complete occlusions. Moreover, these models are incapable of forecasting sudden maneuvers. To address these problems, we propose to incorporate learning-based behavioral models instead of pure vehicle kinematic models to realize prediction in the prior update of recursive Bayesian state estimation. Two typical driving scenarios including lane keeping and lane change are demonstrated to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed framework as well as the advantages of employing learning-based models.
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are on the road. To safely and efficiently interact with other road participants, AVs have to accurately predict the behavior of surrounding vehicles and plan accordingly. Such prediction should be probabilistic, to address the uncertainties in human behavior. Such prediction should also be interactive, since the distribution over all possible trajectories of the predicted vehicle depends not only on historical information, but also on future plans of other vehicles that interact with it. To achieve such interaction-aware predictions, we propose a probabilistic prediction approach based on hierarchical inverse reinforcement learning (IRL). First, we explicitly consider the hierarchical trajectory-generation process of human drivers involving both discrete and continuous driving decisions. Based on this, the distribution over all future trajectories of the predicted vehicle is formulated as a mixture of distributions partitioned by the discrete decisions. Then we apply IRL hierarchically to learn the distributions from real human demonstrations. A case study for the ramp-merging driving scenario is provided. The quantitative results show that the proposed approach can accurately predict both the discrete driving decisions such as yield or pass as well as the continuous trajectories.
Accurately predicting the possible behaviors of traffic participants is an essential capability for future autonomous vehicles. The majority of current researches fix the number of driving intentions by considering only a specific scenario. However, distinct driving environments usually contain various possible driving maneuvers. Therefore, a intention prediction method that can adapt to different traffic scenarios is needed. To further improve the overall vehicle prediction performance, motion information is usually incorporated with classified intentions. As suggested in some literature, the methods that directly predict possible goal locations can achieve better performance for long-term motion prediction than other approaches due to their automatic incorporation of environment constraints. Moreover, by obtaining the temporal information of the predicted destinations, the optimal trajectories for predicted vehicles as well as the desirable path for ego autonomous vehicle could be easily generated. In this paper, we propose a Semantic-based Intention and Motion Prediction (SIMP) method, which can be adapted to any driving scenarios by using semantic-defined vehicle behaviors. It utilizes a probabilistic framework based on deep neural network to estimate the intentions, final locations, and the corresponding time information for surrounding vehicles. An exemplar real-world scenario was used to implement and examine the proposed method.
We propose a new method for fusing a LIDAR point cloud and camera-captured images in the deep convolutional neural network (CNN). The proposed method constructs a new layer called non-homogeneous pooling layer to transform features between bird view map and front view map. The sparse LIDAR point cloud is used to construct the mapping between the two maps. The pooling layer allows efficient fusion of the bird view and front view features at any stage of the network. This is favorable for the 3D-object detection using camera-LIDAR fusion in autonomous driving scenarios. A corresponding deep CNN is designed and tested on the KITTI bird view object detection dataset, which produces 3D bounding boxes from the bird view map. The fusion method shows particular benefit for detection of pedestrians in the bird view compared to other fusion-based object detection networks.
A high redundant non-holonomic humanoid mobile dual-arm manipulator system is presented in this paper where the motion planning to realize "human-like" autonomous navigation and manipulation tasks is studied. Firstly, an improved MaxiMin NSGA-II algorithm, which optimizes five objective functions to solve the problems of singularity, redundancy, and coupling between mobile base and manipulator simultaneously, is proposed to design the optimal pose to manipulate the target object. Then, in order to link the initial pose and that optimal pose, an off-line motion planning algorithm is designed. In detail, an efficient direct-connect bidirectional RRT and gradient descent algorithm is proposed to reduce the sampled nodes largely, and a geometric optimization method is proposed for path pruning. Besides, head forward behaviors are realized by calculating the reasonable orientations and assigning them to the mobile base to improve the quality of human-robot interaction. Thirdly, the extension to on-line planning is done by introducing real-time sensing, collision-test and control cycles to update robotic motion in dynamic environments. Fourthly, an EEs' via-point-based multi-objective genetic algorithm is proposed to design the "human-like" via-poses by optimizing four objective functions. Finally, numerous simulations are presented to validate the effectiveness of proposed algorithms.
Simulation has long been an essential part of testing autonomous driving systems, but only recently has simulation been useful for building and training self-driving vehicles. Vehicle behavioural models are necessary to simulate the interactions between robot cars. This paper proposed a new method to formalize the lane-changing model in urban driving scenarios. We define human incentives from different perspectives, speed incentive, route change incentive, comfort incentive and courtesy incentive etc. We applied a decision-theoretical tool, called Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) to take these incentive policies into account. The strategy of combination is according to different driving style which varies for each driving. Thus a lane-changing decision selection algorithm is proposed. Not only our method allows for varying the motivation of lane-changing from the purely egoistic desire to a more courtesy concern, but also they can mimic drivers' state, inattentive or concentrate, which influences their driving Behaviour. We define some cost functions and calibrate the parameters with different scenarios of traffic data. Distinguishing driving styles are used to aggregate decision-makers' assessments about various criteria weightings to obtain the action drivers desire most. Our result demonstrates the proposed method can produce varied lane-changing behaviour. Unlike other lane-changing models based on artificial intelligence methods, our model has more flexible controllability.
Accurately tracking and predicting behaviors of surrounding objects are key prerequisites for intelligent systems such as autonomous vehicles to achieve safe and high-quality decision making and motion planning. However, there still remain challenges for multi-target tracking due to object number fluctuation and occlusion. To overcome these challenges, we propose a constrained mixture sequential Monte Carlo (CMSMC) method in which a mixture representation is incorporated in the estimated posterior distribution to maintain multi-modality. Multiple targets can be tracked simultaneously within a unified framework without explicit data association between observations and tracking targets. The framework can incorporate an arbitrary prediction model as the implicit proposal distribution of the CMSMC method. An example in this paper is a learning-based model for hierarchical time-series prediction, which consists of a behavior recognition module and a state evolution module. Both modules in the proposed model are generic and flexible so as to be applied to a class of time-series prediction problems where behaviors can be separated into different levels. Finally, the proposed framework is applied to a numerical case study as well as a task of on-road vehicle tracking, behavior recognition, and prediction in highway scenarios. Instead of only focusing on forecasting trajectory of a single entity, we jointly predict continuous motions for interactive entities simultaneously. The proposed approaches are evaluated from multiple aspects, which demonstrate great potential for intelligent vehicular systems and traffic surveillance systems.
Understanding human driving behavior is important for autonomous vehicles. In this paper, we propose an interpretable human behavior model in interactive driving scenarios based on the cumulative prospect theory (CPT). As a non-expected utility theory, CPT can well explain some systematically biased or ``irrational'' behavior/decisions of human that cannot be explained by the expected utility theory. Hence, the goal of this work is to formulate the human drivers' behavior generation model with CPT so that some ``irrational'' behavior or decisions of human can be better captured and predicted. Towards such a goal, we first develop a CPT-driven decision-making model focusing on driving scenarios with two interacting agents. A hierarchical learning algorithm is proposed afterward to learn the utility function, the value function, and the decision weighting function in the CPT model. A case study for roundabout merging is also provided as verification. With real driving data, the prediction performances of three different models are compared: a predefined model based on time-to-collision (TTC), a learning-based model based on neural networks, and the proposed CPT-based model. The results show that the proposed model outperforms the TTC model and achieves similar performance as the learning-based model with much less training data and better interpretability.
Coordination recognition and subtle pattern prediction of future trajectories play a significant role when modeling interactive behaviors of multiple agents. Due to the essential property of uncertainty in the future evolution, deterministic predictors are not sufficiently safe and robust. In order to tackle the task of probabilistic prediction for multiple, interactive entities, we propose a coordination and trajectory prediction system (CTPS), which has a hierarchical structure including a macro-level coordination recognition module and a micro-level subtle pattern prediction module which solves a probabilistic generation task. We illustrate two types of representation of the coordination variable: categorized and real-valued, and compare their effects and advantages based on empirical studies. We also bring the ideas of Bayesian deep learning into deep generative models to generate diversified prediction hypotheses. The proposed system is tested on multiple driving datasets in various traffic scenarios, which achieves better performance than baseline approaches in terms of a set of evaluation metrics. The results also show that using categorized coordination can better capture multi-modality and generate more diversified samples than the real-valued coordination, while the latter can generate prediction hypotheses with smaller errors with a sacrifice of sample diversity. Moreover, employing neural networks with weight uncertainty is able to generate samples with larger variance and diversity.
Accurate and robust recognition and prediction of traffic situation plays an important role in autonomous driving, which is a prerequisite for risk assessment and effective decision making. Although there exist a lot of works dealing with modeling driver behavior of a single object, it remains a challenge to make predictions for multiple highly interactive agents that react to each other simultaneously. In this work, we propose a generic probabilistic hierarchical recognition and prediction framework which employs a two-layer Hidden Markov Model (TLHMM) to obtain the distribution of potential situations and a learning-based dynamic scene evolution model to sample a group of future trajectories. Instead of predicting motions of a single entity, we propose to get the joint distribution by modeling multiple interactive agents as a whole system. Moreover, due to the decoupling property of the layered structure, our model is suitable for knowledge transfer from simulation to real world applications as well as among different traffic scenarios, which can reduce the computational efforts of training and the demand for a large data amount. A case study of highway ramp merging scenario is demonstrated to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed framework.
For safe and efficient planning and control in autonomous driving, we need a driving policy which can achieve desirable driving quality in long-term horizon with guaranteed safety and feasibility. Optimization-based approaches, such as Model Predictive Control (MPC), can provide such optimal policies, but their computational complexity is generally unacceptable for real-time implementation. To address this problem, we propose a fast integrated planning and control framework that combines learning- and optimization-based approaches in a two-layer hierarchical structure. The first layer, defined as the "policy layer", is established by a neural network which learns the long-term optimal driving policy generated by MPC. The second layer, called the "execution layer", is a short-term optimization-based controller that tracks the reference trajecotries given by the "policy layer" with guaranteed short-term safety and feasibility. Moreover, with efficient and highly-representative features, a small-size neural network is sufficient in the "policy layer" to handle many complicated driving scenarios. This renders online imitation learning with Dataset Aggregation (DAgger) so that the performance of the "policy layer" can be improved rapidly and continuously online. Several exampled driving scenarios are demonstrated to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed framework.
Autonomous cars have to navigate in dynamic environment which can be full of uncertainties. The uncertainties can come either from sensor limitations such as occlusions and limited sensor range, or from probabilistic prediction of other road participants, or from unknown social behavior in a new area. To safely and efficiently drive in the presence of these uncertainties, the decision-making and planning modules of autonomous cars should intelligently utilize all available information and appropriately tackle the uncertainties so that proper driving strategies can be generated. In this paper, we propose a social perception scheme which treats all road participants as distributed sensors in a sensor network. By observing the individual behaviors as well as the group behaviors, uncertainties of the three types can be updated uniformly in a belief space. The updated beliefs from the social perception are then explicitly incorporated into a probabilistic planning framework based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). The cost function of the MPC is learned via inverse reinforcement learning (IRL). Such an integrated probabilistic planning module with socially enhanced perception enables the autonomous vehicles to generate behaviors which are defensive but not overly conservative, and socially compatible. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is verified in simulation on an representative scenario with sensor occlusions.
Typically, autonomous cars optimize for a combination of safety, efficiency, and driving quality. But as we get better at this optimization, we start seeing behavior go from too conservative to too aggressive. The car's behavior exposes the incentives we provide in its cost function. In this work, we argue for cars that are not optimizing a purely selfish cost, but also try to be courteous to other interactive drivers. We formalize courtesy as a term in the objective that measures the increase in another driver's cost induced by the autonomous car's behavior. Such a courtesy term enables the robot car to be aware of possible irrationality of the human behavior, and plan accordingly. We analyze the effect of courtesy in a variety of scenarios. We find, for example, that courteous robot cars leave more space when merging in front of a human driver. Moreover, we find that such a courtesy term can help explain real human driver behavior on the NGSIM dataset.
Autonomous vehicles should be able to generate accurate probabilistic predictions for uncertain behavior of other road users. Moreover, reactive predictions are necessary in highly interactive driving scenarios to answer "what if I take this action in the future" for autonomous vehicles. There is no existing unified framework to homogenize the problem formulation, representation simplification, and evaluation metric for various prediction methods, such as probabilistic graphical models (PGM), neural networks (NN) and inverse reinforcement learning (IRL). In this paper, we formulate a probabilistic reaction prediction problem, and reveal the relationship between reaction and situation prediction problems. We employ prototype trajectories with designated motion patterns other than "intention" to homogenize the representation so that probabilities corresponding to each trajectory generated by different methods can be evaluated. We also discuss the reasons why "intention" is not suitable to serve as a motion indicator in highly interactive scenarios. We propose to use Brier score as the baseline metric for evaluation. In order to reveal the fatality of the consequences when the predictions are adopted by decision-making and planning, we propose a fatality-aware metric, which is a weighted Brier score based on the criticality of the trajectory pairs of the interacting entities. Conservatism and non-defensiveness are defined from the weighted Brier score to indicate the consequences caused by inaccurate predictions. Modified methods based on PGM, NN and IRL are provided to generate probabilistic reaction predictions in an exemplar scenario of nudging from a highway ramp. The results are evaluated by the baseline and proposed metrics to construct a mini benchmark. Analysis on the properties of each method is also provided by comparing the baseline and proposed metric scores.
We investigate learning a ConvNet classifier with class-imbalanced data. We found that a ConvNet over-fits significantly to the minor classes that do not have sufficient training instances, even if it is trained using vanilla empirical risk minimization (ERM). We conduct a series of analysis and argue that feature deviation between the training and test instances serves as the main cause. We propose to incorporate class-dependent temperatures (CDT) in learning a ConvNet: CDT forces the minor-class instances to have larger decision values in training, so as to compensate for the effect of feature deviation in testing. We validate our approach on several benchmark datasets and achieve promising results. Our studies further suggest that class-imbalanced data affects traditional machine learning and recent deep learning in very different ways. We hope that our insights can inspire new ways of thinking in resolving class-imbalanced deep learning.
Crowd counting in images is a widely explored but challenging task. Though recent convolutional neural network (CNN) methods have achieved great progress, it is still difficult to accurately count and even to precisely localize people in very dense regions. A major issue is that dense regions usually consist of many instances of small size, and thus exhibit very different density patterns compared with sparse regions. Localizing or detecting dense small objects is also very delicate. In this paper, instead of processing image pyramid and aggregating multi-scale features, we propose a simple yet effective Learning to Scale (L2S) module to cope with significant scale variations in both regression and localization. Specifically, L2S module aims to automatically scale dense regions into similar and reasonable scale levels. This alleviates the density pattern shift for density regression methods and facilitates the localization of small instances. Besides, we also introduce a novel distance label map combined with a customized adapted cross-entropy loss for precise person localization. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method termed AutoScale consistently improves upon state-of-the-art methods in both regression and localization benchmarks on three widely used datasets. The proposed AutoScale also demonstrates a noteworthy transferability under cross-dataset validation on different datasets.