Models, code, and papers for "Xiangjian He":

Security & Privacy in IoT Using Machine Learning & Blockchain: Threats & Countermeasures

Feb 10, 2020
Nazar Waheed, Xiangjian He, Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Usman

Security and privacy have become significant concerns due to the involvement of the Internet of Things (IoT) devices in different applications. Cyber threats are growing at an explosive pace making the existing security and privacy measures inadequate. Hence, everyone on the Internet is a product for hackers. Consequently, Machine Learning (ML) algorithms are used to produce accurate outputs from large complex databases. The generated outputs can be used to predict and detect vulnerabilities in IoT-based systems. Furthermore, Blockchain (BC) technique is becoming popular in modern IoT applications to deal with security and privacy issues. Several studies have been conducted on either ML algorithms or BC techniques. However, these studies target either security or privacy issues using ML algorithms or BC techniques, thus posing a need for a combined survey on efforts made in recent years addressing both security and privacy issues using ML algorithms and BC techniques. In this paper, we have provided a summary of research efforts made in the past few years addressing security and privacy issues using ML algorithms and BC techniques in the IoT domain. First, we discuss and categorize various security and privacy threats in the IoT domain that were reported in the past few years. Secondly, we classify the literature on security and privacy efforts based on ML algorithms and BC techniques in the IoT domain. In the end, various challenges and future research directions using ML algorithms and BC techniques to address security and privacy issues in the IoT domain are identified and discussed.

* 35 pages, ACM CSUR Journal 

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Face Parsing via a Fully-Convolutional Continuous CRF Neural Network

Aug 12, 2017
Lei Zhou, Zhi Liu, Xiangjian He

In this work, we address the face parsing task with a Fully-Convolutional continuous CRF Neural Network (FC-CNN) architecture. In contrast to previous face parsing methods that apply region-based subnetwork hundreds of times, our FC-CNN is fully convolutional with high segmentation accuracy. To achieve this goal, FC-CNN integrates three subnetworks, a unary network, a pairwise network and a continuous Conditional Random Field (C-CRF) network into a unified framework. The high-level semantic information and low-level details across different convolutional layers are captured by the convolutional and deconvolutional structures in the unary network. The semantic edge context is learnt by the pairwise network branch to construct pixel-wise affinity. Based on a differentiable superpixel pooling layer and a differentiable C-CRF layer, the unary network and pairwise network are combined via a novel continuous CRF network to achieve spatial consistency in both training and test procedure of a deep neural network. Comprehensive evaluations on LFW-PL and HELEN datasets demonstrate that FC-CNN achieves better performance over the other state-of-arts for accurate face labeling on challenging images.

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Soft Locality Preserving Map (SLPM) for Facial Expression Recognition

Jan 11, 2018
Cigdem Turan, Kin-Man Lam, Xiangjian He

For image recognition, an extensive number of methods have been proposed to overcome the high-dimensionality problem of feature vectors being used. These methods vary from unsupervised to supervised, and from statistics to graph-theory based. In this paper, the most popular and the state-of-the-art methods for dimensionality reduction are firstly reviewed, and then a new and more efficient manifold-learning method, named Soft Locality Preserving Map (SLPM), is presented. Furthermore, feature generation and sample selection are proposed to achieve better manifold learning. SLPM is a graph-based subspace-learning method, with the use of k-neighbourhood information and the class information. The key feature of SLPM is that it aims to control the level of spread of the different classes, because the spread of the classes in the underlying manifold is closely connected to the generalizability of the learned subspace. Our proposed manifold-learning method can be applied to various pattern recognition applications, and we evaluate its performances on facial expression recognition. Experiments on databases, such as the Bahcesehir University Multilingual Affective Face Database (BAUM-2), the Extended Cohn-Kanade (CK+) Database, the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database, and the Taiwanese Facial Expression Image Database (TFEID), show that SLPM can effectively reduce the dimensionality of the feature vectors and enhance the discriminative power of the extracted features for expression recognition. Furthermore, the proposed feature-generation method can improve the generalizability of the underlying manifolds for facial expression recognition.

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See More Than Once -- Kernel-Sharing Atrous Convolution for Semantic Segmentation

Sep 09, 2019
Ye Huang, Qingqing Wang, Wenjing Jia, Xiangjian He

The state-of-the-art semantic segmentation solutions usually leverage different receptive fields via multiple parallel branches to handle objects with different sizes. However, employing separate kernels for individual branches degrades the generalization and representation abilities of the network, and the amount of parameters increases by the times of the number of branches. To tackle this problem, we propose a novel network structure namely Kernel-Sharing Atrous Convolution (KSAC), where branches of different receptive fields share the same kernel, i.e., let a single kernel `see' the input feature maps more than once with different receptive fields, to facilitate communication among branches and perform `feature augmentation' inside the network. Experiments conducted on the benchmark VOC 2012 dataset show that the proposed sharing strategy can not only boost network's generalization and representation abilities but also reduce the model complexity significantly. Specifically, when compared with DeepLabV3+ equipped with MobileNetv2 backbone, 33% parameters are reduced together with an mIOU improvement of 0.6%. When Xception is used as the backbone, the mIOU is elevated from 83.34% to 85.96% with about 10M parameters saved. In addition, different from the widely used ASPP structure, our proposed KSAC is able to further improve the mIOU by taking benefit of wider context with larger atrous rates.

* 8 pages 

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Voiceprint recognition of Parkinson patients based on deep learning

Dec 17, 2018
Zhijing Xu, Juan Wang, Ying Zhang, Xiangjian He

More than 90% of the Parkinson Disease (PD) patients suffer from vocal disorders. Speech impairment is already indicator of PD. This study focuses on PD diagnosis through voiceprint features. In this paper, a method based on Deep Neural Network (DNN) recognition and classification combined with Mini-Batch Gradient Descent (MBGD) is proposed to distinguish PD patients from healthy people using voiceprint features. In order to exact the voiceprint features from patients, Weighted Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (WMFCC) is applied. The proposed method is tested on experimental data obtained by the voice recordings of three sustained vowels /a/, /o/ and /u/ from participants (48 PD and 20 healthy people). The results show that the proposed method achieves a high accuracy of diagnosis of PD patients from healthy people, than the conventional methods like Support Vector Machine (SVM) and other mentioned in this paper. The accuracy achieved is 89.5%. WMFCC approach can solve the problem that the high-order cepstrum coefficients are small and the features component's representation ability to the audio is weak. MBGD reduces the computational loads of the loss function, and increases the training speed of the system. DNN classifier enhances the classification ability of voiceprint features. Therefore, the above approaches can provide a solid solution for the quick auxiliary diagnosis of PD in early stage.

* 10 pages,4 figures 

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A Structural Correlation Filter Combined with A Multi-task Gaussian Particle Filter for Visual Tracking

Mar 03, 2018
Manna Dai, Shuying Cheng, Xiangjian He, Dadong Wang

In this paper, we propose a novel structural correlation filter combined with a multi-task Gaussian particle filter (KCF-GPF) model for robust visual tracking. We first present an assemble structure where several KCF trackers as weak experts provide a preliminary decision for a Gaussian particle filter to make a final decision. The proposed method is designed to exploit and complement the strength of a KCF and a Gaussian particle filter. Compared with the existing tracking methods based on correlation filters or particle filters, the proposed tracker has several advantages. First, it can detect the tracked target in a large-scale search scope via weak KCF trackers and evaluate the reliability of weak trackers\rq decisions for a Gaussian particle filter to make a strong decision, and hence it can tackle fast motions, appearance variations, occlusions and re-detections. Second, it can effectively handle large-scale variations via a Gaussian particle filter. Third, it can be amenable to fully parallel implementation using importance sampling without resampling, thereby it is convenient for VLSI implementation and can lower the computational costs. Extensive experiments on the OTB-2013 dataset containing 50 challenging sequences demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs favourably against 16 state-of-the-art trackers.

* 10 pages. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1703.05020 by other authors 

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PDANet: Pyramid Density-aware Attention Net for Accurate Crowd Counting

Feb 25, 2020
Saeed Amirgholipour, Xiangjian He, Wenjing Jia, Dadong Wang, Lei Liu

Crowd counting, i.e., estimating the number of people in a crowded area, has attracted much interest in the research community. Although many attempts have been reported, crowd counting remains an open real-world problem due to the vast scale variations in crowd density within the interested area, and severe occlusion among the crowd. In this paper, we propose a novel Pyramid Density-Aware Attention-based network, abbreviated as PDANet, that leverages the attention, pyramid scale feature and two branch decoder modules for density-aware crowd counting. The PDANet utilizes these modules to extract different scale features, focus on the relevant information, and suppress the misleading ones. We also address the variation of crowdedness levels among different images with an exclusive Density-Aware Decoder (DAD). For this purpose, a classifier evaluates the density level of the input features and then passes them to the corresponding high and low crowded DAD modules. Finally, we generate an overall density map by considering the summation of low and high crowded density maps as spatial attention. Meanwhile, we employ two losses to create a precise density map for the input scene. Extensive evaluations conducted on the challenging benchmark datasets well demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed PDANet in terms of the accuracy of counting and generated density maps over the well-known state of the arts.

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Beyond Context: Exploring Semantic Similarity for Tiny Face Detection

Mar 05, 2018
Yue Xi, Jiangbin Zheng, Xiangjian He, Wenjing Jia, Hanhui Li

Tiny face detection aims to find faces with high degrees of variability in scale, resolution and occlusion in cluttered scenes. Due to the very little information available on tiny faces, it is not sufficient to detect them merely based on the information presented inside the tiny bounding boxes or their context. In this paper, we propose to exploit the semantic similarity among all predicted targets in each image to boost current face detectors. To this end, we present a novel framework to model semantic similarity as pairwise constraints within the metric learning scheme, and then refine our predictions with the semantic similarity by utilizing the graph cut techniques. Experiments conducted on three widely-used benchmark datasets have demonstrated the improvement over the-state-of-the-arts gained by applying this idea.

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A-CCNN: adaptive ccnn for density estimation and crowd counting

Apr 20, 2018
Saeed Amirgholipour Kasmani, Xiangjian He, Wenjing Jia, Dadong Wang, Michelle Zeibots

Crowd counting, for estimating the number of people in a crowd using vision-based computer techniques, has attracted much interest in the research community. Although many attempts have been reported, real-world problems, such as huge variation in subjects' sizes in images and serious occlusion among people, make it still a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose an Adaptive Counting Convolutional Neural Network (A-CCNN) and consider the scale variation of objects in a frame adaptively so as to improve the accuracy of counting. Our method takes advantages of contextual information to provide more accurate and adaptive density maps and crowd counting in a scene. Extensively experimental evaluation is conducted using different benchmark datasets for object-counting and shows that the proposed approach is effective and outperforms state-of-the-art approaches.

* 5 pages, 2 figures 

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FACLSTM: ConvLSTM with Focused Attention for Scene Text Recognition

Apr 20, 2019
Qingqing Wang, Wenjing Jia, Xiangjian He, Yue Lu, Michael Blumenstein, Ye Huang

Scene text recognition has recently been widely treated as a sequence-to-sequence prediction problem, where traditional fully-connected-LSTM (FC-LSTM) has played a critical role. Due to the limitation of FC-LSTM, existing methods have to convert 2-D feature maps into 1-D sequential feature vectors, resulting in severe damages of the valuable spatial and structural information of text images. In this paper, we argue that scene text recognition is essentially a spatiotemporal prediction problem for its 2-D image inputs, and propose a convolution LSTM (ConvLSTM)-based scene text recognizer, namely, FACLSTM, i.e., Focused Attention ConvLSTM, where the spatial correlation of pixels is fully leveraged when performing sequential prediction with LSTM. Particularly, the attention mechanism is properly incorporated into an efficient ConvLSTM structure via the convolutional operations and additional character center masks are generated to help focus attention on right feature areas. The experimental results on benchmark datasets IIIT5K, SVT and CUTE demonstrate that our proposed FACLSTM performs competitively on the regular, low-resolution and noisy text images, and outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches on the curved text with large margins.

* 9 pages 

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DENet: A Universal Network for Counting Crowd with Varying Densities and Scales

Apr 17, 2019
Lei Liu, Jie Jiang, Wenjing Jia, Saeed Amirgholipour, Michelle Zeibots, Xiangjian He

Counting people or objects with significantly varying scales and densities has attracted much interest from the research community and yet it remains an open problem. In this paper, we propose a simple but an efficient and effective network, named DENet, which is composed of two components, i.e., a detection network (DNet) and an encoder-decoder estimation network (ENet). We first run DNet on an input image to detect and count individuals who can be segmented clearly. Then, ENet is utilized to estimate the density maps of the remaining areas, where the numbers of individuals cannot be detected. We propose a modified Xception as an encoder for feature extraction and a combination of dilated convolution and transposed convolution as a decoder. In the ShanghaiTech Part A, UCF and WorldExpo'10 datasets, our DENet achieves lower Mean Absolute Error (MAE) than those of the state-of-the-art methods.

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Structured Inhomogeneous Density Map Learning for Crowd Counting

Jan 20, 2018
Hanhui Li, Xiangjian He, Hefeng Wu, Saeed Amirgholipour Kasmani, Ruomei Wang, Xiaonan Luo, Liang Lin

In this paper, we aim at tackling the problem of crowd counting in extremely high-density scenes, which contain hundreds, or even thousands of people. We begin by a comprehensive analysis of the most widely used density map-based methods, and demonstrate how easily existing methods are affected by the inhomogeneous density distribution problem, e.g., causing them to be sensitive to outliers, or be hard to optimized. We then present an extremely simple solution to the inhomogeneous density distribution problem, which can be intuitively summarized as extending the density map from 2D to 3D, with the extra dimension implicitly indicating the density level. Such solution can be implemented by a single Density-Aware Network, which is not only easy to train, but also can achieve the state-of-art performance on various challenging datasets.

* 10 pages, 7 figures 

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