Models, code, and papers for "Xueting Li":

Rethinking Motion Representation: Residual Frames with 3D ConvNets for Better Action Recognition

Jan 16, 2020
Li Tao, Xueting Wang, Toshihiko Yamasaki

Recently, 3D convolutional networks yield good performance in action recognition. However, optical flow stream is still needed to ensure better performance, the cost of which is very high. In this paper, we propose a fast but effective way to extract motion features from videos utilizing residual frames as the input data in 3D ConvNets. By replacing traditional stacked RGB frames with residual ones, 20.5% and 12.5% points improvements over top-1 accuracy can be achieved on the UCF101 and HMDB51 datasets when trained from scratch. Because residual frames contain little information of object appearance, we further use a 2D convolutional network to extract appearance features and combine them with the results from residual frames to form a two-path solution. In three benchmark datasets, our two-path solution achieved better or comparable performances than those using additional optical flow methods, especially outperformed the state-of-the-art models on Mini-kinetics dataset. Further analysis indicates that better motion features can be extracted using residual frames with 3D ConvNets, and our residual-frame-input path is a good supplement for existing RGB-frame-input models.

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Weakly Supervised Video Summarization by Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning

Jan 12, 2020
Yiyan Chen, Li Tao, Xueting Wang, Toshihiko Yamasaki

Conventional video summarization approaches based on reinforcement learning have the problem that the reward can only be received after the whole summary is generated. Such kind of reward is sparse and it makes reinforcement learning hard to converge. Another problem is that labelling each frame is tedious and costly, which usually prohibits the construction of large-scale datasets. To solve these problems, we propose a weakly supervised hierarchical reinforcement learning framework, which decomposes the whole task into several subtasks to enhance the summarization quality. This framework consists of a manager network and a worker network. For each subtask, the manager is trained to set a subgoal only by a task-level binary label, which requires much fewer labels than conventional approaches. With the guide of the subgoal, the worker predicts the importance scores for video frames in the subtask by policy gradient according to both global reward and innovative defined sub-rewards to overcome the sparse problem. Experiments on two benchmark datasets show that our proposal has achieved the best performance, even better than supervised approaches.

* mmasia 2019 accepted 

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Learning Linear Transformations for Fast Arbitrary Style Transfer

Aug 14, 2018
Xueting Li, Sifei Liu, Jan Kautz, Ming-Hsuan Yang

Given a random pair of images, an arbitrary style transfer method extracts the feel from the reference image to synthesize an output based on the look of the other content image. Recent arbitrary style transfer methods transfer second order statistics from reference image onto content image via a multiplication between content image features and a transformation matrix, which is computed from features with a pre-determined algorithm. These algorithms either require computationally expensive operations, or fail to model the feature covariance and produce artifacts in synthesized images. Generalized from these methods, in this work, we derive the form of transformation matrix theoretically and present an arbitrary style transfer approach that learns the transformation matrix with a feed-forward network. Our algorithm is highly efficient yet allows a flexible combination of multi-level styles while preserving content affinity during style transfer process. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on four tasks: artistic style transfer, video and photo-realistic style transfer as well as domain adaptation, including comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods.

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Learning Propagation for Arbitrarily-structured Data

Sep 25, 2019
Sifei Liu, Xueting Li, Varun Jampani, Shalini De Mello, Jan Kautz

Processing an input signal that contains arbitrary structures, e.g., superpixels and point clouds, remains a big challenge in computer vision. Linear diffusion, an effective model for image processing, has been recently integrated with deep learning algorithms. In this paper, we propose to learn pairwise relations among data points in a global fashion to improve semantic segmentation with arbitrarily-structured data, through spatial generalized propagation networks (SGPN). The network propagates information on a group of graphs, which represent the arbitrarily-structured data, through a learned, linear diffusion process. The module is flexible to be embedded and jointly trained with many types of networks, e.g., CNNs. We experiment with semantic segmentation networks, where we use our propagation module to jointly train on different data -- images, superpixels and point clouds. We show that SGPN consistently improves the performance of both pixel and point cloud segmentation, compared to networks that do not contain this module. Our method suggests an effective way to model the global pairwise relations for arbitrarily-structured data.

* ICCV 2019 

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A Closed-form Solution to Photorealistic Image Stylization

Jul 27, 2018
Yijun Li, Ming-Yu Liu, Xueting Li, Ming-Hsuan Yang, Jan Kautz

Photorealistic image stylization concerns transferring style of a reference photo to a content photo with the constraint that the stylized photo should remain photorealistic. While several photorealistic image stylization methods exist, they tend to generate spatially inconsistent stylizations with noticeable artifacts. In this paper, we propose a method to address these issues. The proposed method consists of a stylization step and a smoothing step. While the stylization step transfers the style of the reference photo to the content photo, the smoothing step ensures spatially consistent stylizations. Each of the steps has a closed-form solution and can be computed efficiently. We conduct extensive experimental validations. The results show that the proposed method generates photorealistic stylization outputs that are more preferred by human subjects as compared to those by the competing methods while running much faster. Source code and additional results are available at .

* Accepted by ECCV 2018 

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Putting Humans in a Scene: Learning Affordance in 3D Indoor Environments

Mar 15, 2019
Xueting Li, Sifei Liu, Kihwan Kim, Xiaolong Wang, Ming-Hsuan Yang, Jan Kautz

Affordance modeling plays an important role in visual understanding. In this paper, we aim to predict affordances of 3D indoor scenes, specifically what human poses are afforded by a given indoor environment, such as sitting on a chair or standing on the floor. In order to predict valid affordances and learn possible 3D human poses in indoor scenes, we need to understand the semantic and geometric structure of a scene as well as its potential interactions with a human. To learn such a model, a large-scale dataset of 3D indoor affordances is required. In this work, we build a fully automatic 3D pose synthesizer that fuses semantic knowledge from a large number of 2D poses extracted from TV shows as well as 3D geometric knowledge from voxel representations of indoor scenes. With the data created by the synthesizer, we introduce a 3D pose generative model to predict semantically plausible and physically feasible human poses within a given scene (provided as a single RGB, RGB-D, or depth image). We demonstrate that our human affordance prediction method consistently outperforms existing state-of-the-art methods.

* CVPR 2019 

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Joint-task Self-supervised Learning for Temporal Correspondence

Sep 26, 2019
Xueting Li, Sifei Liu, Shalini De Mello, Xiaolong Wang, Jan Kautz, Ming-Hsuan Yang

This paper proposes to learn reliable dense correspondence from videos in a self-supervised manner. Our learning process integrates two highly related tasks: tracking large image regions \emph{and} establishing fine-grained pixel-level associations between consecutive video frames. We exploit the synergy between both tasks through a shared inter-frame affinity matrix, which simultaneously models transitions between video frames at both the region- and pixel-levels. While region-level localization helps reduce ambiguities in fine-grained matching by narrowing down search regions; fine-grained matching provides bottom-up features to facilitate region-level localization. Our method outperforms the state-of-the-art self-supervised methods on a variety of visual correspondence tasks, including video-object and part-segmentation propagation, keypoint tracking, and object tracking. Our self-supervised method even surpasses the fully-supervised affinity feature representation obtained from a ResNet-18 pre-trained on the ImageNet.

* NeurIPS 2019 

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Self-supervised Single-view 3D Reconstruction via Semantic Consistency

Mar 13, 2020
Xueting Li, Sifei Liu, Kihwan Kim, Shalini De Mello, Varun Jampani, Ming-Hsuan Yang, Jan Kautz

We learn a self-supervised, single-view 3D reconstruction model that predicts the 3D mesh shape, texture and camera pose of a target object with a collection of 2D images and silhouettes. The proposed method does not necessitate 3D supervision, manually annotated keypoints, multi-view images of an object or a prior 3D template. The key insight of our work is that objects can be represented as a collection of deformable parts, and each part is semantically coherent across different instances of the same category (e.g., wings on birds and wheels on cars). Therefore, by leveraging self-supervisedly learned part segmentation of a large collection of category-specific images, we can effectively enforce semantic consistency between the reconstructed meshes and the original images. This significantly reduces ambiguities during joint prediction of shape and camera pose of an object, along with texture. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to try and solve the single-view reconstruction problem without a category-specific template mesh or semantic keypoints. Thus our model can easily generalize to various object categories without such labels, e.g., horses, penguins, etc. Through a variety of experiments on several categories of deformable and rigid objects, we demonstrate that our unsupervised method performs comparably if not better than existing category-specific reconstruction methods learned with supervision.

* Codes and other resources will be released at: 

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Binocular Tone Mapping with Improved Overall Contrast and Local Details

Sep 17, 2018
Zhuming Zhang, Xinghong Hu, Xueting Liu, Tien-Tsin Wong

Tone mapping is a commonly used technique that maps the set of colors in high-dynamic-range (HDR) images to another set of colors in low-dynamic-range (LDR) images, to fit the need for print-outs, LCD monitors and projectors. Unfortunately, during the compression of dynamic range, the overall contrast and local details generally cannot be preserved simultaneously. Recently, with the increased use of stereoscopic devices, the notion of binocular tone mapping has been proposed in the existing research study. However, the existing research lacks the binocular perception study and is unable to generate the optimal binocular pair that presents the most visual content. In this paper, we propose a novel perception-based binocular tone mapping method, that can generate an optimal binocular image pair (generating left and right images simultaneously) from an HDR image that presents the most visual content by designing a binocular perception metric. Our method outperforms the existing method in terms of both visual and time performance.

* Computer Graphics Forum (Pacific Graphics issue) 37, 7 (2018) 
* Accepted by Pacific Graphics 2018 

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Real-time Deep Video Deinterlacing

Aug 01, 2017
Haichao Zhu, Xueting Liu, Xiangyu Mao, Tien-Tsin Wong

Interlacing is a widely used technique, for television broadcast and video recording, to double the perceived frame rate without increasing the bandwidth. But it presents annoying visual artifacts, such as flickering and silhouette "serration," during the playback. Existing state-of-the-art deinterlacing methods either ignore the temporal information to provide real-time performance but lower visual quality, or estimate the motion for better deinterlacing but with a trade-off of higher computational cost. In this paper, we present the first and novel deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) based method to deinterlace with high visual quality and real-time performance. Unlike existing models for super-resolution problems which relies on the translation-invariant assumption, our proposed DCNN model utilizes the temporal information from both the odd and even half frames to reconstruct only the missing scanlines, and retains the given odd and even scanlines for producing the full deinterlaced frames. By further introducing a layer-sharable architecture, our system can achieve real-time performance on a single GPU. Experiments shows that our method outperforms all existing methods, in terms of reconstruction accuracy and computational performance.

* 9 pages, 11 figures 

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ClusterFit: Improving Generalization of Visual Representations

Dec 06, 2019
Xueting Yan, Ishan Misra, Abhinav Gupta, Deepti Ghadiyaram, Dhruv Mahajan

Pre-training convolutional neural networks with weakly-supervised and self-supervised strategies is becoming increasingly popular for several computer vision tasks. However, due to the lack of strong discriminative signals, these learned representations may overfit to the pre-training objective (e.g., hashtag prediction) and not generalize well to downstream tasks. In this work, we present a simple strategy - ClusterFit (CF) to improve the robustness of the visual representations learned during pre-training. Given a dataset, we (a) cluster its features extracted from a pre-trained network using k-means and (b) re-train a new network from scratch on this dataset using cluster assignments as pseudo-labels. We empirically show that clustering helps reduce the pre-training task-specific information from the extracted features thereby minimizing overfitting to the same. Our approach is extensible to different pre-training frameworks -- weak- and self-supervised, modalities -- images and videos, and pre-training tasks -- object and action classification. Through extensive transfer learning experiments on 11 different target datasets of varied vocabularies and granularities, we show that ClusterFit significantly improves the representation quality compared to the state-of-the-art large-scale (millions / billions) weakly-supervised image and video models and self-supervised image models.

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Deep Comparison: Relation Columns for Few-Shot Learning

Nov 20, 2018
Xueting Zhang, Flood Sung, Yuting Qiang, Yongxin Yang, Timothy M. Hospedales

Few-shot deep learning is a topical challenge area for scaling visual recognition to open-ended growth in the space of categories to recognise. A promising line work towards realising this vision is deep networks that learn to match queries with stored training images. However, methods in this paradigm usually train a deep embedding followed by a single linear classifier. Our insight is that effective general-purpose matching requires discrimination with regards to features at multiple abstraction levels. We therefore propose a new framework termed Deep Comparison Network(DCN) that decomposes embedding learning into a sequence of modules, and pairs each with a relation module. The relation modules compute a non-linear metric to score the match using the corresponding embedding module's representation. To ensure that all embedding module's features are used, the relation modules are deeply supervised. Finally generalisation is further improved by a learned noise regulariser. The resulting network achieves state of the art performance on both miniImageNet and tieredImageNet, while retaining the appealing simplicity and efficiency of deep metric learning approaches.

* 10 pages, 5 figures 

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Large-scale weakly-supervised pre-training for video action recognition

May 02, 2019
Deepti Ghadiyaram, Matt Feiszli, Du Tran, Xueting Yan, Heng Wang, Dhruv Mahajan

Current fully-supervised video datasets consist of only a few hundred thousand videos and fewer than a thousand domain-specific labels. This hinders the progress towards advanced video architectures. This paper presents an in-depth study of using large volumes of web videos for pre-training video models for the task of action recognition. Our primary empirical finding is that pre-training at a very large scale (over 65 million videos), despite on noisy social-media videos and hashtags, substantially improves the state-of-the-art on three challenging public action recognition datasets. Further, we examine three questions in the construction of weakly-supervised video action datasets. First, given that actions involve interactions with objects, how should one construct a verb-object pre-training label space to benefit transfer learning the most? Second, frame-based models perform quite well on action recognition; is pre-training for good image features sufficient or is pre-training for spatio-temporal features valuable for optimal transfer learning? Finally, actions are generally less well-localized in long videos vs. short videos; since action labels are provided at a video level, how should one choose video clips for best performance, given some fixed budget of number or minutes of videos?

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DeepSperm: A robust and real-time bull sperm-cell detection in densely populated semen videos

Mar 03, 2020
Priyanto Hidayatullah, Xueting Wang, Toshihiko Yamasaki, Tati L. E. R. Mengko, Rinaldi Munir, Anggraini Barlian, Eros Sukmawati, Supraptono Supraptono

Background and Objective: Object detection is a primary research interest in computer vision. Sperm-cell detection in a densely populated bull semen microscopic observation video presents challenges such as partial occlusion, vast number of objects in a single video frame, tiny size of the object, artifacts, low contrast, and blurry objects because of the rapid movement of the sperm cells. This study proposes an architecture, called DeepSperm, that solves the aforementioned challenges and is more accurate and faster than state-of-the-art architectures. Methods: In the proposed architecture, we use only one detection layer, which is specific for small object detection. For handling overfitting and increasing accuracy, we set a higher network resolution, use a dropout layer, and perform data augmentation on hue, saturation, and exposure. Several hyper-parameters are tuned to achieve better performance. We compare our proposed method with those of a conventional image processing-based object-detection method, you only look once (YOLOv3), and mask region-based convolutional neural network (Mask R-CNN). Results: In our experiment, we achieve 86.91 mAP on the test dataset and a processing speed of 50.3 fps. In comparison with YOLOv3, we achieve an increase of 16.66 mAP point, 3.26 x faster on testing, and 1.4 x faster on training with a small training dataset, which contains 40 video frames. The weights file size was also reduced significantly, with 16.94 x smaller than that of YOLOv3. Moreover, it requires 1.3 x less graphical processing unit (GPU) memory than YOLOv3. Conclusions: This study proposes DeepSperm, which is a simple, effective, and efficient architecture with its hyper-parameters and configuration to detect bull sperm cells robustly in real time. In our experiment, we surpass the state of the art in terms of accuracy, speed, and resource needs.

* 22 pages, 8 figures, 6 tables, submitted to Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 

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