Models, code, and papers for "Yu Xiong":

Unifying Identification and Context Learning for Person Recognition

Jun 08, 2018
Qingqiu Huang, Yu Xiong, Dahua Lin

Despite the great success of face recognition techniques, recognizing persons under unconstrained settings remains challenging. Issues like profile views, unfavorable lighting, and occlusions can cause substantial difficulties. Previous works have attempted to tackle this problem by exploiting the context, e.g. clothes and social relations. While showing promising improvement, they are usually limited in two important aspects, relying on simple heuristics to combine different cues and separating the construction of context from people identities. In this work, we aim to move beyond such limitations and propose a new framework to leverage context for person recognition. In particular, we propose a Region Attention Network, which is learned to adaptively combine visual cues with instance-dependent weights. We also develop a unified formulation, where the social contexts are learned along with the reasoning of people identities. These models substantially improve the robustness when working with the complex contextual relations in unconstrained environments. On two large datasets, PIPA and Cast In Movies (CIM), a new dataset proposed in this work, our method consistently achieves state-of-the-art performance under multiple evaluation policies.

* CVPR 2018 

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Growing a Brain: Fine-Tuning by Increasing Model Capacity

Jul 18, 2019
Yu-Xiong Wang, Deva Ramanan, Martial Hebert

CNNs have made an undeniable impact on computer vision through the ability to learn high-capacity models with large annotated training sets. One of their remarkable properties is the ability to transfer knowledge from a large source dataset to a (typically smaller) target dataset. This is usually accomplished through fine-tuning a fixed-size network on new target data. Indeed, virtually every contemporary visual recognition system makes use of fine-tuning to transfer knowledge from ImageNet. In this work, we analyze what components and parameters change during fine-tuning, and discover that increasing model capacity allows for more natural model adaptation through fine-tuning. By making an analogy to developmental learning, we demonstrate that "growing" a CNN with additional units, either by widening existing layers or deepening the overall network, significantly outperforms classic fine-tuning approaches. But in order to properly grow a network, we show that newly-added units must be appropriately normalized to allow for a pace of learning that is consistent with existing units. We empirically validate our approach on several benchmark datasets, producing state-of-the-art results.


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Encrypted Speech Recognition using Deep Polynomial Networks

May 11, 2019
Shi-Xiong Zhang, Yifan Gong, Dong Yu

The cloud-based speech recognition/API provides developers or enterprises an easy way to create speech-enabled features in their applications. However, sending audios about personal or company internal information to the cloud, raises concerns about the privacy and security issues. The recognition results generated in cloud may also reveal some sensitive information. This paper proposes a deep polynomial network (DPN) that can be applied to the encrypted speech as an acoustic model. It allows clients to send their data in an encrypted form to the cloud to ensure that their data remains confidential, at mean while the DPN can still make frame-level predictions over the encrypted speech and return them in encrypted form. One good property of the DPN is that it can be trained on unencrypted speech features in the traditional way. To keep the cloud away from the raw audio and recognition results, a cloud-local joint decoding framework is also proposed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of model and framework on the Switchboard and Cortana voice assistant tasks with small performance degradation and latency increased comparing with the traditional cloud-based DNNs.

* ICASSP 2019, slides@ 

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Learning Compositional Representations for Few-Shot Recognition

Dec 21, 2018
Pavel Tokmakov, Yu-Xiong Wang, Martial Hebert

One of the key limitations of modern deep learning based approaches lies in the amount of data required to train them. Humans, on the other hand, can learn to recognize novel categories from just a few examples. Instrumental to this rapid learning ability is the compositional structure of concept representations in the human brain - something that deep learning models are lacking. In this work we make a step towards bridging this gap between human and machine learning by introducing a simple regularization technique that allows the learned representation to be decomposable into parts. We evaluate the proposed approach on three datasets: CUB-200-2011, SUN397, and ImageNet, and demonstrate that our compositional representations require fewer examples to learn classifiers for novel categories, outperforming state-of-the-art few-shot learning approaches by a significant margin.

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Towards Good Practices for Very Deep Two-Stream ConvNets

Jul 08, 2015
Limin Wang, Yuanjun Xiong, Zhe Wang, Yu Qiao

Deep convolutional networks have achieved great success for object recognition in still images. However, for action recognition in videos, the improvement of deep convolutional networks is not so evident. We argue that there are two reasons that could probably explain this result. First the current network architectures (e.g. Two-stream ConvNets) are relatively shallow compared with those very deep models in image domain (e.g. VGGNet, GoogLeNet), and therefore their modeling capacity is constrained by their depth. Second, probably more importantly, the training dataset of action recognition is extremely small compared with the ImageNet dataset, and thus it will be easy to over-fit on the training dataset. To address these issues, this report presents very deep two-stream ConvNets for action recognition, by adapting recent very deep architectures into video domain. However, this extension is not easy as the size of action recognition is quite small. We design several good practices for the training of very deep two-stream ConvNets, namely (i) pre-training for both spatial and temporal nets, (ii) smaller learning rates, (iii) more data augmentation techniques, (iv) high drop out ratio. Meanwhile, we extend the Caffe toolbox into Multi-GPU implementation with high computational efficiency and low memory consumption. We verify the performance of very deep two-stream ConvNets on the dataset of UCF101 and it achieves the recognition accuracy of $91.4\%$.

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Differentiating Features for Scene Segmentation Based on Dedicated Attention Mechanisms

Nov 19, 2019
Zhiqiang Xiong, Zhicheng Wang, Zhaohui Yu, Xi Gu

Semantic segmentation is a challenge in scene parsing. It requires both context information and rich spatial information. In this paper, we differentiate features for scene segmentation based on dedicated attention mechanisms (DF-DAM), and two attention modules are proposed to optimize the high-level and low-level features in the encoder, respectively. Specifically, we use the high-level and low-level features of ResNet as the source of context information and spatial information, respectively, and optimize them with attention fusion module and 2D position attention module, respectively. For attention fusion module, we adopt dual channel weight to selectively adjust the channel map for the highest two stage features of ResNet, and fuse them to get context information. For 2D position attention module, we use the context information obtained by attention fusion module to assist the selection of the lowest-stage features of ResNet as supplementary spatial information. Finally, the two sets of information obtained by the two modules are simply fused to obtain the prediction. We evaluate our approach on Cityscapes and PASCAL VOC 2012 datasets. In particular, there aren't complicated and redundant processing modules in our architecture, which greatly reduces the complexity, and we achieving 82.3% Mean IoU on PASCAL VOC 2012 test dataset without pre-training on MS-COCO dataset.

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Unsupervised Feature Learning via Non-Parametric Instance-level Discrimination

May 05, 2018
Zhirong Wu, Yuanjun Xiong, Stella Yu, Dahua Lin

Neural net classifiers trained on data with annotated class labels can also capture apparent visual similarity among categories without being directed to do so. We study whether this observation can be extended beyond the conventional domain of supervised learning: Can we learn a good feature representation that captures apparent similarity among instances, instead of classes, by merely asking the feature to be discriminative of individual instances? We formulate this intuition as a non-parametric classification problem at the instance-level, and use noise-contrastive estimation to tackle the computational challenges imposed by the large number of instance classes. Our experimental results demonstrate that, under unsupervised learning settings, our method surpasses the state-of-the-art on ImageNet classification by a large margin. Our method is also remarkable for consistently improving test performance with more training data and better network architectures. By fine-tuning the learned feature, we further obtain competitive results for semi-supervised learning and object detection tasks. Our non-parametric model is highly compact: With 128 features per image, our method requires only 600MB storage for a million images, enabling fast nearest neighbour retrieval at the run time.

* CVPR 2018 spotlight paper. Code: 

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Differentially Private Deep Learning with Smooth Sensitivity

Mar 01, 2020
Lichao Sun, Yingbo Zhou, Philip S. Yu, Caiming Xiong

Ensuring the privacy of sensitive data used to train modern machine learning models is of paramount importance in many areas of practice. One approach to study these concerns is through the lens of differential privacy. In this framework, privacy guarantees are generally obtained by perturbing models in such a way that specifics of data used to train the model are made ambiguous. A particular instance of this approach is through a "teacher-student" framework, wherein the teacher, who owns the sensitive data, provides the student with useful, but noisy, information, hopefully allowing the student model to perform well on a given task without access to particular features of the sensitive data. Because stronger privacy guarantees generally involve more significant perturbation on the part of the teacher, deploying existing frameworks fundamentally involves a trade-off between student's performance and privacy guarantee. One of the most important techniques used in previous works involves an ensemble of teacher models, which return information to a student based on a noisy voting procedure. In this work, we propose a novel voting mechanism with smooth sensitivity, which we call Immutable Noisy ArgMax, that, under certain conditions, can bear very large random noising from the teacher without affecting the useful information transferred to the student. Compared with previous work, our approach improves over the state-of-the-art methods on all measures, and scale to larger tasks with both better performance and stronger privacy ($\epsilon \approx 0$). This new proposed framework can be applied with any machine learning models, and provides an appealing solution for tasks that requires training on a large amount of data.

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From Trailers to Storylines: An Efficient Way to Learn from Movies

Jun 14, 2018
Qingqiu Huang, Yuanjun Xiong, Yu Xiong, Yuqi Zhang, Dahua Lin

The millions of movies produced in the human history are valuable resources for computer vision research. However, learning a vision model from movie data would meet with serious difficulties. A major obstacle is the computational cost -- the length of a movie is often over one hour, which is substantially longer than the short video clips that previous study mostly focuses on. In this paper, we explore an alternative approach to learning vision models from movies. Specifically, we consider a framework comprised of a visual module and a temporal analysis module. Unlike conventional learning methods, the proposed approach learns these modules from different sets of data -- the former from trailers while the latter from movies. This allows distinctive visual features to be learned within a reasonable budget while still preserving long-term temporal structures across an entire movie. We construct a large-scale dataset for this study and define a series of tasks on top. Experiments on this dataset showed that the proposed method can substantially reduce the training time while obtaining highly effective features and coherent temporal structures.

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Low-Shot Learning from Imaginary Data

Apr 03, 2018
Yu-Xiong Wang, Ross Girshick, Martial Hebert, Bharath Hariharan

Humans can quickly learn new visual concepts, perhaps because they can easily visualize or imagine what novel objects look like from different views. Incorporating this ability to hallucinate novel instances of new concepts might help machine vision systems perform better low-shot learning, i.e., learning concepts from few examples. We present a novel approach to low-shot learning that uses this idea. Our approach builds on recent progress in meta-learning ("learning to learn") by combining a meta-learner with a "hallucinator" that produces additional training examples, and optimizing both models jointly. Our hallucinator can be incorporated into a variety of meta-learners and provides significant gains: up to a 6 point boost in classification accuracy when only a single training example is available, yielding state-of-the-art performance on the challenging ImageNet low-shot classification benchmark.

* CVPR 2018 camera-ready version 

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Taylorized Training: Towards Better Approximation of Neural Network Training at Finite Width

Feb 24, 2020
Yu Bai, Ben Krause, Huan Wang, Caiming Xiong, Richard Socher

We propose \emph{Taylorized training} as an initiative towards better understanding neural network training at finite width. Taylorized training involves training the $k$-th order Taylor expansion of the neural network at initialization, and is a principled extension of linearized training---a recently proposed theory for understanding the success of deep learning. We experiment with Taylorized training on modern neural network architectures, and show that Taylorized training (1) agrees with full neural network training increasingly better as we increase $k$, and (2) can significantly close the performance gap between linearized and full training. Compared with linearized training, higher-order training works in more realistic settings such as standard parameterization and large (initial) learning rate. We complement our experiments with theoretical results showing that the approximation error of $k$-th order Taylorized models decay exponentially over $k$ in wide neural networks.

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LiteEval: A Coarse-to-Fine Framework for Resource Efficient Video Recognition

Dec 03, 2019
Zuxuan Wu, Caiming Xiong, Yu-Gang Jiang, Larry S. Davis

This paper presents LiteEval, a simple yet effective coarse-to-fine framework for resource efficient video recognition, suitable for both online and offline scenarios. Exploiting decent yet computationally efficient features derived at a coarse scale with a lightweight CNN model, LiteEval dynamically decides on-the-fly whether to compute more powerful features for incoming video frames at a finer scale to obtain more details. This is achieved by a coarse LSTM and a fine LSTM operating cooperatively, as well as a conditional gating module to learn when to allocate more computation. Extensive experiments are conducted on two large-scale video benchmarks, FCVID and ActivityNet, and the results demonstrate LiteEval requires substantially less computation while offering excellent classification accuracy for both online and offline predictions.

* NeurIPS 2019 

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Patchy Image Structure Classification Using Multi-Orientation Region Transform

Dec 02, 2019
Xiaohan Yu, Yang Zhao, Yongsheng Gao, Shengwu Xiong, Xiaohui Yuan

Exterior contour and interior structure are both vital features for classifying objects. However, most of the existing methods consider exterior contour feature and internal structure feature separately, and thus fail to function when classifying patchy image structures that have similar contours and flexible structures. To address above limitations, this paper proposes a novel Multi-Orientation Region Transform (MORT), which can effectively characterize both contour and structure features simultaneously, for patchy image structure classification. MORT is performed over multiple orientation regions at multiple scales to effectively integrate patchy features, and thus enables a better description of the shape in a coarse-to-fine manner. Moreover, the proposed MORT can be extended to combine with the deep convolutional neural network techniques, for further enhancement of classification accuracy. Very encouraging experimental results on the challenging ultra-fine-grained cultivar recognition task, insect wing recognition task, and large variation butterfly recognition task are obtained, which demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed MORT over the state-of-the-art methods in classifying patchy image structures. Our code and three patchy image structure datasets are available at:

* Accepted by AAAI 2020 

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An Intelligent Extraversion Analysis Scheme from Crowd Trajectories for Surveillance

Sep 27, 2018
Wenxi Liu, Yuanlong Yu, Chun-Yang Zhang, Genggeng Liu, Naixue Xiong

In recent years, crowd analysis is important for applications such as smart cities, intelligent transportation system, customer behavior prediction, and visual surveillance. Understanding the characteristics of the individual motion in a crowd can be beneficial for social event detection and abnormal detection, but it has rarely been studied. In this paper, we focus on the extraversion measure of individual motions in crowds based on trajectory data. Extraversion is one of typical personalities that is often observed in human crowd behaviors and it can reflect not only the characteristics of the individual motion, but also the that of the holistic crowd motions. To our best knowledge, this is the first attempt to analyze individual extraversion of crowd motions based on trajectories. To accomplish this, we first present a effective composite motion descriptor, which integrates the basic individual motion information and social metrics, to describe the extraversion of each individual in a crowd. The social metrics consider both the neighboring distribution and their interaction pattern. Since our major goal is to learn a universal scoring function that can measure the degrees of extraversion across varied crowd scenes, we incorporate and adapt the active learning technique to the relative attribute approach. Specifically, we assume the social groups in any crowds contain individuals with the similar degree of extraversion. Based on such assumption, we significantly reduce the computation cost by clustering and ranking the trajectories actively. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of our proposed method by measuring the degree of extraversion for real individual trajectories in crowds and analyzing crowd scenes from a real-world dataset.

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Knowledge Guided Disambiguation for Large-Scale Scene Classification with Multi-Resolution CNNs

Feb 21, 2017
Limin Wang, Sheng Guo, Weilin Huang, Yuanjun Xiong, Yu Qiao

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have made remarkable progress on scene recognition, partially due to these recent large-scale scene datasets, such as the Places and Places2. Scene categories are often defined by multi-level information, including local objects, global layout, and background environment, thus leading to large intra-class variations. In addition, with the increasing number of scene categories, label ambiguity has become another crucial issue in large-scale classification. This paper focuses on large-scale scene recognition and makes two major contributions to tackle these issues. First, we propose a multi-resolution CNN architecture that captures visual content and structure at multiple levels. The multi-resolution CNNs are composed of coarse resolution CNNs and fine resolution CNNs, which are complementary to each other. Second, we design two knowledge guided disambiguation techniques to deal with the problem of label ambiguity. (i) We exploit the knowledge from the confusion matrix computed on validation data to merge ambiguous classes into a super category. (ii) We utilize the knowledge of extra networks to produce a soft label for each image. Then the super categories or soft labels are employed to guide CNN training on the Places2. We conduct extensive experiments on three large-scale image datasets (ImageNet, Places, and Places2), demonstrating the effectiveness of our approach. Furthermore, our method takes part in two major scene recognition challenges, and achieves the second place at the Places2 challenge in ILSVRC 2015, and the first place at the LSUN challenge in CVPR 2016. Finally, we directly test the learned representations on other scene benchmarks, and obtain the new state-of-the-art results on the MIT Indoor67 (86.7\%) and SUN397 (72.0\%). We release the code and models at~\url{}.

* To appear in IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. Code and models are available at 

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Learning Contextualized Sentence Representations for Document-Level Neural Machine Translation

Mar 30, 2020
Pei Zhang, Xu Zhang, Wei Chen, Jian Yu, Yanfeng Wang, Deyi Xiong

Document-level machine translation incorporates inter-sentential dependencies into the translation of a source sentence. In this paper, we propose a new framework to model cross-sentence dependencies by training neural machine translation (NMT) to predict both the target translation and surrounding sentences of a source sentence. By enforcing the NMT model to predict source context, we want the model to learn "contextualized" source sentence representations that capture document-level dependencies on the source side. We further propose two different methods to learn and integrate such contextualized sentence embeddings into NMT: a joint training method that jointly trains an NMT model with the source context prediction model and a pre-training & fine-tuning method that pretrains the source context prediction model on a large-scale monolingual document corpus and then fine-tunes it with the NMT model. Experiments on Chinese-English and English-German translation show that both methods can substantially improve the translation quality over a strong document-level Transformer baseline.

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Learning Generalizable Representations via Diverse Supervision

Nov 29, 2019
Ziqi Pang, Zhiyuan Hu, Pavel Tokmakov, Yu-Xiong Wang, Martial Hebert

The problem of rare category recognition has received a lot of attention recently, with state-of-the-art methods achieving significant improvements. However, we identify two major limitations in the existing literature. First, the benchmarks are constructed by randomly splitting the categories of artificially balanced datasets into frequent (head), and rare (tail) subsets, which results in unrealistic category distributions in both of them. Second, the idea of using external sources of supervision to learn generalizable representations is largely overlooked. In this work, we attempt to address both of these shortcomings by introducing the ADE-FewShot benchmark. It stands upon the ADE dataset for scene parsing that features a realistic, long-tail distribution of categories as well as a diverse set of annotations. We turn it into a realistic few-shot classification benchmark by splitting the object categories into head and tail based on their distribution in the world. We then analyze the effect of applying various supervision sources on representation learning for rare category recognition, and observe significant improvements.

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Predicting microRNA-disease associations from knowledge graph using tensor decomposition with relational constraints

Nov 13, 2019
Feng Huang, Zhankun Xiong, Guan Zhang, Zhouxin Yu, Xinran Xu, Wen Zhang

Motivation: MiRNAs are a kind of small non-coding RNAs that are not translated into proteins, and aberrant expression of miRNAs is associated with human diseases. Since miRNAs have different roles in diseases, the miRNA-disease associations are categorized into multiple types according to their roles. Predicting miRNA-disease associations and types is critical to understand the underlying pathogenesis of human diseases from the molecular level. Results: In this paper, we formulate the problem as a link prediction in knowledge graphs. We use biomedical knowledge bases to build a knowledge graph of entities representing miRNAs and disease and multi-relations, and we propose a tensor decomposition-based model named TDRC to predict miRNA-disease associations and their types from the knowledge graph. We have experimentally evaluated our method and compared it to several baseline methods. The results demonstrate that the proposed method has high-accuracy and high-efficiency performances.

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A Graph-Based Framework to Bridge Movies and Synopses

Oct 24, 2019
Yu Xiong, Qingqiu Huang, Lingfeng Guo, Hang Zhou, Bolei Zhou, Dahua Lin

Inspired by the remarkable advances in video analytics, research teams are stepping towards a greater ambition -- movie understanding. However, compared to those activity videos in conventional datasets, movies are significantly different. Generally, movies are much longer and consist of much richer temporal structures. More importantly, the interactions among characters play a central role in expressing the underlying story. To facilitate the efforts along this direction, we construct a dataset called Movie Synopses Associations (MSA) over 327 movies, which provides a synopsis for each movie, together with annotated associations between synopsis paragraphs and movie segments. On top of this dataset, we develop a framework to perform matching between movie segments and synopsis paragraphs. This framework integrates different aspects of a movie, including event dynamics and character interactions, and allows them to be matched with parsed paragraphs, based on a graph-based formulation. Our study shows that the proposed framework remarkably improves the matching accuracy over conventional feature-based methods. It also reveals the importance of narrative structures and character interactions in movie understanding.

* Accepted by ICCV 2019 (oral) 

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