Models, code, and papers for "Yun Liu":

Asymmetric Move Selection Strategies in Monte-Carlo Tree Search: Minimizing the Simple Regret at Max Nodes

May 08, 2016
Yun-Ching Liu, Yoshimasa Tsuruoka

The combination of multi-armed bandit (MAB) algorithms with Monte-Carlo tree search (MCTS) has made a significant impact in various research fields. The UCT algorithm, which combines the UCB bandit algorithm with MCTS, is a good example of the success of this combination. The recent breakthrough made by AlphaGo, which incorporates convolutional neural networks with bandit algorithms in MCTS, also highlights the necessity of bandit algorithms in MCTS. However, despite the various investigations carried out on MCTS, nearly all of them still follow the paradigm of treating every node as an independent instance of the MAB problem, and applying the same bandit algorithm and heuristics on every node. As a result, this paradigm may leave some properties of the game tree unexploited. In this work, we propose that max nodes and min nodes have different concerns regarding their value estimation, and different bandit algorithms should be applied accordingly. We develop the Asymmetric-MCTS algorithm, which is an MCTS variant that applies a simple regret algorithm on max nodes, and the UCB algorithm on min nodes. We will demonstrate the performance of the Asymmetric-MCTS algorithm on the game of $9\times 9$ Go, $9\times 9$ NoGo, and Othello.

* submitted to the 2016 IEEE Computational Intelligence and Games Conference 

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Adapting Improved Upper Confidence Bounds for Monte-Carlo Tree Search

May 11, 2015
Yun-Ching Liu, Yoshimasa Tsuruoka

The UCT algorithm, which combines the UCB algorithm and Monte-Carlo Tree Search (MCTS), is currently the most widely used variant of MCTS. Recently, a number of investigations into applying other bandit algorithms to MCTS have produced interesting results. In this research, we will investigate the possibility of combining the improved UCB algorithm, proposed by Auer et al. (2010), with MCTS. However, various characteristics and properties of the improved UCB algorithm may not be ideal for a direct application to MCTS. Therefore, some modifications were made to the improved UCB algorithm, making it more suitable for the task of game tree search. The Mi-UCT algorithm is the application of the modified UCB algorithm applied to trees. The performance of Mi-UCT is demonstrated on the games of $9\times 9$ Go and $9\times 9$ NoGo, and has shown to outperform the plain UCT algorithm when only a small number of playouts are given, and rougly on the same level when more playouts are available.

* To appear in the 14th International Conference on Advances in Computer Games (ACG 2015) 

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Pose Estimation for Texture-less Shiny Objects in a Single RGB Image Using Synthetic Training Data

Sep 23, 2019
Chen Chen, Xin Jiang, Weiguo Zhou, Yun-Hui Liu

In the industrial domain, the pose estimation of multiple texture-less shiny parts is a valuable but challenging task. In this particular scenario, it is impractical to utilize keypoints or other texture information because most of them are not actual features of the target but the reflections of surroundings. Moreover, the similarity of color also poses a challenge in segmentation. In this article, we propose to divide the pose estimation process into three stages: object detection, features detection and pose optimization. A convolutional neural network was utilized to perform object detection. Concerning the reliability of surface texture, we leveraged the contour information for estimating pose. Since conventional contour-based methods are inapplicable to clustered metal parts due to the difficulties in segmentation, we use the dense discrete points along the metal part edges as semantic keypoints for contour detection. Afterward, we exploit both keypoint information and CAD model to calculate the 6D pose of each object in view. A typical implementation of deep learning methods not only requires a large amount of training data, but also relies on intensive human labor for labeling the datasets. Therefore, we propose an approach to generate datasets and label them automatically. Despite not using any real-world photos for training, a series of experiments showed that the algorithm built on synthetic data perform well in the real environment.

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A simple and effective postprocessing method for image classification

Jun 19, 2019
Yan Liu, Yun Li, Yunhao Yuan, jipeng qiang

Whether it is computer vision, natural language processing or speech recognition, the essence of these applications is to obtain powerful feature representations that make downstream applications completion more efficient. Taking image recognition as an example, whether it is hand-crafted low-level feature representation or feature representation extracted by a convolutional neural networks(CNNs), the goal is to extract features that better represent image features, thereby improving classification accuracy. However, we observed that image feature representations share a large common vector and a few top dominating directions. To address this problems, we propose a simple but effective postprocessing method to render off-the-shelf feature representations even stronger by eliminating the common mean vector from off-the-shelf feature representations. The postprocessing is empirically validated on a variety of datasets and feature extraction methods.such as VGG, LBP, and HOG. Some experiments show that the features that have been post-processed by postprocessing algorithm can get better results than original ones.

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MV-C3D: A Spatial Correlated Multi-View 3D Convolutional Neural Networks

Jun 15, 2019
Qi Xuan, Fuxian Li, Yi Liu, Yun Xiang

As the development of deep neural networks, 3D object recognition is becoming increasingly popular in computer vision community. Many multi-view based methods are proposed to improve the category recognition accuracy. These approaches mainly rely on multi-view images which are rendered with the whole circumference. In real-world applications, however, 3D objects are mostly observed from partial viewpoints in a less range. Therefore, we propose a multi-view based 3D convolutional neural network, which takes only part of contiguous multi-view images as input and can still maintain high accuracy. Moreover, our model takes these view images as a joint variable to better learn spatially correlated features using 3D convolution and 3D max-pooling layers. Experimental results on ModelNet10 and ModelNet40 datasets show that our MV-C3D technique can achieve outstanding performance with multi-view images which are captured from partial angles with less range. The results on 3D rotated real image dataset MIRO further demonstrate that MV-C3D is more adaptable in real-world scenarios. The classification accuracy can be further improved with the increasing number of view images.

* 11 pages, 11 figures 

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Spatially Constrained Generative Adversarial Networks for Conditional Image Generation

May 07, 2019
Songyao Jiang, Hongfu Liu, Yue Wu, Yun Fu

Image generation has raised tremendous attention in both academic and industrial areas, especially for the conditional and target-oriented image generation, such as criminal portrait and fashion design. Although the current studies have achieved preliminary results along this direction, they always focus on class labels as the condition where spatial contents are randomly generated from latent vectors. Edge details are usually blurred since spatial information is difficult to preserve. In light of this, we propose a novel Spatially Constrained Generative Adversarial Network (SCGAN), which decouples the spatial constraints from the latent vector and makes these constraints feasible as additional controllable signals. To enhance the spatial controllability, a generator network is specially designed to take a semantic segmentation, a latent vector and an attribute-level label as inputs step by step. Besides, a segmentor network is constructed to impose spatial constraints on the generator. Experimentally, we provide both visual and quantitative results on CelebA and DeepFashion datasets, and demonstrate that the proposed SCGAN is very effective in controlling the spatial contents as well as generating high-quality images.

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Focal Loss in 3D Object Detection

Sep 18, 2018
Peng Yun, Lei Tai, Yuan Wang, Ming Liu

3D object detection is still an open problem in autonomous driving scenes. Robots recognize and localize key objects from sparse inputs, and suffer from a larger continuous searching space as well as serious fore-background imbalance compared to the image-based detection. In this paper, we try to solve the fore-background imbalance in the 3D object detection task. Inspired by the recent improvement of focal loss on image-based detection which is seen as a hard-mining improvement of binary cross entropy, we extend it to point-cloud-based object detection and conduct experiments to show its performance based on two different type of 3D detectors: 3D-FCN and VoxelNet. The results show up to 11.2 AP gains from focal loss in a wide range of hyperparameters in 3D object detection. Our code is available at

* Our code is available at 

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Adversarial Learning for Image Forensics Deep Matching with Atrous Convolution

Sep 08, 2018
Yaqi Liu, Xianfeng Zhao, Xiaobin Zhu, Yun Cao

Constrained image splicing detection and localization (CISDL) is a newly proposed challenging task for image forensics, which investigates two input suspected images and identifies whether one image has suspected regions pasted from the other. In this paper, we propose a novel adversarial learning framework to train the deep matching network for CISDL. Our framework mainly consists of three building blocks: 1) the deep matching network based on atrous convolution (DMAC) aims to generate two high-quality candidate masks which indicate the suspected regions of the two input images, 2) the detection network is designed to rectify inconsistencies between the two corresponding candidate masks, 3) the discriminative network drives the DMAC network to produce masks that are hard to distinguish from ground-truth ones. In DMAC, atrous convolution is adopted to extract features with rich spatial information, the correlation layer based on the skip architecture is proposed to capture hierarchical features, and atrous spatial pyramid pooling is constructed to localize tampered regions at multiple scales. The detection network and the discriminative network act as the losses with auxiliary parameters to supervise the training of DMAC in an adversarial way. Extensive experiments, conducted on 21 generated testing sets and two public datasets, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework and the superior performance of DMAC.

* 13 pages, 8 figures 

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Zero-Resource Neural Machine Translation with Multi-Agent Communication Game

Feb 09, 2018
Yun Chen, Yang Liu, Victor O. K. Li

While end-to-end neural machine translation (NMT) has achieved notable success in the past years in translating a handful of resource-rich language pairs, it still suffers from the data scarcity problem for low-resource language pairs and domains. To tackle this problem, we propose an interactive multimodal framework for zero-resource neural machine translation. Instead of being passively exposed to large amounts of parallel corpora, our learners (implemented as encoder-decoder architecture) engage in cooperative image description games, and thus develop their own image captioning or neural machine translation model from the need to communicate in order to succeed at the game. Experimental results on the IAPR-TC12 and Multi30K datasets show that the proposed learning mechanism significantly improves over the state-of-the-art methods.

* Published at AAAI-18 

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Image Forgery Localization Based on Multi-Scale Convolutional Neural Networks

Feb 07, 2018
Yaqi Liu, Qingxiao Guan, Xianfeng Zhao, Yun Cao

In this paper, we propose to utilize Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and the segmentation-based multi-scale analysis to locate tampered areas in digital images. First, to deal with color input sliding windows of different scales, a unified CNN architecture is designed. Then, we elaborately design the training procedures of CNNs on sampled training patches. With a set of robust multi-scale tampering detectors based on CNNs, complementary tampering possibility maps can be generated. Last but not least, a segmentation-based method is proposed to fuse the maps and generate the final decision map. By exploiting the benefits of both the small-scale and large-scale analyses, the segmentation-based multi-scale analysis can lead to a performance leap in forgery localization of CNNs. Numerous experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our method.

* 7 pages, 6 figures 

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Clustering with Outlier Removal

Jan 05, 2018
Hongfu Liu, Jun Li, Yue Wu, Yun Fu

Cluster analysis and outlier detection are strongly coupled tasks in data mining area. Cluster structure can be easily destroyed by few outliers; on the contrary, the outliers are defined by the concept of cluster, which are recognized as the points belonging to none of the clusters. However, most existing studies handle them separately. In light of this, we consider the joint cluster analysis and outlier detection problem, and propose the Clustering with Outlier Removal (COR) algorithm. Generally speaking, the original space is transformed into the binary space via generating basic partitions in order to define clusters. Then an objective function based Holoentropy is designed to enhance the compactness of each cluster with a few outliers removed. With further analyses on the objective function, only partial of the problem can be handled by K-means optimization. To provide an integrated solution, an auxiliary binary matrix is nontrivally introduced so that COR completely and efficiently solves the challenging problem via a unified K-means- - with theoretical supports. Extensive experimental results on numerous data sets in various domains demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of COR significantly over the rivals including K-means- - and other state-of-the-art outlier detection methods in terms of cluster validity and outlier detection. Some key factors in COR are further analyzed for practical use. Finally, an application on flight trajectory is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of COR in the real-world scenario.

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Personalized Fuzzy Text Search Using Interest Prediction and Word Vectorization

Oct 01, 2017
Yun Liu, Tianmeng Gao, Baolin Song, Chengwei Huang

In this paper we study the personalized text search problem. The keyword based search method in conventional algorithms has a low efficiency in understanding users' intention since the semantic meaning, user profile, user interests are not always considered. Firstly, we propose a novel text search algorithm using a inverse filtering mechanism that is very efficient for label based item search. Secondly, we adopt the Bayesian network to implement the user interest prediction for an improved personalized search. According to user input, it searches the related items using keyword information, predicted user interest. Thirdly, the word vectorization is used to discover potential targets according to the semantic meaning. Experimental results show that the proposed search engine has an improved efficiency and accuracy and it can operate on embedded devices with very limited computational resources.

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How to Do Simultaneous Translation Better with Consecutive Neural Machine Translation?

Nov 08, 2019
Yun Chen, Liangyou Li, Xin Jiang, Xiao Chen, Qun Liu

Despite the success of neural machine translation (NMT), simultaneous neural machine translation (SNMT), the task of translating in real time before a full sentence has been observed, remains challenging due to the syntactic structure difference and simultaneity requirements. In this paper, we propose a general framework to improve simultaneous translation with a pretrained consecutive neural machine translation (CNMT) model. Our framework contains two parts: prefix translation that utilizes a pretrained CNMT model to better translate source prefixes and a stopping criterion that determines when to stop the prefix translation. Experiments on three translation corpora and two language pairs show the efficacy of the proposed framework on balancing the quality and latency in simultaneous translation.

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Exploring Stereovision-Based 3-D Scene Reconstruction for Augmented Reality

Feb 17, 2019
Guang-Yu Nie, Yun Liu, Cong Wang, Yue Liu, Yongtian Wang

Three-dimensional (3-D) scene reconstruction is one of the key techniques in Augmented Reality (AR), which is related to the integration of image processing and display systems of complex information. Stereo matching is a computer vision based approach for 3-D scene reconstruction. In this paper, we explore an improved stereo matching network, SLED-Net, in which a Single Long Encoder-Decoder is proposed to replace the stacked hourglass network in PSM-Net for better contextual information learning. We compare SLED-Net to state-of-the-art methods recently published, and demonstrate its superior performance on Scene Flow and KITTI2015 test sets.

* To be published in IEEE VR2019 Conference as a Poster 

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HMTNet:3D Hand Pose Estimation from Single Depth Image Based on Hand Morphological Topology

Nov 12, 2019
Weiguo Zhou, Xin Jiang, Chen Chen, Sijia Mei, Yun-Hui Liu

Thanks to the rapid development of CNNs and depth sensors, great progress has been made in 3D hand pose estimation. Nevertheless, it is still far from being solved for its cluttered circumstance and severe self-occlusion of hand. In this paper, we propose a method that takes advantage of human hand morphological topology (HMT) structure to improve the pose estimation performance. The main contributions of our work can be listed as below. Firstly, in order to extract more powerful features, we concatenate original and last layer of initial feature extraction module to preserve hand information better. Next, regression module inspired from hand morphological topology is proposed. In this submodule, we design a tree-like network structure according to hand joints distribution to make use of high order dependency of hand joints. Lastly, we conducted sufficient ablation experiments to verify our proposed method on each dataset. Experimental results on three popular hand pose dataset show superior performance of our method compared with the state-of-the-art methods. On ICVL and NYU dataset, our method outperforms great improvement over 2D state-of-the-art methods. On MSRA dataset, our method achieves comparable accuracy with the state-of-the-art methods. To summarize, our method is the most efficient method which can run at 220:7 fps on a single GPU compared with approximate accurate methods at present. The code will be available at.

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Incorporating Sememes into Chinese Definition Modeling

May 16, 2019
Liner Yang, Cunliang Kong, Yun Chen, Yang Liu, Qinan Fan, Erhong Yang

Chinese definition modeling is a challenging task that generates a dictionary definition in Chinese for a given Chinese word. To accomplish this task, we construct the Chinese Definition Modeling Corpus (CDM), which contains triples of word, sememes and the corresponding definition. We present two novel models to improve Chinese definition modeling: the Adaptive-Attention model (AAM) and the Self- and Adaptive-Attention Model (SAAM). AAM successfully incorporates sememes for generating the definition with an adaptive attention mechanism. It has the capability to decide which sememes to focus on and when to pay attention to sememes. SAAM further replaces recurrent connections in AAM with self-attention and relies entirely on the attention mechanism, reducing the path length between word, sememes and definition. Experiments on CDM demonstrate that by incorporating sememes, our best proposed model can outperform the state-of-the-art method by +6.0 BLEU.

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Coordinating Large-Scale Robot Networks with Motion and Communication Uncertainties for Logistics Applications

Apr 02, 2019
Zhe Liu, Hesheng Wang, Shunbo Zhou, Yi Shen, Yun-Hui Liu

In this paper, we focus on the problem of task allocation, cooperative path planning and motion coordination of the large-scale system with thousands of robots, aiming for practical applications in robotic warehouses and automated logistics systems. Particularly, we solve the life-long planning problem and guarantee the coordination performance of large-scale robot network in the presence of robot motion uncertainties and communication failures. A hierarchical planning and coordination structure is presented. The environment is divided into several sectors and a dynamic traffic heat-map is generated to describe the current sector-level traffic flow. In task planning level, a greedy task allocation method is implemented to assign the current task to the nearest free robot and the sector-level path is generated by comprehensively considering the traveling distance, the traffic heat-value distribution and the current robot/communication failures. In motion coordination level, local cooperative A* algorithm is implemented in each sector to generate the collision-free road-level path of each robot in the sector and the rolling planning structure is introduced to solve problems caused by motion and communication uncertainties. The effectiveness and practical applicability of the proposed approach are validated by large-scale simulations with more than one thousand robots and real laboratory experiments.

* A preliminary version of this work has been accepted by ICRA 2019 

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Development of an Autonomous Sanding Robot with Structured-Light Technology

Mar 08, 2019
Yingxin Huo, Diancheng Chen, Xiang Li, Peng Li, Yun-Hui Liu

Large demand for robotics and automation has been reflected in the sanding works, as current manual operations are labor-intensive, without consistent quality, and also subject to safety and health issues. While several machines have been developed to automate one or two steps in the sanding works, the autonomous capability of existing solutions is relatively low, and the human assistance or supervision is still heavily required in the calibration of target objects or the planning of robot motion and tasks. This paper presents the development of an autonomous sanding robot, which is able to perform the sanding works on an unknown object automatically, without any prior calibration or human intervention. The developed robot works as follows. First, the target object is scanned then modeled with the structured-light camera. Second, the robot motion is planned to cover all the surfaces of the object with an optimized transition sequence. Third, the robot is controlled to perform the sanding on the object under the desired impedance model. A prototype of the sanding robot is fabricated and its performance is validated in the task of sanding a batch of wooden boxes. With sufficient degrees of freedom (DOFs) and the module design for the end effector, the developed robot is able to provide a general solution to the autonomous sanding on many other different objects.

* 7 pages, 11 figures, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems 2019 

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PointSeg: Real-Time Semantic Segmentation Based on 3D LiDAR Point Cloud

Sep 25, 2018
Yuan Wang, Tianyue Shi, Peng Yun, Lei Tai, Ming Liu

In this paper, we propose PointSeg, a real-time end-to-end semantic segmentation method for road-objects based on spherical images. We take the spherical image, which is transformed from the 3D LiDAR point clouds, as input of the convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to predict the point-wise semantic map. To make PointSeg applicable on a mobile system, we build the model based on the light-weight network, SqueezeNet, with several improvements. It maintains a good balance between memory cost and prediction performance. Our model is trained on spherical images and label masks projected from the KITTI 3D object detection dataset. Experiments show that PointSeg can achieve competitive accuracy with 90fps on a single GPU 1080ti. which makes it quite compatible for autonomous driving applications.

* Video link: code link: 

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Predictive Local Smoothness for Stochastic Gradient Methods

May 23, 2018
Jun Li, Hongfu Liu, Bineng Zhong, Yue Wu, Yun Fu

Stochastic gradient methods are dominant in nonconvex optimization especially for deep models but have low asymptotical convergence due to the fixed smoothness. To address this problem, we propose a simple yet effective method for improving stochastic gradient methods named predictive local smoothness (PLS). First, we create a convergence condition to build a learning rate which varies adaptively with local smoothness. Second, the local smoothness can be predicted by the latest gradients. Third, we use the adaptive learning rate to update the stochastic gradients for exploring linear convergence rates. By applying the PLS method, we implement new variants of three popular algorithms: PLS-stochastic gradient descent (PLS-SGD), PLS-accelerated SGD (PLS-AccSGD), and PLS-AMSGrad. Moreover, we provide much simpler proofs to ensure their linear convergence. Empirical results show that the variants have better performance gains than the popular algorithms, such as, faster convergence and alleviating explosion and vanish of gradients.

* 14 pages, 7 figures 

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