Models, code, and papers for "Yuyi Wang":

We study computational aspects of relational marginal polytopes which are statistical relational learning counterparts of marginal polytopes, well-known from probabilistic graphical models. Here, given some first-order logic formula, we can define its relational marginal statistic to be the fraction of groundings that make this formula true in a given possible world. For a list of first-order logic formulas, the relational marginal polytope is the set of all points that correspond to the expected values of the relational marginal statistics that are realizable. In this paper, we study the following two problems: (i) Do domain-liftability results for the partition functions of Markov logic networks (MLNs) carry over to the problem of relational marginal polytope construction? (ii) Is the relational marginal polytope containment problem hard under some plausible complexity-theoretic assumptions? Our positive results have consequences for lifted weight learning of MLNs. In particular, we show that weight learning of MLNs is domain-liftable whenever the computation of the partition function of the respective MLNs is domain-liftable (this result has not been rigorously proven before).

Estimating individual treatment effects from data of randomized experiments is a critical task in causal inference. The Stable Unit Treatment Value Assumption (SUTVA) is usually made in causal inference. However, interference can introduce bias when the assigned treatment on one unit affects the potential outcomes of the neighboring units. This interference phenomenon is known as spillover effect in economics or peer effect in social science. Usually, in randomized experiments or observational studies with interconnected units, one can only observe treatment responses under interference. Hence, how to estimate the superimposed causal effect and recover the individual treatment effect in the presence of interference becomes a challenging task in causal inference. In this work, we study causal effect estimation under general network interference using GNNs, which are powerful tools for capturing the dependency in the graph. After deriving causal effect estimators, we further study intervention policy improvement on the graph under capacity constraint. We give policy regret bounds under network interference and treatment capacity constraint. Furthermore, a heuristic graph structure-dependent error bound for GNN-based causal estimators is provided.

Semantic knowledge graphs are large-scale triple-oriented databases for knowledge representation and reasoning. Implicit knowledge can be inferred by modeling and reconstructing the tensor representations generated from knowledge graphs. However, as the sizes of knowledge graphs continue to grow, classical modeling becomes increasingly computational resource intensive. This paper investigates how quantum resources can be capitalized to accelerate the modeling of knowledge graphs. In particular, we propose the first quantum machine learning algorithm for making inference on tensorized data, e.g., on knowledge graphs. Since most tensor problems are NP-hard, it is challenging to devise quantum algorithms to support that task. We simplify the problem by making a plausible assumption that the tensor representation of a knowledge graph can be approximated by its low-rank tensor singular value decomposition, which is verified by our experiments. The proposed sampling-based quantum algorithm achieves exponential speedup with a runtime that is polylogarithmic in the dimension of knowledge graph tensor.

In many applications of relational learning, the available data can be seen as a sample from a larger relational structure (e.g. we may be given a small fragment from some social network). In this paper we are particularly concerned with scenarios in which we can assume that (i) the domain elements appearing in the given sample have been uniformly sampled without replacement from the (unknown) full domain and (ii) the sample is complete for these domain elements (i.e. it is the full substructure induced by these elements). Within this setting, we study bounds on the error of sufficient statistics of relational models that are estimated on the available data. As our main result, we prove a bound based on a variant of the Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension which is suitable for relational data.

Networked data, in which every training example involves two objects and may share some common objects with others, is used in many machine learning tasks such as learning to rank and link prediction. A challenge of learning from networked examples is that target values are not known for some pairs of objects. In this case, neither the classical i.i.d.\ assumption nor techniques based on complete U-statistics can be used. Most existing theoretical results of this problem only deal with the classical empirical risk minimization (ERM) principle that always weights every example equally, but this strategy leads to unsatisfactory bounds. We consider general weighted ERM and show new universal risk bounds for this problem. These new bounds naturally define an optimization problem which leads to appropriate weights for networked examples. Though this optimization problem is not convex in general, we devise a new fully polynomial-time approximation scheme (FPTAS) to solve it.

Many machine learning algorithms are based on the assumption that training examples are drawn independently. However, this assumption does not hold anymore when learning from a networked sample because two or more training examples may share some common objects, and hence share the features of these shared objects. We show that the classic approach of ignoring this problem potentially can have a harmful effect on the accuracy of statistics, and then consider alternatives. One of these is to only use independent examples, discarding other information. However, this is clearly suboptimal. We analyze sample error bounds in this networked setting, providing significantly improved results. An important component of our approach is formed by efficient sample weighting schemes, which leads to novel concentration inequalities.

Many machine learning algorithms are based on the assumption that training examples are drawn independently. However, this assumption does not hold anymore when learning from a networked sample where two or more training examples may share common features. We propose an efficient weighting method for learning from networked examples and show the sample error bound which is better than previous work.

A crucial assumption in most statistical learning theory is that samples are independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.). However, for many real applications, the i.i.d. assumption does not hold. We consider learning problems in which examples are dependent and their dependency relation is characterized by a graph. To establish algorithm-dependent generalization theory for learning with non-i.i.d. data, we first prove novel McDiarmid-type concentration inequalities for Lipschitz functions of graph-dependent random variables. We show that concentration relies on the forest complexity of the graph, which characterizes the strength of the dependency. We demonstrate that for many types of dependent data, the forest complexity is small and thus implies good concentration. Based on our new inequalities we are able to build stability bounds for learning from graph-dependent data.

In this work, we propose the first quantum Ans\"atze for the statistical relational learning on knowledge graphs using parametric quantum circuits. We introduce two types of variational quantum circuits for knowledge graph embedding. Inspired by the classical representation learning, we first consider latent features for entities as coefficients of quantum states, while predicates are characterized by parametric gates acting on the quantum states. For the first model, the quantum advantages disappear when it comes to the optimization of this model. Therefore, we introduce a second quantum circuit model where embeddings of entities are generated from parameterized quantum gates acting on the pure quantum state. The benefit of the second method is that the quantum embeddings can be trained efficiently meanwhile preserving the quantum advantages. We show the proposed methods can achieve comparable results to the state-of-the-art classical models, e.g., RESCAL, DistMult. Furthermore, after optimizing the models, the complexity of inductive inference on the knowledge graphs might be reduced with respect to the number of entities.

We introduce MIDI-VAE, a neural network model based on Variational Autoencoders that is capable of handling polyphonic music with multiple instrument tracks, as well as modeling the dynamics of music by incorporating note durations and velocities. We show that MIDI-VAE can perform style transfer on symbolic music by automatically changing pitches, dynamics and instruments of a music piece from, e.g., a Classical to a Jazz style. We evaluate the efficacy of the style transfer by training separate style validation classifiers. Our model can also interpolate between short pieces of music, produce medleys and create mixtures of entire songs. The interpolations smoothly change pitches, dynamics and instrumentation to create a harmonic bridge between two music pieces. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first successful attempt at applying neural style transfer to complete musical compositions.

Deep generative models such as Variational Autoencoders (VAEs) and Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have recently been applied to style and domain transfer for images, and in the case of VAEs, music. GAN-based models employing several generators and some form of cycle consistency loss have been among the most successful for image domain transfer. In this paper we apply such a model to symbolic music and show the feasibility of our approach for music genre transfer. Evaluations using separate genre classifiers show that the style transfer works well. In order to improve the fidelity of the transformed music, we add additional discriminators that cause the generators to keep the structure of the original music mostly intact, while still achieving strong genre transfer. Visual and audible results further show the potential of our approach. To the best of our knowledge, this paper represents the first application of GANs to symbolic music domain transfer.

We consider the problem of predicting plausible missing facts in relational data, given a set of imperfect logical rules. In particular, our aim is to provide bounds on the (expected) number of incorrect inferences that are made in this way. Since for classical inference it is in general impossible to bound this number in a non-trivial way, we consider two inference relations that weaken, but remain close in spirit to classical inference.

In the propositional setting, the marginal problem is to find a (maximum-entropy) distribution that has some given marginals. We study this problem in a relational setting and make the following contributions. First, we compare two different notions of relational marginals. Second, we show a duality between the resulting relational marginal problems and the maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters of relational models, which generalizes a well-known duality from the propositional setting. Third, by exploiting the relational marginal formulation, we present a statistically sound method to learn the parameters of relational models that will be applied in settings where the number of constants differs between the training and test data. Furthermore, based on a relational generalization of marginal polytopes, we characterize cases where the standard estimators based on feature's number of true groundings needs to be adjusted and we quantitatively characterize the consequences of these adjustments. Fourth, we prove bounds on expected errors of the estimated parameters, which allows us to lower-bound, among other things, the effective sample size of relational training data.

We train multi-task autoencoders on linguistic tasks and analyze the learned hidden sentence representations. The representations change significantly when translation and part-of-speech decoders are added. The more decoders a model employs, the better it clusters sentences according to their syntactic similarity, as the representation space becomes less entangled. We explore the structure of the representation space by interpolating between sentences, which yields interesting pseudo-English sentences, many of which have recognizable syntactic structure. Lastly, we point out an interesting property of our models: The difference-vector between two sentences can be added to change a third sentence with similar features in a meaningful way.

We propose a novel approach for the generation of polyphonic music based on LSTMs. We generate music in two steps. First, a chord LSTM predicts a chord progression based on a chord embedding. A second LSTM then generates polyphonic music from the predicted chord progression. The generated music sounds pleasing and harmonic, with only few dissonant notes. It has clear long-term structure that is similar to what a musician would play during a jam session. We show that our approach is sensible from a music theory perspective by evaluating the learned chord embeddings. Surprisingly, our simple model managed to extract the circle of fifths, an important tool in music theory, from the dataset.

The ability to use a 2D map to navigate a complex 3D environment is quite remarkable, and even difficult for many humans. Localization and navigation is also an important problem in domains such as robotics, and has recently become a focus of the deep reinforcement learning community. In this paper we teach a reinforcement learning agent to read a map in order to find the shortest way out of a random maze it has never seen before. Our system combines several state-of-the-art methods such as A3C and incorporates novel elements such as a recurrent localization cell. Our agent learns to localize itself based on 3D first person images and an approximate orientation angle. The agent generalizes well to bigger mazes, showing that it learned useful localization and navigation capabilities.

We present a novel approach to improve the performance of distant supervision relation extraction with Positive and Unlabeled (PU) Learning. This approach first applies reinforcement learning to decide whether a sentence is positive to a given relation, and then positive and unlabeled bags are constructed. In contrast to most previous studies, which mainly use selected positive instances only, we make full use of unlabeled instances and propose two new representations for positive and unlabeled bags. These two representations are then combined in an appropriate way to make bag-level prediction. Experimental results on a widely used real-world dataset demonstrate that this new approach indeed achieves significant and consistent improvements as compared to several competitive baselines.

The automatic detection of software vulnerabilities is an important research problem. However, existing solutions to this problem rely on human experts to define features and often miss many vulnerabilities (i.e., incurring high false negative rate). In this paper, we initiate the study of using deep learning-based vulnerability detection to relieve human experts from the tedious and subjective task of manually defining features. Since deep learning is motivated to deal with problems that are very different from the problem of vulnerability detection, we need some guiding principles for applying deep learning to vulnerability detection. In particular, we need to find representations of software programs that are suitable for deep learning. For this purpose, we propose using code gadgets to represent programs and then transform them into vectors, where a code gadget is a number of (not necessarily consecutive) lines of code that are semantically related to each other. This leads to the design and implementation of a deep learning-based vulnerability detection system, called Vulnerability Deep Pecker (VulDeePecker). In order to evaluate VulDeePecker, we present the first vulnerability dataset for deep learning approaches. Experimental results show that VulDeePecker can achieve much fewer false negatives (with reasonable false positives) than other approaches. We further apply VulDeePecker to 3 software products (namely Xen, Seamonkey, and Libav) and detect 4 vulnerabilities, which are not reported in the National Vulnerability Database but were "silently" patched by the vendors when releasing later versions of these products; in contrast, these vulnerabilities are almost entirely missed by the other vulnerability detection systems we experimented with.

Named entity recognition (NER) in Chinese is essential but difficult because of the lack of natural delimiters. Therefore, Chinese Word Segmentation (CWS) is usually considered as the first step for Chinese NER. However, models based on word-level embeddings and lexicon features often suffer from segmentation errors and out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words. In this paper, we investigate a Convolutional Attention Network called CAN for Chinese NER, which consists of a character-based convolutional neural network (CNN) with local-attention layer and a gated recurrent unit (GRU) with global self-attention layer to capture the information from adjacent characters and sentence contexts. Also, compared to other models, not depending on any external resources like lexicons and employing small size of char embeddings make our model more practical. Extensive experimental results show that our approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods without word embedding and external lexicon resources on different domain datasets including Weibo, MSRA and Chinese Resume NER dataset.

Named entity recognition (NER) in Chinese is essential but difficult because of the lack of natural delimiters. Therefore, Chinese Word Segmentation (CWS) is usually considered as the first step for Chinese NER. However, models based on word-level embeddings and lexicon features often suffer from segmentation errors and out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words. In this paper, we investigate a Convolutional Attention Network called CAN for Chinese NER, which consists of a character-based convolutional neural network (CNN) with local-attention layer and a gated recurrent unit (GRU) with global self-attention layer to capture the information from adjacent characters and sentence contexts. Also, compared to other models, not depending on any external resources like lexicons and employing small size of char embeddings make our model more practical. Extensive experimental results show that our approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods without word embedding and external lexicon resources on different domain datasets including Weibo, MSRA and Chinese Resume NER dataset.