Models, code, and papers for "Zi Yang":

Implanting Rational Knowledge into Distributed Representation at Morpheme Level

Nov 26, 2018
Zi Lin, Yang Liu

Previously, researchers paid no attention to the creation of unambiguous morpheme embeddings independent from the corpus, while such information plays an important role in expressing the exact meanings of words for parataxis languages like Chinese. In this paper, after constructing the Chinese lexical and semantic ontology based on word-formation, we propose a novel approach to implanting the structured rational knowledge into distributed representation at morpheme level, naturally avoiding heavy disambiguation in the corpus. We design a template to create the instances as pseudo-sentences merely from the pieces of knowledge of morphemes built in the lexicon. To exploit hierarchical information and tackle the data sparseness problem, the instance proliferation technique is applied based on similarity to expand the collection of pseudo-sentences. The distributed representation for morphemes can then be trained on these pseudo-sentences using word2vec. For evaluation, we validate the paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations of morpheme embeddings, and apply the obtained embeddings to word similarity measurement, achieving significant improvements over the classical models by more than 5 Spearman scores or 8 percentage points, which shows very promising prospects for adoption of the new source of knowledge.

* AAAI 2019 

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Survey of modern Fault Diagnosis methods in networks

Feb 06, 2017
Zi Jian Yang, Yong Wang

With the advent of modern computer networks, fault diagnosis has been a focus of research activity. This paper reviews the history of fault diagnosis in networks and discusses the main methods in information gathering section, information analyzing section and diagnosing and revolving section of fault diagnosis in networks. Emphasis will be placed upon knowledge-based methods with discussing the advantages and shortcomings of the different methods. The survey is concluded with a description of some open problems.

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CANZSL: Cycle-Consistent Adversarial Networks for Zero-Shot Learning from Natural Language

Sep 21, 2019
Zhi Chen, Jingjing Li, Yadan Luo, Zi Huang, Yang Yang

Existing methods using generative adversarial approaches for Zero-Shot Learning (ZSL) aim to generate realistic visual features from class semantics by a single generative network, which is highly under-constrained. As a result, the previous methods cannot guarantee that the generated visual features can truthfully reflect the corresponding semantics. To address this issue, we propose a novel method named Cycle-consistent Adversarial Networks for Zero-Shot Learning (CANZSL). It encourages a visual feature generator to synthesize realistic visual features from semantics, and then inversely translate back synthesized the visual feature to corresponding semantic space by a semantic feature generator. Furthermore, in this paper a more challenging and practical ZSL problem is considered where the original semantics are from natural language with irrelevant words instead of clean semantics that are widely used in previous work. Specifically, a multi-modal consistent bidirectional generative adversarial network is trained to handle unseen instances by leveraging noise in the natural language. A forward one-to-many mapping from one text description to multiple visual features is coupled with an inverse many-to-one mapping from the visual space to the semantic space. Thus, a multi-modal cycle-consistency loss between the synthesized semantic representations and the ground truth can be learned and leveraged to enforce the generated semantic features to approximate to the real distribution in semantic space. Extensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate that our method consistently outperforms state-of-the-art approaches on natural language-based zero-shot learning tasks.

* WACV 2020 

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Curiosity-driven Reinforcement Learning for Diverse Visual Paragraph Generation

Aug 01, 2019
Yadan Luo, Zi Huang, Zheng Zhang, Jingjing Li, Yang Yang

Visual paragraph generation aims to automatically describe a given image from different perspectives and organize sentences in a coherent way. In this paper, we address three critical challenges for this task in a reinforcement learning setting: the mode collapse, the delayed feedback, and the time-consuming warm-up for policy networks. Generally, we propose a novel Curiosity-driven Reinforcement Learning (CRL) framework to jointly enhance the diversity and accuracy of the generated paragraphs. First, by modeling the paragraph captioning as a long-term decision-making process and measuring the prediction uncertainty of state transitions as intrinsic rewards, the model is incentivized to memorize precise but rarely spotted descriptions to context, rather than being biased towards frequent fragments and generic patterns. Second, since the extrinsic reward from evaluation is only available until the complete paragraph is generated, we estimate its expected value at each time step with temporal-difference learning, by considering the correlations between successive actions. Then the estimated extrinsic rewards are complemented by dense intrinsic rewards produced from the derived curiosity module, in order to encourage the policy to fully explore action space and find a global optimum. Third, discounted imitation learning is integrated for learning from human demonstrations, without separately performing the time-consuming warm-up in advance. Extensive experiments conducted on the Standford image-paragraph dataset demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method, improving the performance by 38.4% compared with state-of-the-art.

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Snap and Find: Deep Discrete Cross-domain Garment Image Retrieval

Apr 05, 2019
Yadan Luo, Ziwei Wang, Zi Huang, Yang Yang, Huimin Lu

With the increasing number of online stores, there is a pressing need for intelligent search systems to understand the item photos snapped by customers and search against large-scale product databases to find their desired items. However, it is challenging for conventional retrieval systems to match up the item photos captured by customers and the ones officially released by stores, especially for garment images. To bridge the customer- and store- provided garment photos, existing studies have been widely exploiting the clothing attributes (\textit{e.g.,} black) and landmarks (\textit{e.g.,} collar) to learn a common embedding space for garment representations. Unfortunately they omit the sequential correlation of attributes and consume large quantity of human labors to label the landmarks. In this paper, we propose a deep multi-task cross-domain hashing termed \textit{DMCH}, in which cross-domain embedding and sequential attribute learning are modeled simultaneously. Sequential attribute learning not only provides the semantic guidance for embedding, but also generates rich attention on discriminative local details (\textit{e.g.,} black buttons) of clothing items without requiring extra landmark labels. This leads to promising performance and 306$\times$ boost on efficiency when compared with the state-of-the-art models, which is demonstrated through rigorous experiments on two public fashion datasets.

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Coarse-to-Fine Annotation Enrichment for Semantic Segmentation Learning

Aug 22, 2018
Yadan Luo, Ziwei Wang, Zi Huang, Yang Yang, Cong Zhao

Rich high-quality annotated data is critical for semantic segmentation learning, yet acquiring dense and pixel-wise ground-truth is both labor- and time-consuming. Coarse annotations (e.g., scribbles, coarse polygons) offer an economical alternative, with which training phase could hardly generate satisfactory performance unfortunately. In order to generate high-quality annotated data with a low time cost for accurate segmentation, in this paper, we propose a novel annotation enrichment strategy, which expands existing coarse annotations of training data to a finer scale. Extensive experiments on the Cityscapes and PASCAL VOC 2012 benchmarks have shown that the neural networks trained with the enriched annotations from our framework yield a significant improvement over that trained with the original coarse labels. It is highly competitive to the performance obtained by using human annotated dense annotations. The proposed method also outperforms among other state-of-the-art weakly-supervised segmentation methods.

* CIKM 2018 International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management 

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Structural Embedding of Syntactic Trees for Machine Comprehension

Aug 31, 2017
Rui Liu, Junjie Hu, Wei Wei, Zi Yang, Eric Nyberg

Deep neural networks for machine comprehension typically utilizes only word or character embeddings without explicitly taking advantage of structured linguistic information such as constituency trees and dependency trees. In this paper, we propose structural embedding of syntactic trees (SEST), an algorithm framework to utilize structured information and encode them into vector representations that can boost the performance of algorithms for the machine comprehension. We evaluate our approach using a state-of-the-art neural attention model on the SQuAD dataset. Experimental results demonstrate that our model can accurately identify the syntactic boundaries of the sentences and extract answers that are syntactically coherent over the baseline methods.

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SADIH: Semantic-Aware DIscrete Hashing

Apr 16, 2019
Zheng Zhang, Guo-sen Xie, Yang Li, Sheng Li, Zi Huang

Due to its low storage cost and fast query speed, hashing has been recognized to accomplish similarity search in large-scale multimedia retrieval applications. Particularly supervised hashing has recently received considerable research attention by leveraging the label information to preserve the pairwise similarities of data points in the Hamming space. However, there still remain two crucial bottlenecks: 1) the learning process of the full pairwise similarity preservation is computationally unaffordable and unscalable to deal with big data; 2) the available category information of data are not well-explored to learn discriminative hash functions. To overcome these challenges, we propose a unified Semantic-Aware DIscrete Hashing (SADIH) framework, which aims to directly embed the transformed semantic information into the asymmetric similarity approximation and discriminative hashing function learning. Specifically, a semantic-aware latent embedding is introduced to asymmetrically preserve the full pairwise similarities while skillfully handle the cumbersome n times n pairwise similarity matrix. Meanwhile, a semantic-aware autoencoder is developed to jointly preserve the data structures in the discriminative latent semantic space and perform data reconstruction. Moreover, an efficient alternating optimization algorithm is proposed to solve the resulting discrete optimization problem. Extensive experimental results on multiple large-scale datasets demonstrate that our SADIH can clearly outperform the state-of-the-art baselines with the additional benefit of lower computational costs.

* Accepted by The Thirty-Third AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-19) 

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Learning from the Past: Continual Meta-Learning via Bayesian Graph Modeling

Nov 12, 2019
Yadan Luo, Zi Huang, Zheng Zhang, Ziwei Wang, Mahsa Baktashmotlagh, Yang Yang

Meta-learning for few-shot learning allows a machine to leverage previously acquired knowledge as a prior, thus improving the performance on novel tasks with only small amounts of data. However, most mainstream models suffer from catastrophic forgetting and insufficient robustness issues, thereby failing to fully retain or exploit long-term knowledge while being prone to cause severe error accumulation. In this paper, we propose a novel Continual Meta-Learning approach with Bayesian Graph Neural Networks (CML-BGNN) that mathematically formulates meta-learning as continual learning of a sequence of tasks. With each task forming as a graph, the intra- and inter-task correlations can be well preserved via message-passing and history transition. To remedy topological uncertainty from graph initialization, we utilize Bayes by Backprop strategy that approximates the posterior distribution of task-specific parameters with amortized inference networks, which are seamlessly integrated into the end-to-end edge learning. Extensive experiments conducted on the miniImageNet and tieredImageNet datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method, improving the performance by 42.8% compared with state-of-the-art on the miniImageNet 5-way 1-shot classification task.

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Alleviating Feature Confusion for Generative Zero-shot Learning

Sep 17, 2019
Jingjing Li, Mengmeng Jing, Ke Lu, Lei Zhu, Yang Yang, Zi Huang

Lately, generative adversarial networks (GANs) have been successfully applied to zero-shot learning (ZSL) and achieved state-of-the-art performance. By synthesizing virtual unseen visual features, GAN-based methods convert the challenging ZSL task into a supervised learning problem. However, GAN-based ZSL methods have to train the generator on the seen categories and further apply it to unseen instances. An inevitable issue of such a paradigm is that the synthesized unseen features are prone to seen references and incapable to reflect the novelty and diversity of real unseen instances. In a nutshell, the synthesized features are confusing. One cannot tell unseen categories from seen ones using the synthesized features. As a result, the synthesized features are too subtle to be classified in generalized zero-shot learning (GZSL) which involves both seen and unseen categories at the test stage. In this paper, we first introduce the feature confusion issue. Then, we propose a new feature generating network, named alleviating feature confusion GAN (AFC-GAN), to challenge the issue. Specifically, we present a boundary loss which maximizes the decision boundary of seen categories and unseen ones. Furthermore, a novel metric named feature confusion score (FCS) is proposed to quantify the feature confusion. Extensive experiments on five widely used datasets verify that our method is able to outperform previous state-of-the-arts under both ZSL and GZSL protocols.

* ACM Multimedia 2019 
* Our codes can be found at 

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From Zero-Shot Learning to Cold-Start Recommendation

Jun 21, 2019
Jingjing Li, Mengmeng Jing, Ke Lu, Lei Zhu, Yang Yang, Zi Huang

Zero-shot learning (ZSL) and cold-start recommendation (CSR) are two challenging problems in computer vision and recommender system, respectively. In general, they are independently investigated in different communities. This paper, however, reveals that ZSL and CSR are two extensions of the same intension. Both of them, for instance, attempt to predict unseen classes and involve two spaces, one for direct feature representation and the other for supplementary description. Yet there is no existing approach which addresses CSR from the ZSL perspective. This work, for the first time, formulates CSR as a ZSL problem, and a tailor-made ZSL method is proposed to handle CSR. Specifically, we propose a Low-rank Linear Auto-Encoder (LLAE), which challenges three cruxes, i.e., domain shift, spurious correlations and computing efficiency, in this paper. LLAE consists of two parts, a low-rank encoder maps user behavior into user attributes and a symmetric decoder reconstructs user behavior from user attributes. Extensive experiments on both ZSL and CSR tasks verify that the proposed method is a win-win formulation, i.e., not only can CSR be handled by ZSL models with a significant performance improvement compared with several conventional state-of-the-art methods, but the consideration of CSR can benefit ZSL as well.

* Accepted to AAAI 2019. Codes are available at 

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Binary Subspace Coding for Query-by-Image Video Retrieval

Dec 06, 2016
Ruicong Xu, Yang Yang, Yadan Luo, Fumin Shen, Zi Huang, Heng Tao Shen

The query-by-image video retrieval (QBIVR) task has been attracting considerable research attention recently. However, most existing methods represent a video by either aggregating or projecting all its frames into a single datum point, which may easily cause severe information loss. In this paper, we propose an efficient QBIVR framework to enable an effective and efficient video search with image query. We first define a similarity-preserving distance metric between an image and its orthogonal projection in the subspace of the video, which can be equivalently transformed to a Maximum Inner Product Search (MIPS) problem. Besides, to boost the efficiency of solving the MIPS problem, we propose two asymmetric hashing schemes, which bridge the domain gap of images and videos. The first approach, termed Inner-product Binary Coding (IBC), preserves the inner relationships of images and videos in a common Hamming space. To further improve the retrieval efficiency, we devise a Bilinear Binary Coding (BBC) approach, which employs compact bilinear projections instead of a single large projection matrix. Extensive experiments have been conducted on four real-world video datasets to verify the effectiveness of our proposed approaches as compared to the state-of-the-arts.

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Bidirectional Long-Short Term Memory for Video Description

Jun 15, 2016
Yi Bin, Yang Yang, Zi Huang, Fumin Shen, Xing Xu, Heng Tao Shen

Video captioning has been attracting broad research attention in multimedia community. However, most existing approaches either ignore temporal information among video frames or just employ local contextual temporal knowledge. In this work, we propose a novel video captioning framework, termed as \emph{Bidirectional Long-Short Term Memory} (BiLSTM), which deeply captures bidirectional global temporal structure in video. Specifically, we first devise a joint visual modelling approach to encode video data by combining a forward LSTM pass, a backward LSTM pass, together with visual features from Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). Then, we inject the derived video representation into the subsequent language model for initialization. The benefits are in two folds: 1) comprehensively preserving sequential and visual information; and 2) adaptively learning dense visual features and sparse semantic representations for videos and sentences, respectively. We verify the effectiveness of our proposed video captioning framework on a commonly-used benchmark, i.e., Microsoft Video Description (MSVD) corpus, and the experimental results demonstrate that the superiority of the proposed approach as compared to several state-of-the-art methods.

* 5 pages 

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Breast Ultrasound Computer-Aided Diagnosis Using Structure-Aware Triplet Path Networks

Aug 09, 2019
Erlei Zhang, Zi Yang, Stephen Seiler, Mingli Chen, Weiguo Lu, Xuejun Gu

Breast ultrasound (US) is an effective imaging modality for breast cancer detec-tion and diagnosis. The structural characteristics of breast lesion play an im-portant role in Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD). In this paper, a novel struc-ture-aware triplet path networks (SATPN) was designed to integrate classifica-tion and two image reconstruction tasks to achieve accurate diagnosis on US im-ages with small training dataset. Specifically, we enhance clinically-approved breast lesion structure characteristics though converting original breast US imag-es to BIRADS-oriented feature maps (BFMs) with a distance-transformation coupled Gaussian filter. Then, the converted BFMs were used as the inputs of SATPN, which performed lesion classification task and two unsupervised stacked convolutional Auto-Encoder (SCAE) networks for benign and malignant image reconstruction tasks, independently. We trained the SATPN with an alter-native learning strategy by balancing image reconstruction error and classification label prediction error. At the test stage, the lesion label was determined by the weighted voting with reconstruction error and label prediction error. We com-pared the performance of the SATPN with TPN using original image as input and our previous developed semi-supervised deep learning methods using BFMs as inputs. Experimental results on two breast US datasets showed that SATPN ranked the best among the three networks, with classification accuracy around 93.5%. These findings indicated that SATPN is promising for effective breast US lesion CAD using small datasets.

* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1904.01076 

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Information Aggregation for Multi-Head Attention with Routing-by-Agreement

Apr 05, 2019
Jian Li, Baosong Yang, Zi-Yi Dou, Xing Wang, Michael R. Lyu, Zhaopeng Tu

Multi-head attention is appealing for its ability to jointly extract different types of information from multiple representation subspaces. Concerning the information aggregation, a common practice is to use a concatenation followed by a linear transformation, which may not fully exploit the expressiveness of multi-head attention. In this work, we propose to improve the information aggregation for multi-head attention with a more powerful routing-by-agreement algorithm. Specifically, the routing algorithm iteratively updates the proportion of how much a part (i.e. the distinct information learned from a specific subspace) should be assigned to a whole (i.e. the final output representation), based on the agreement between parts and wholes. Experimental results on linguistic probing tasks and machine translation tasks prove the superiority of the advanced information aggregation over the standard linear transformation.

* NAACL 2019 

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Knowledge-Enriched Visual Storytelling

Dec 03, 2019
Chao-Chun Hsu, Zi-Yuan Chen, Chi-Yang Hsu, Chih-Chia Li, Tzu-Yuan Lin, Ting-Hao 'Kenneth' Huang, Lun-Wei Ku

Stories are diverse and highly personalized, resulting in a large possible output space for story generation. Existing end-to-end approaches produce monotonous stories because they are limited to the vocabulary and knowledge in a single training dataset. This paper introduces KG-Story, a three-stage framework that allows the story generation model to take advantage of external Knowledge Graphs to produce interesting stories. KG-Story distills a set of representative words from the input prompts, enriches the word set by using external knowledge graphs, and finally generates stories based on the enriched word set. This distill-enrich-generate framework allows the use of external resources not only for the enrichment phase, but also for the distillation and generation phases. In this paper, we show the superiority of KG-Story for visual storytelling, where the input prompt is a sequence of five photos and the output is a short story. Per the human ranking evaluation, stories generated by KG-Story are on average ranked better than that of the state-of-the-art systems. Our code and output stories are available at

* AAAI 2020 

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Best arm identification in multi-armed bandits with delayed feedback

Mar 29, 2018
Aditya Grover, Todor Markov, Peter Attia, Norman Jin, Nicholas Perkins, Bryan Cheong, Michael Chen, Zi Yang, Stephen Harris, William Chueh, Stefano Ermon

We propose a generalization of the best arm identification problem in stochastic multi-armed bandits (MAB) to the setting where every pull of an arm is associated with delayed feedback. The delay in feedback increases the effective sample complexity of standard algorithms, but can be offset if we have access to partial feedback received before a pull is completed. We propose a general framework to model the relationship between partial and delayed feedback, and as a special case we introduce efficient algorithms for settings where the partial feedback are biased or unbiased estimators of the delayed feedback. Additionally, we propose a novel extension of the algorithms to the parallel MAB setting where an agent can control a batch of arms. Our experiments in real-world settings, involving policy search and hyperparameter optimization in computational sustainability domains for fast charging of batteries and wildlife corridor construction, demonstrate that exploiting the structure of partial feedback can lead to significant improvements over baselines in both sequential and parallel MAB.

* AISTATS 2018 

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Towards a Human-like Open-Domain Chatbot

Feb 27, 2020
Daniel Adiwardana, Minh-Thang Luong, David R. So, Jamie Hall, Noah Fiedel, Romal Thoppilan, Zi Yang, Apoorv Kulshreshtha, Gaurav Nemade, Yifeng Lu, Quoc V. Le

We present Meena, a multi-turn open-domain chatbot trained end-to-end on data mined and filtered from public domain social media conversations. This 2.6B parameter neural network is simply trained to minimize perplexity of the next token. We also propose a human evaluation metric called Sensibleness and Specificity Average (SSA), which captures key elements of a human-like multi-turn conversation. Our experiments show strong correlation between perplexity and SSA. The fact that the best perplexity end-to-end trained Meena scores high on SSA (72% on multi-turn evaluation) suggests that a human-level SSA of 86% is potentially within reach if we can better optimize perplexity. Additionally, the full version of Meena (with a filtering mechanism and tuned decoding) scores 79% SSA, 23% higher in absolute SSA than the existing chatbots we evaluated.

* 38 pages, 12 figures 

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