The Pachinko Allocation Machine (PAM) is a deep topic model that allows representing rich correlation structures among topics by a directed acyclic graph over topics. Because of the flexibility of the model, however, approximate inference is very difficult. Perhaps for this reason, only a small number of potential PAM architectures have been explored in the literature. In this paper we present an efficient and flexible amortized variational inference method for PAM, using a deep inference network to parameterize the approximate posterior distribution in a manner similar to the variational autoencoder. Our inference method produces more coherent topics than state-of-art inference methods for PAM while being an order of magnitude faster, which allows exploration of a wider range of PAM architectures than have previously been studied. Click to Read Paper
Topic models are one of the most popular methods for learning representations of text, but a major challenge is that any change to the topic model requires mathematically deriving a new inference algorithm. A promising approach to address this problem is autoencoding variational Bayes (AEVB), but it has proven diffi- cult to apply to topic models in practice. We present what is to our knowledge the first effective AEVB based inference method for latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), which we call Autoencoded Variational Inference For Topic Model (AVITM). This model tackles the problems caused for AEVB by the Dirichlet prior and by component collapsing. We find that AVITM matches traditional methods in accuracy with much better inference time. Indeed, because of the inference network, we find that it is unnecessary to pay the computational cost of running variational optimization on test data. Because AVITM is black box, it is readily applied to new topic models. As a dramatic illustration of this, we present a new topic model called ProdLDA, that replaces the mixture model in LDA with a product of experts. By changing only one line of code from LDA, we find that ProdLDA yields much more interpretable topics, even if LDA is trained via collapsed Gibbs sampling. Click to Read Paper
A good clustering can help a data analyst to explore and understand a data set, but what constitutes a good clustering may depend on domain-specific and application-specific criteria. These criteria can be difficult to formalize, even when it is easy for an analyst to know a good clustering when she sees one. We present a new approach to interactive clustering for data exploration, called \ciif, based on a particularly simple feedback mechanism, in which an analyst can choose to reject individual clusters and request new ones. The new clusters should be different from previously rejected clusters while still fitting the data well. We formalize this interaction in a novel Bayesian prior elicitation framework. In each iteration, the prior is adapted to account for all the previous feedback, and a new clustering is then produced from the posterior distribution. To achieve the computational efficiency necessary for an interactive setting, we propose an incremental optimization method over data minibatches using Lagrangian relaxation. Experiments demonstrate that \ciif can produce accurate and diverse clusterings. Click to Read Paper
Wearables like smartwatches which are embedded with sensors and powerful processors, provide a strong platform for development of analytics solutions in sports domain. To analyze players' games, while motion sensor based shot detection has been extensively studied in sports like Tennis, Golf, Baseball; Table Tennis and Badminton are relatively less explored due to possible less intense hand motion during shots. In our paper, we propose a novel, computationally inexpensive and real-time system for shot detection in table tennis, based on fusion of Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and audio sensor data embedded in a wrist-worn wearable. The system builds upon our presented methodology for synchronizing IMU and audio sensor input in time using detected shots and achieves 95.6% accuracy. To our knowledge, it is the first fusion-based solution for sports analysis in wearables. Shot detectors for other racquet sports as well as further analytics to provide features like shot classification, rally analysis and recommendations, can easily be built over our proposed solution. Click to Read Paper
Deep generative models can learn to generate realistic-looking images on several natural image datasets, but many of the most effective methods are adversarial methods, which require careful balancing of training between a generator network and a discriminator network. Maximum mean discrepancy networks (MMD-nets) avoid this issue using the kernel trick, but unfortunately they have not on their own been able to match the performance of adversarial training. We present a new method of training MMD-nets, based on learning a mapping of samples from the data and from the model into a lower dimensional space, in which MMD training can be more effective. We call these networks ratio matching MMD networks (RMMMDnets). We train the mapping to preserve density ratios between the densities over the low-dimensional space and the original space. This ensures that matching the model distribution to the data in the low-dimensional space will also match the original distributions. We show that RM-MMDnets have better performance and better stability than recent adversarial methods for training MMD-nets. Click to Read Paper
We present a neurosymbolic framework for the lifelong learning of algorithmic tasks that mix perception and procedural reasoning. Reusing high-level concepts across domains and learning complex procedures are key challenges in lifelong learning. We show that a program synthesis approach that combines gradient descent with combinatorial search over programs can be a more effective response to these challenges than purely neural methods. Our framework, called HOUDINI, represents neural networks as strongly typed, differentiable functional programs that use symbolic higher-order combinators to compose a library of neural functions. Our learning algorithm consists of: (1) a symbolic program synthesizer that performs a type-directed search over parameterized programs, and decides on the library functions to reuse, and the architectures to combine them, while learning a sequence of tasks; and (2) a neural module that trains these programs using stochastic gradient descent. We evaluate HOUDINI on three benchmarks that combine perception with the algorithmic tasks of counting, summing, and shortest-path computation. Our experiments show that HOUDINI transfers high-level concepts more effectively than traditional transfer learning and progressive neural networks, and that the typed representation of networks significantly accelerates the search. Click to Read Paper
Deep generative models provide powerful tools for distributions over complicated manifolds, such as those of natural images. But many of these methods, including generative adversarial networks (GANs), can be difficult to train, in part because they are prone to mode collapse, which means that they characterize only a few modes of the true distribution. To address this, we introduce VEEGAN, which features a reconstructor network, reversing the action of the generator by mapping from data to noise. Our training objective retains the original asymptotic consistency guarantee of GANs, and can be interpreted as a novel autoencoder loss over the noise. In sharp contrast to a traditional autoencoder over data points, VEEGAN does not require specifying a loss function over the data, but rather only over the representations, which are standard normal by assumption. On an extensive set of synthetic and real world image datasets, VEEGAN indeed resists mode collapsing to a far greater extent than other recent GAN variants, and produces more realistic samples. Click to Read Paper
Uncertainty computation in deep learning is essential to design robust and reliable systems. Variational inference (VI) is a promising approach for such computation, but requires more effort to implement and execute compared to maximum-likelihood methods. In this paper, we propose new natural-gradient algorithms to reduce such efforts for Gaussian mean-field VI. Our algorithms can be implemented within the Adam optimizer by perturbing the network weights during gradient evaluations, and uncertainty estimates can be cheaply obtained by using the vector that adapts the learning rate. This requires lower memory, computation, and implementation effort than existing VI methods, while obtaining uncertainty estimates of comparable quality. Our empirical results confirm this and further suggest that the weight-perturbation in our algorithm could be useful for exploration in reinforcement learning and stochastic optimization. Click to Read Paper