Models, code, and papers for "Bing Liu":
In this work, we propose an adversarial learning method for reward estimation in reinforcement learning (RL) based task-oriented dialog models. Most of the current RL based task-oriented dialog systems require the access to a reward signal from either user feedback or user ratings. Such user ratings, however, may not always be consistent or available in practice. Furthermore, online dialog policy learning with RL typically requires a large number of queries to users, suffering from sample efficiency problem. To address these challenges, we propose an adversarial learning method to learn dialog rewards directly from dialog samples. Such rewards are further used to optimize the dialog policy with policy gradient based RL. In the evaluation in a restaurant search domain, we show that the proposed adversarial dialog learning method achieves advanced dialog success rate comparing to strong baseline methods. We further discuss the covariate shift problem in online adversarial dialog learning and show how we can address that with partial access to user feedback.
Knowledge base (KB) completion aims to infer missing facts from existing ones in a KB. Among various approaches, path ranking (PR) algorithms have received increasing attention in recent years. PR algorithms enumerate paths between entity pairs in a KB and use those paths as features to train a model for missing fact prediction. Due to their good performances and high model interpretability, several methods have been proposed. However, most existing methods suffer from scalability (high RAM consumption) and feature explosion (trains on an exponentially large number of features) problems. This paper proposes a Context-aware Path Ranking (C-PR) algorithm to solve these problems by introducing a selective path exploration strategy. C-PR learns global semantics of entities in the KB using word embedding and leverages the knowledge of entity semantics to enumerate contextually relevant paths using bidirectional random walk. Experimental results on three large KBs show that the path features (fewer in number) discovered by C-PR not only improve predictive performance but also are more interpretable than existing baselines.
The goal of this paper is to learn cross-domain representations for slot filling task in spoken language understanding (SLU). Most of the recently published SLU models are domain-specific ones that work on individual task domains. Annotating data for each individual task domain is both financially costly and non-scalable. In this work, we propose an adversarial training method in learning common features and representations that can be shared across multiple domains. Model that produces such shared representations can be combined with models trained on individual domain SLU data to reduce the amount of training samples required for developing a new domain. In our experiments using data sets from multiple domains, we show that adversarial training helps in learning better domain-general SLU models, leading to improved slot filling F1 scores. We further show that applying adversarial learning on domain-general model also helps in achieving higher slot filling performance when the model is jointly optimized with domain-specific models.
In this paper, we present a deep reinforcement learning (RL) framework for iterative dialog policy optimization in end-to-end task-oriented dialog systems. Popular approaches in learning dialog policy with RL include letting a dialog agent to learn against a user simulator. Building a reliable user simulator, however, is not trivial, often as difficult as building a good dialog agent. We address this challenge by jointly optimizing the dialog agent and the user simulator with deep RL by simulating dialogs between the two agents. We first bootstrap a basic dialog agent and a basic user simulator by learning directly from dialog corpora with supervised training. We then improve them further by letting the two agents to conduct task-oriented dialogs and iteratively optimizing their policies with deep RL. Both the dialog agent and the user simulator are designed with neural network models that can be trained end-to-end. Our experiment results show that the proposed method leads to promising improvements on task success rate and total task reward comparing to supervised training and single-agent RL training baseline models.
We present a novel end-to-end trainable neural network model for task-oriented dialog systems. The model is able to track dialog state, issue API calls to knowledge base (KB), and incorporate structured KB query results into system responses to successfully complete task-oriented dialogs. The proposed model produces well-structured system responses by jointly learning belief tracking and KB result processing conditioning on the dialog history. We evaluate the model in a restaurant search domain using a dataset that is converted from the second Dialog State Tracking Challenge (DSTC2) corpus. Experiment results show that the proposed model can robustly track dialog state given the dialog history. Moreover, our model demonstrates promising results in producing appropriate system responses, outperforming prior end-to-end trainable neural network models using per-response accuracy evaluation metrics.
In this work, we propose contextual language models that incorporate dialog level discourse information into language modeling. Previous works on contextual language model treat preceding utterances as a sequence of inputs, without considering dialog interactions. We design recurrent neural network (RNN) based contextual language models that specially track the interactions between speakers in a dialog. Experiment results on Switchboard Dialog Act Corpus show that the proposed model outperforms conventional single turn based RNN language model by 3.3% on perplexity. The proposed models also demonstrate advantageous performance over other competitive contextual language models.
Speaker intent detection and semantic slot filling are two critical tasks in spoken language understanding (SLU) for dialogue systems. In this paper, we describe a recurrent neural network (RNN) model that jointly performs intent detection, slot filling, and language modeling. The neural network model keeps updating the intent estimation as word in the transcribed utterance arrives and uses it as contextual features in the joint model. Evaluation of the language model and online SLU model is made on the ATIS benchmarking data set. On language modeling task, our joint model achieves 11.8% relative reduction on perplexity comparing to the independent training language model. On SLU tasks, our joint model outperforms the independent task training model by 22.3% on intent detection error rate, with slight degradation on slot filling F1 score. The joint model also shows advantageous performance in the realistic ASR settings with noisy speech input.
Attention-based encoder-decoder neural network models have recently shown promising results in machine translation and speech recognition. In this work, we propose an attention-based neural network model for joint intent detection and slot filling, both of which are critical steps for many speech understanding and dialog systems. Unlike in machine translation and speech recognition, alignment is explicit in slot filling. We explore different strategies in incorporating this alignment information to the encoder-decoder framework. Learning from the attention mechanism in encoder-decoder model, we further propose introducing attention to the alignment-based RNN models. Such attentions provide additional information to the intent classification and slot label prediction. Our independent task models achieve state-of-the-art intent detection error rate and slot filling F1 score on the benchmark ATIS task. Our joint training model further obtains 0.56% absolute (23.8% relative) error reduction on intent detection and 0.23% absolute gain on slot filling over the independent task models.
One key task of fine-grained sentiment analysis on reviews is to extract aspects or features that users have expressed opinions on. This paper focuses on supervised aspect extraction using a modified CNN called controlled CNN (Ctrl). The modified CNN has two types of control modules. Through asynchronous parameter updating, it prevents over-fitting and boosts CNN's performance significantly. This model achieves state-of-the-art results on standard aspect extraction datasets. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to apply control modules to aspect extraction.
Removing rain streaks from a single image continues to draw attentions today in outdoor vision systems. In this paper, we present an efficient method to remove rain streaks. First, the location map of rain pixels needs to be known as precisely as possible, to which we implement a relatively accurate detection of rain streaks by utilizing two characteristics of rain streaks.The key component of our method is to represent the intensity of each detected rain pixel using a linear model: $p=\alpha s + \beta$, where $p$ is the observed intensity of a rain pixel and $s$ represents the intensity of the background (i.e., before rain-affected). To solve $\alpha$ and $\beta$ for each detected rain pixel, we concentrate on a window centered around it and form an $L_2$-norm cost function by considering all detected rain pixels within the window, where the corresponding rain-removed intensity of each detected rain pixel is estimated by some neighboring non-rain pixels. By minimizing this cost function, we determine $\alpha$ and $\beta$ so as to construct the final rain-removed pixel intensity. Compared with several state-of-the-art works, our proposed method can remove rain streaks from a single color image much more efficiently - it offers not only a better visual quality but also a speed-up of several times to one degree of magnitude.
Although chatbots have been very popular in recent years, they still have some serious weaknesses which limit the scope of their applications. One major weakness is that they cannot learn new knowledge during the conversation process, i.e., their knowledge is fixed beforehand and cannot be expanded or updated during conversation. In this paper, we propose to build a general knowledge learning engine for chatbots to enable them to continuously and interactively learn new knowledge during conversations. As time goes by, they become more and more knowledgeable and better and better at learning and conversation. We model the task as an open-world knowledge base completion problem and propose a novel technique called lifelong interactive learning and inference (LiLi) to solve it. LiLi works by imitating how humans acquire knowledge and perform inference during an interactive conversation. Our experimental results show LiLi is highly promising.
Deep learning has emerged as a powerful machine learning technique that learns multiple layers of representations or features of the data and produces state-of-the-art prediction results. Along with the success of deep learning in many other application domains, deep learning is also popularly used in sentiment analysis in recent years. This paper first gives an overview of deep learning and then provides a comprehensive survey of its current applications in sentiment analysis.
This paper concerns open-world classification, where the classifier not only needs to classify test examples into seen classes that have appeared in training but also reject examples from unseen or novel classes that have not appeared in training. Specifically, this paper focuses on discovering the hidden unseen classes of the rejected examples. Clearly, without prior knowledge this is difficult. However, we do have the data from the seen training classes, which can tell us what kind of similarity/difference is expected for examples from the same class or from different classes. It is reasonable to assume that this knowledge can be transferred to the rejected examples and used to discover the hidden unseen classes in them. This paper aims to solve this problem. It first proposes a joint open classification model with a sub-model for classifying whether a pair of examples belongs to the same or different classes. This sub-model can serve as a distance function for clustering to discover the hidden classes of the rejected examples. Experimental results show that the proposed model is highly promising.
This paper proposes a novel lifelong learning (LL) approach to sentiment classification. LL mimics the human continuous learning process, i.e., retaining the knowledge learned from past tasks and use it to help future learning. In this paper, we first discuss LL in general and then LL for sentiment classification in particular. The proposed LL approach adopts a Bayesian optimization framework based on stochastic gradient descent. Our experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms baseline methods significantly, which demonstrates that lifelong learning is a promising research direction.
Traditional supervised learning makes the closed-world assumption that the classes appeared in the test data must have appeared in training. This also applies to text learning or text classification. As learning is used increasingly in dynamic open environments where some new/test documents may not belong to any of the training classes, identifying these novel documents during classification presents an important problem. This problem is called open-world classification or open classification. This paper proposes a novel deep learning based approach. It outperforms existing state-of-the-art techniques dramatically.
This paper makes a focused contribution to supervised aspect extraction. It shows that if the system has performed aspect extraction from many past domains and retained their results as knowledge, Conditional Random Fields (CRF) can leverage this knowledge in a lifelong learning manner to extract in a new domain markedly better than the traditional CRF without using this prior knowledge. The key innovation is that even after CRF training, the model can still improve its extraction with experiences in its applications.
Fully Convolution Networks (FCN) have achieved great success in dense prediction tasks including semantic segmentation. In this paper, we start from discussing FCN by understanding its architecture limitations in building a strong segmentation network. Next, we present our Improved Fully Convolution Network (IFCN). In contrast to FCN, IFCN introduces a context network that progressively expands the receptive fields of feature maps. In addition, dense skip connections are added so that the context network can be effectively optimized. More importantly, these dense skip connections enable IFCN to fuse rich-scale context to make reliable predictions. Empirically, those architecture modifications are proven to be significant to enhance the segmentation performance. Without engaging any contextual post-processing, IFCN significantly advances the state-of-the-arts on ADE20K (ImageNet scene parsing), Pascal Context, Pascal VOC 2012 and SUN-RGBD segmentation datasets.
We introduce a deep memory network for aspect level sentiment classification. Unlike feature-based SVM and sequential neural models such as LSTM, this approach explicitly captures the importance of each context word when inferring the sentiment polarity of an aspect. Such importance degree and text representation are calculated with multiple computational layers, each of which is a neural attention model over an external memory. Experiments on laptop and restaurant datasets demonstrate that our approach performs comparable to state-of-art feature based SVM system, and substantially better than LSTM and attention-based LSTM architectures. On both datasets we show that multiple computational layers could improve the performance. Moreover, our approach is also fast. The deep memory network with 9 layers is 15 times faster than LSTM with a CPU implementation.
We first establish a law of large numbers and a convergence theorem in distribution to show the rate of convergence of the non-local means filter for removing Gaussian noise. We then introduce the notion of degree of similarity to measure the role of similarity for the non-local means filter. Based on the convergence theorems, we propose a patch-based weighted means filter for removing impulse noise and its mixture with Gaussian noise by combining the essential idea of the trilateral filter and that of the non-local means filter. Our experiments show that our filter is competitive compared to recently proposed methods.