Models, code, and papers for "Chun-Na Li":

In this paper, we propose a general model for plane-based clustering. The general model contains many existing plane-based clustering methods, e.g., k-plane clustering (kPC), proximal plane clustering (PPC), twin support vector clustering (TWSVC) and its extensions. Under this general model, one may obtain an appropriate clustering method for specific purpose. The general model is a procedure corresponding to an optimization problem, where the optimization problem minimizes the total loss of the samples. Thereinto, the loss of a sample derives from both within-cluster and between-cluster. In theory, the termination conditions are discussed, and we prove that the general model terminates in a finite number of steps at a local or weak local optimal point. Furthermore, based on this general model, we propose a plane-based clustering method by introducing a new loss function to capture the data distribution precisely. Experimental results on artificial and public available datasets verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Traditional plane-based clustering methods measure the cost of within-cluster and between-cluster by quadratic, linear or some other unbounded functions, which may amplify the impact of cost. This letter introduces a ramp cost function into the plane-based clustering to propose a new clustering method, called ramp-based twin support vector clustering (RampTWSVC). RampTWSVC is more robust because of its boundness, and thus it is more easier to find the intrinsic clusters than other plane-based clustering methods. The non-convex programming problem in RampTWSVC is solved efficiently through an alternating iteration algorithm, and its local solution can be obtained in a finite number of iterations theoretically. In addition, the nonlinear manifold-based formation of RampTWSVC is also proposed by kernel trick. Experimental results on several benchmark datasets show the better performance of our RampTWSVC compared with other plane-based clustering methods.

In this paper, we propose a novel linear discriminant analysis criterion via the Bhattacharyya error bound estimation based on a novel L1-norm (L1BLDA) and L2-norm (L2BLDA). Both L1BLDA and L2BLDA maximize the between-class scatters which are measured by the weighted pairwise distances of class means and meanwhile minimize the within-class scatters under the L1-norm and L2-norm, respectively. The proposed models can avoid the small sample size (SSS) problem and have no rank limit that may encounter in LDA. It is worth mentioning that, the employment of L1-norm gives a robust performance of L1BLDA, and L1BLDA is solved through an effective non-greedy alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), where all the projection vectors can be obtained once for all. In addition, the weighting constants of L1BLDA and L2BLDA between the between-class and within-class terms are determined by the involved data set, which makes our L1BLDA and L2BLDA adaptive. The experimental results on both benchmark data sets as well as the handwritten digit databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Recent advances show that two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis (2DLDA) is a successful matrix based dimensionality reduction method. However, 2DLDA may encounter the singularity issue theoretically and the sensitivity to outliers. In this paper, a generalized Lp-norm 2DLDA framework with regularization for an arbitrary $p>0$ is proposed, named G2DLDA. There are mainly two contributions of G2DLDA: one is G2DLDA model uses an arbitrary Lp-norm to measure the between-class and within-class scatter, and hence a proper $p$ can be selected to achieve the robustness. The other one is that by introducing an extra regularization term, G2DLDA achieves better generalization performance, and solves the singularity problem. In addition, G2DLDA can be solved through a series of convex problems with equality constraint, and it has closed solution for each single problem. Its convergence can be guaranteed theoretically when $1\leq p\leq2$. Preliminary experimental results on three contaminated human face databases show the effectiveness of the proposed G2DLDA.

Considering the classification problem, we summarize the nonparallel support vector machines with the nonparallel hyperplanes to two types of frameworks. The first type constructs the hyperplanes separately. It solves a series of small optimization problems to obtain a series of hyperplanes, but is hard to measure the loss of each sample. The other type constructs all the hyperplanes simultaneously, and it solves one big optimization problem with the ascertained loss of each sample. We give the characteristics of each framework and compare them carefully. In addition, based on the second framework, we construct a max-min distance-based nonparallel support vector machine for multiclass classification problem, called NSVM. It constructs hyperplanes with large distance margin by solving an optimization problem. Experimental results on benchmark data sets and human face databases show the advantages of our NSVM.

Scale of data and scale of computation infrastructures together enable the current deep learning renaissance. However, training large-scale deep architectures demands both algorithmic improvement and careful system configuration. In this paper, we focus on employing the system approach to speed up large-scale training. Via lessons learned from our routine benchmarking effort, we first identify bottlenecks and overheads that hinter data parallelism. We then devise guidelines that help practitioners to configure an effective system and fine-tune parameters to achieve desired speedup. Specifically, we develop a procedure for setting minibatch size and choosing computation algorithms. We also derive lemmas for determining the quantity of key components such as the number of GPUs and parameter servers. Experiments and examples show that these guidelines help effectively speed up large-scale deep learning training.

Belief Propagation (BP) is one of the most popular methods for inference in probabilistic graphical models. BP is guaranteed to return the correct answer for tree structures, but can be incorrect or non-convergent for loopy graphical models. Recently, several new approximate inference algorithms based on cavity distribution have been proposed. These methods can account for the effect of loops by incorporating the dependency between BP messages. Alternatively, region-based approximations (that lead to methods such as Generalized Belief Propagation) improve upon BP by considering interactions within small clusters of variables, thus taking small loops within these clusters into account. This paper introduces an approach, Generalized Loop Correction (GLC), that benefits from both of these types of loop correction. We show how GLC relates to these two families of inference methods, then provide empirical evidence that GLC works effectively in general, and can be significantly more accurate than both correction schemes.

This paper proposes BRIEF, a backward reduction algorithm that explores compact CNN-model designs from the information flow perspective. This algorithm can remove substantial non-zero weighting parameters (redundant neural channels) of a network by considering its dynamic behavior, which traditional model-compaction techniques cannot achieve. With the aid of our proposed algorithm, we achieve significant model reduction on ResNet-34 in the ImageNet scale (32.3% reduction), which is 3X better than the previous result (10.8%). Even for highly optimized models such as SqueezeNet and MobileNet, we can achieve additional 10.81% and 37.56% reduction, respectively, with negligible performance degradation.

We estimate the proper channel (width) scaling of Convolution Neural Networks (CNNs) for model reduction. Unlike the traditional scaling method that reduces every CNN channel width by the same scaling factor, we address each CNN macroblock adaptively depending on its information redundancy measured by our proposed effective flops. Our proposed macroblock scaling (MBS) algorithm can be applied to various CNN architectures to reduce their model size. These applicable models range from compact CNN models such as MobileNet (25.53% reduction, ImageNet) and ShuffleNet (20.74% reduction, ImageNet) to ultra-deep ones such as ResNet-101 (51.67% reduction, ImageNet) and ResNet-1202 (72.71% reduction, CIFAR-10) with negligible accuracy degradation. MBS also performs better reduction at a much lower cost than does the state-of-the-art optimization-based method. MBS's simplicity and efficiency, its flexibility to work with any CNN model, and its scalability to work with models of any depth makes it an attractive choice for CNN model size reduction.

We propose a block-diagonal approximation of the positive-curvature Hessian (BDA-PCH) matrix to measure curvature. Our proposed BDAPCH matrix is memory efficient and can be applied to any fully-connected neural networks where the activation and criterion functions are twice differentiable. Particularly, our BDA-PCH matrix can handle non-convex criterion functions. We devise an efficient scheme utilizing the conjugate gradient method to derive Newton directions for mini-batch setting. Empirical studies show that our method outperforms the competing second-order methods in convergence speed.

Performing supervised learning from the data synthesized by using Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), dubbed GAN-synthetic data, has two important applications. First, GANs may generate more labeled training data, which may help improve classification accuracy. Second, in scenarios where real data cannot be released outside certain premises for privacy and/or security reasons, using GAN- synthetic data to conduct training is a plausible alternative. This paper proposes a generalization bound to guarantee the generalization capability of a classifier learning from GAN-synthetic data. This generalization bound helps developers gauge the generalization gap between learning from synthetic data and testing on real data, and can therefore provide the clues to improve the generalization capability.

Deep learning owes its success to three key factors: scale of data, enhanced models to learn representations from data, and scale of computation. This book chapter presented the importance of the data-driven approach to learn good representations from both big data and small data. In terms of big data, it has been widely accepted in the research community that the more data the better for both representation and classification improvement. The question is then how to learn representations from big data, and how to perform representation learning when data is scarce. We addressed the first question by presenting CNN model enhancements in the aspects of representation, optimization, and generalization. To address the small data challenge, we showed transfer representation learning to be effective. Transfer representation learning transfers the learned representation from a source domain where abundant training data is available to a target domain where training data is scarce. Transfer representation learning gave the OM and melanoma diagnosis modules of our XPRIZE Tricorder device (which finished $2^{nd}$ out of $310$ competing teams) a significant boost in diagnosis accuracy.

Objective. Annotation is expensive but essential for clinical note review and clinical natural language processing (cNLP). However, the extent to which computer-generated pre-annotation is beneficial to human annotation is still an open question. Our study introduces CLEAN (CLinical note rEview and ANnotation), a pre-annotation-based cNLP annotation system to improve clinical note annotation of data elements, and comprehensively compares CLEAN with the widely-used annotation system Brat Rapid Annotation Tool (BRAT). Materials and Methods. CLEAN includes an ensemble pipeline (CLEAN-EP) with a newly developed annotation tool (CLEAN-AT). A domain expert and a novice user/annotator participated in a comparative usability test by tagging 87 data elements related to Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) and Kawasaki Disease (KD) cohorts in 84 public notes. Results. CLEAN achieved higher note-level F1-score (0.896) over BRAT (0.820), with significant difference in correctness (P-value < 0.001), and the mostly related factor being system/software (P-value < 0.001). No significant difference (P-value 0.188) in annotation time was observed between CLEAN (7.262 minutes/note) and BRAT (8.286 minutes/note). The difference was mostly associated with note length (P-value < 0.001) and system/software (P-value 0.013). The expert reported CLEAN to be useful/satisfactory, while the novice reported slight improvements. Discussion. CLEAN improves the correctness of annotation and increases usefulness/satisfaction with the same level of efficiency. Limitations include untested impact of pre-annotation correctness rate, small sample size, small user size, and restrictedly validated gold standard. Conclusion. CLEAN with pre-annotation can be beneficial for an expert to deal with complex annotation tasks involving numerous and diverse target data elements.