Models, code, and papers for "Co Tran":

Advancing Speech Recognition With No Speech Or With Noisy Speech

Jul 27, 2019
Gautam Krishna, Co Tran, Mason Carnahan, Ahmed H Tewfik

In this paper we demonstrate end to end continuous speech recognition (CSR) using electroencephalography (EEG) signals with no speech signal as input. An attention model based automatic speech recognition (ASR) and connectionist temporal classification (CTC) based ASR systems were implemented for performing recognition. We further demonstrate CSR for noisy speech by fusing with EEG features.

* Accepted for publication at IEEE EUSIPCO 2019. Camera-ready version. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1906.08045 

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Speech Recognition with no speech or with noisy speech

Mar 02, 2019
Gautam Krishna, Co Tran, Jianguo Yu, Ahmed H Tewfik

The performance of automatic speech recognition systems(ASR) degrades in the presence of noisy speech. This paper demonstrates that using electroencephalography (EEG) can help automatic speech recognition systems overcome performance loss in the presence of noise. The paper also shows that distillation training of automatic speech recognition systems using EEG features will increase their performance. Finally, we demonstrate the ability to recognize words from EEG with no speech signal on a limited English vocabulary with high accuracy.

* Accepted for ICASSP 2019 

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Spoken Speech Enhancement using EEG

Sep 13, 2019
Gautam Krishna, Yan Han, Co Tran, Mason Carnahan, Ahmed H Tewfik

In this paper we demonstrate spoken speech enhancement using electroencephalography (EEG) signals using a generative adversarial network (GAN) based model and Long short-term Memory (LSTM) regression based model. Our results demonstrate that EEG features can be used to clean speech recorded in presence of background noise.

* To be submitted to ICASSP 2020. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1906.08044, arXiv:1906.08871, arXiv:1906.08045 

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Speech Recognition With No Speech Or With Noisy Speech Beyond English

Jul 14, 2019
Gautam Krishna, Co Tran, Yan Han, Mason Carnahan, Ahmed H Tewfik

In this paper we demonstrate continuous noisy speech recognition using connectionist temporal classification (CTC) model on limited Chinese vocabulary using electroencephalography (EEG) features with no speech signal as input and we further demonstrate single CTC model based continuous noisy speech recognition on limited joint English and Chinese vocabulary using EEG features with no speech signal as input.

* On preparation for submission for ICASSP 2020. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1906.08044 

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Robust End to End Speaker Verification Using EEG

Jun 17, 2019
Yan Han, Gautam Krishna, Co Tran, Mason Carnahan, Ahmed H Tewfik

In this paper we demonstrate that performance of a speaker verification system can be improved by concatenating electroencephalography (EEG) signal features with speech signal. We use state of art end to end deep learning model for performing speaker verification and we demonstrate our results for noisy speech. Our results indicate that EEG signals can improve the robustness of speaker verification systems.

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Hypergraph and protein function prediction with gene expression data

Dec 03, 2012
Loc Tran

Most network-based protein (or gene) function prediction methods are based on the assumption that the labels of two adjacent proteins in the network are likely to be the same. However, assuming the pairwise relationship between proteins or genes is not complete, the information a group of genes that show very similar patterns of expression and tend to have similar functions (i.e. the functional modules) is missed. The natural way overcoming the information loss of the above assumption is to represent the gene expression data as the hypergraph. Thus, in this paper, the three un-normalized, random walk, and symmetric normalized hypergraph Laplacian based semi-supervised learning methods applied to hypergraph constructed from the gene expression data in order to predict the functions of yeast proteins are introduced. Experiment results show that the average accuracy performance measures of these three hypergraph Laplacian based semi-supervised learning methods are the same. However, their average accuracy performance measures of these three methods are much greater than the average accuracy performance measures of un-normalized graph Laplacian based semi-supervised learning method (i.e. the baseline method of this paper) applied to gene co-expression network created from the gene expression data.

* 12 pages, 1 figure. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1211.4289 

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Application of three graph Laplacian based semi-supervised learning methods to protein function prediction problem

Jul 11, 2013
Loc Tran

Protein function prediction is the important problem in modern biology. In this paper, the un-normalized, symmetric normalized, and random walk graph Laplacian based semi-supervised learning methods will be applied to the integrated network combined from multiple networks to predict the functions of all yeast proteins in these multiple networks. These multiple networks are network created from Pfam domain structure, co-participation in a protein complex, protein-protein interaction network, genetic interaction network, and network created from cell cycle gene expression measurements. Multiple networks are combined with fixed weights instead of using convex optimization to determine the combination weights due to high time complexity of convex optimization method. This simple combination method will not affect the accuracy performance measures of the three semi-supervised learning methods. Experiment results show that the un-normalized and symmetric normalized graph Laplacian based methods perform slightly better than random walk graph Laplacian based method for integrated network. Moreover, the accuracy performance measures of these three semi-supervised learning methods for integrated network are much better than the best accuracy performance measures of these three methods for the individual network.

* 16 pages, 9 tables 

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Regularizing Matrix Factorization with User and Item Embeddings for Recommendation

Aug 31, 2018
Thanh Tran, Kyumin Lee, Yiming Liao, Dongwon Lee

Following recent successes in exploiting both latent factor and word embedding models in recommendation, we propose a novel Regularized Multi-Embedding (RME) based recommendation model that simultaneously encapsulates the following ideas via decomposition: (1) which items a user likes, (2) which two users co-like the same items, (3) which two items users often co-liked, and (4) which two items users often co-disliked. In experimental validation, the RME outperforms competing state-of-the-art models in both explicit and implicit feedback datasets, significantly improving Recall@5 by 5.9~7.0%, NDCG@20 by 4.3~5.6%, and MAP@10 by 7.9~8.9%. In addition, under the cold-start scenario for users with the lowest number of interactions, against the competing models, the RME outperforms NDCG@5 by 20.2% and 29.4% in MovieLens-10M and MovieLens-20M datasets, respectively. Our datasets and source code are available at:

* CIKM 2018 
* CIKM 2018 

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Ordinal Boltzmann Machines for Collaborative Filtering

May 09, 2012
Tran The Truyen, Dinh Q. Phung, Svetha Venkatesh

Collaborative filtering is an effective recommendation technique wherein the preference of an individual can potentially be predicted based on preferences of other members. Early algorithms often relied on the strong locality in the preference data, that is, it is enough to predict preference of a user on a particular item based on a small subset of other users with similar tastes or of other items with similar properties. More recently, dimensionality reduction techniques have proved to be equally competitive, and these are based on the co-occurrence patterns rather than locality. This paper explores and extends a probabilistic model known as Boltzmann Machine for collaborative filtering tasks. It seamlessly integrates both the similarity and co-occurrence in a principled manner. In particular, we study parameterisation options to deal with the ordinal nature of the preferences, and propose a joint modelling of both the user-based and item-based processes. Experiments on moderate and large-scale movie recommendation show that our framework rivals existing well-known methods.

* Appears in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI2009) 

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Attentive Action and Context Factorization

Apr 10, 2019
Yang Wang, Vinh Tran, Gedas Bertasius, Lorenzo Torresani, Minh Hoai

We propose a method for human action recognition, one that can localize the spatiotemporal regions that `define' the actions. This is a challenging task due to the subtlety of human actions in video and the co-occurrence of contextual elements. To address this challenge, we utilize conjugate samples of human actions, which are video clips that are contextually similar to human action samples but do not contain the action. We introduce a novel attentional mechanism that can spatially and temporally separate human actions from the co-occurring contextual factors. The separation of the action and context factors is weakly supervised, eliminating the need for laboriously detailed annotation of these two factors in training samples. Our method can be used to build human action classifiers with higher accuracy and better interpretability. Experiments on several human action recognition datasets demonstrate the quantitative and qualitative benefits of our approach.

* 10 pages, 6 figures 

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Convex Techniques for Model Selection

Dec 02, 2014
Dustin Tran

We develop a robust convex algorithm to select the regularization parameter in model selection. In practice this would be automated in order to save practitioners time from having to tune it manually. In particular, we implement and test the convex method for $K$-fold cross validation on ridge regression, although the same concept extends to more complex models. We then compare its performance with standard methods.

* Originally written on May 16, 2014 

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Collaborative Multi-sensor Classification via Sparsity-based Representation

Jun 16, 2016
Minh Dao, Nam H. Nguyen, Nasser M. Nasrabadi, Trac D. Tran

In this paper, we propose a general collaborative sparse representation framework for multi-sensor classification, which takes into account the correlations as well as complementary information between heterogeneous sensors simultaneously while considering joint sparsity within each sensor's observations. We also robustify our models to deal with the presence of sparse noise and low-rank interference signals. Specifically, we demonstrate that incorporating the noise or interference signal as a low-rank component in our models is essential in a multi-sensor classification problem when multiple co-located sources/sensors simultaneously record the same physical event. We further extend our frameworks to kernelized models which rely on sparsely representing a test sample in terms of all the training samples in a feature space induced by a kernel function. A fast and efficient algorithm based on alternative direction method is proposed where its convergence to an optimal solution is guaranteed. Extensive experiments are conducted on several real multi-sensor data sets and results are compared with the conventional classifiers to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

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Theory and Evaluation Metrics for Learning Disentangled Representations

Aug 26, 2019
Kien Do, Truyen Tran

We make two theoretical contributions to disentanglement learning by (a) defining precise semantics of disentangled representations, and (b) establishing robust metrics for evaluation. First, we characterize the concept "disentangled representations" used in supervised and unsupervised methods along three dimensions-informativeness, separability and interpretability - which can be expressed and quantified explicitly using information-theoretic constructs. This helps explain the behaviors of several well-known disentanglement learning models. We then propose robust metrics for measuring informativeness, separability and interpretability. Through a comprehensive suite of experiments, we show that our metrics correctly characterize the representations learned by different methods and are consistent with qualitative (visual) results. Thus, the metrics allow disentanglement learning methods to be compared on a fair ground. We also empirically uncovered new interesting properties of VAE-based methods and interpreted them with our formulation. These findings are promising and hopefully will encourage the design of more theoretically driven models for learning disentangled representations.

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Semi-Supervised Learning with Self-Supervised Networks

Jun 25, 2019
Phi Vu Tran

Recent advances in semi-supervised learning have shown tremendous potential in overcoming a major barrier to the success of modern machine learning algorithms: access to vast amounts of human-labeled training data. Algorithms based on self-ensemble learning and virtual adversarial training can harness the abundance of unlabeled data to produce impressive state-of-the-art results on a number of semi-supervised benchmarks, approaching the performance of strong supervised baselines using only a fraction of the available labeled data. However, these methods often require careful tuning of many hyper-parameters and are usually not easy to implement in practice. In this work, we present a conceptually simple yet effective semi-supervised algorithm based on self-supervised learning to combine semantic feature representations from unlabeled data. Our models are efficiently trained end-to-end for the joint, multi-task learning of labeled and unlabeled data in a single stage. Striving for simplicity and practicality, our approach requires no additional hyper-parameters to tune for optimal performance beyond the standard set for training convolutional neural networks. We conduct a comprehensive empirical evaluation of our models for semi-supervised image classification on SVHN, CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100, and demonstrate results competitive with, and in some cases exceeding, prior state of the art. Reference code and data are available at

* initial tech report, 10 pages 

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On Cross-validation for Sparse Reduced Rank Regression

Dec 30, 2018
Yiyuan She, Hoang Tran

In high-dimensional data analysis, regularization methods pursuing sparsity and/or low rank have received a lot of attention recently. To provide a proper amount of shrinkage, it is typical to use a grid search and a model comparison criterion to find the optimal regularization parameters. However, we show that fixing the parameters across all folds may result in an inconsistency issue, and it is more appropriate to cross-validate projection-selection patterns to obtain the best coefficient estimate. Our in-sample error studies in jointly sparse and rank-deficient models lead to a new class of information criteria with four scale-free forms to bypass the estimation of the noise level. By use of an identity, we propose a novel scale-free calibration to help cross-validation achieve the minimax optimal error rate non-asymptotically. Experiments support the efficacy of the proposed methods.

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Multi-Task Graph Autoencoders

Nov 07, 2018
Phi Vu Tran

We examine two fundamental tasks associated with graph representation learning: link prediction and node classification. We present a new autoencoder architecture capable of learning a joint representation of local graph structure and available node features for the simultaneous multi-task learning of unsupervised link prediction and semi-supervised node classification. Our simple, yet effective and versatile model is efficiently trained end-to-end in a single stage, whereas previous related deep graph embedding methods require multiple training steps that are difficult to optimize. We provide an empirical evaluation of our model on five benchmark relational, graph-structured datasets and demonstrate significant improvement over three strong baselines for graph representation learning. Reference code and data are available at

* NIPS 2018 Workshop on Relational Representation Learning. Short version of arXiv:1802.08352 

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Variational Bayes Inference in Digital Receivers

Nov 03, 2018
Viet Hung Tran

The digital telecommunications receiver is an important context for inference methodology, the key objective being to minimize the expected loss function in recovering the transmitted information. For that criterion, the optimal decision is the Bayesian minimum-risk estimator. However, the computational load of the Bayesian estimator is often prohibitive and, hence, efficient computational schemes are required. The design of novel schemes, striking new balances between accuracy and computational load, is the primary concern of this thesis. Two popular techniques, one exact and one approximate, will be studied. The exact scheme is a recursive one, namely the generalized distributive law (GDL), whose purpose is to distribute all operators across the conditionally independent (CI) factors of the joint model, so as to reduce the total number of operators required. In a novel theorem derived in this thesis, GDL, if applicable, will be shown to guarantee such a reduction in all cases. An associated lemma also quantifies this reduction. For practical use, two novel algorithms, namely the no-longer-needed (NLN) algorithm and the generalized form of the Markovian Forward-Backward (FB) algorithm, recursively factorizes and computes the CI factors of an arbitrary model, respectively. The approximate scheme is an iterative one, namely the Variational Bayes (VB) approximation, whose purpose is to find the independent (i.e. zero-order Markov) model closest to the true joint model in the minimum Kullback-Leibler divergence (KLD) sense. Despite being computationally efficient, this naive mean field approximation confers only modest performance for highly correlated models. A novel approximation, namely Transformed Variational Bayes (TVB), will be designed in the thesis in order to relax the zero-order constraint in the VB approximation, further reducing the KLD of the optimal approximation.

* PhD thesis, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland (2014) 

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