Models, code, and papers for "Colin Cherry":

Thinking Slow about Latency Evaluation for Simultaneous Machine Translation

May 31, 2019
Colin Cherry, George Foster

Simultaneous machine translation attempts to translate a source sentence before it is finished being spoken, with applications to translation of spoken language for live streaming and conversation. Since simultaneous systems trade quality to reduce latency, having an effective and interpretable latency metric is crucial. We introduce a variant of the recently proposed Average Lagging (AL) metric, which we call Differentiable Average Lagging (DAL). It distinguishes itself by being differentiable and internally consistent to its underlying mathematical model.


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Efficient Sequence Labeling with Actor-Critic Training

Sep 30, 2018
Saeed Najafi, Colin Cherry, Grzegorz Kondrak

Neural approaches to sequence labeling often use a Conditional Random Field (CRF) to model their output dependencies, while Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) are used for the same purpose in other tasks. We set out to establish RNNs as an attractive alternative to CRFs for sequence labeling. To do so, we address one of the RNN's most prominent shortcomings, the fact that it is not exposed to its own errors with the maximum-likelihood training. We frame the prediction of the output sequence as a sequential decision-making process, where we train the network with an adjusted actor-critic algorithm (AC-RNN). We comprehensively compare this strategy with maximum-likelihood training for both RNNs and CRFs on three structured-output tasks. The proposed AC-RNN efficiently matches the performance of the CRF on NER and CCG tagging, and outperforms it on Machine Transliteration. We also show that our training strategy is significantly better than other techniques for addressing RNN's exposure bias, such as Scheduled Sampling, and Self-Critical policy training.


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A Challenge Set Approach to Evaluating Machine Translation

Aug 29, 2017
Pierre Isabelle, Colin Cherry, George Foster

Neural machine translation represents an exciting leap forward in translation quality. But what longstanding weaknesses does it resolve, and which remain? We address these questions with a challenge set approach to translation evaluation and error analysis. A challenge set consists of a small set of sentences, each hand-designed to probe a system's capacity to bridge a particular structural divergence between languages. To exemplify this approach, we present an English-French challenge set, and use it to analyze phrase-based and neural systems. The resulting analysis provides not only a more fine-grained picture of the strengths of neural systems, but also insight into which linguistic phenomena remain out of reach.

* EMNLP 2017. 28 pages, including appendix. Machine readable data included in a separate file. This version corrects typos in the challenge set 

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End-to-End Multi-View Networks for Text Classification

Apr 19, 2017
Hongyu Guo, Colin Cherry, Jiang Su

We propose a multi-view network for text classification. Our method automatically creates various views of its input text, each taking the form of soft attention weights that distribute the classifier's focus among a set of base features. For a bag-of-words representation, each view focuses on a different subset of the text's words. Aggregating many such views results in a more discriminative and robust representation. Through a novel architecture that both stacks and concatenates views, we produce a network that emphasizes both depth and width, allowing training to converge quickly. Using our multi-view architecture, we establish new state-of-the-art accuracies on two benchmark tasks.

* 6 pages 

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Reinforcement Learning based Curriculum Optimization for Neural Machine Translation

Feb 28, 2019
Gaurav Kumar, George Foster, Colin Cherry, Maxim Krikun

We consider the problem of making efficient use of heterogeneous training data in neural machine translation (NMT). Specifically, given a training dataset with a sentence-level feature such as noise, we seek an optimal curriculum, or order for presenting examples to the system during training. Our curriculum framework allows examples to appear an arbitrary number of times, and thus generalizes data weighting, filtering, and fine-tuning schemes. Rather than relying on prior knowledge to design a curriculum, we use reinforcement learning to learn one automatically, jointly with the NMT system, in the course of a single training run. We show that this approach can beat uniform and filtering baselines on Paracrawl and WMT English-to-French datasets by up to +3.4 BLEU, and match the performance of a hand-designed, state-of-the-art curriculum.

* NAACL 2019 short paper. Reviewer comments not yet addressed 

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Revisiting Character-Based Neural Machine Translation with Capacity and Compression

Aug 29, 2018
Colin Cherry, George Foster, Ankur Bapna, Orhan Firat, Wolfgang Macherey

Translating characters instead of words or word-fragments has the potential to simplify the processing pipeline for neural machine translation (NMT), and improve results by eliminating hyper-parameters and manual feature engineering. However, it results in longer sequences in which each symbol contains less information, creating both modeling and computational challenges. In this paper, we show that the modeling problem can be solved by standard sequence-to-sequence architectures of sufficient depth, and that deep models operating at the character level outperform identical models operating over word fragments. This result implies that alternative architectures for handling character input are better viewed as methods for reducing computation time than as improved ways of modeling longer sequences. From this perspective, we evaluate several techniques for character-level NMT, verify that they do not match the performance of our deep character baseline model, and evaluate the performance versus computation time tradeoffs they offer. Within this framework, we also perform the first evaluation for NMT of conditional computation over time, in which the model learns which timesteps can be skipped, rather than having them be dictated by a fixed schedule specified before training begins.

* To appear at EMNLP 2018 

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Shaping the Narrative Arc: An Information-Theoretic Approach to Collaborative Dialogue

Jan 31, 2019
Kory W. Mathewson, Pablo Samuel Castro, Colin Cherry, George Foster, Marc G. Bellemare

We consider the problem of designing an artificial agent capable of interacting with humans in collaborative dialogue to produce creative, engaging narratives. In this task, the goal is to establish universe details, and to collaborate on an interesting story in that universe, through a series of natural dialogue exchanges. Our model can augment any probabilistic conversational agent by allowing it to reason about universe information established and what potential next utterances might reveal. Ideally, with each utterance, agents would reveal just enough information to add specificity and reduce ambiguity without limiting the conversation. We empirically show that our model allows control over the rate at which the agent reveals information and that doing so significantly improves accuracy in predicting the next line of dialogues from movies. We close with a case-study with four professional theatre performers, who preferred interactions with our model-augmented agent over an unaugmented agent.

* 20 pages, 9 figures 

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Monotonic Infinite Lookback Attention for Simultaneous Machine Translation

Jun 12, 2019
Naveen Arivazhagan, Colin Cherry, Wolfgang Macherey, Chung-Cheng Chiu, Semih Yavuz, Ruoming Pang, Wei Li, Colin Raffel

Simultaneous machine translation begins to translate each source sentence before the source speaker is finished speaking, with applications to live and streaming scenarios. Simultaneous systems must carefully schedule their reading of the source sentence to balance quality against latency. We present the first simultaneous translation system to learn an adaptive schedule jointly with a neural machine translation (NMT) model that attends over all source tokens read thus far. We do so by introducing Monotonic Infinite Lookback (MILk) attention, which maintains both a hard, monotonic attention head to schedule the reading of the source sentence, and a soft attention head that extends from the monotonic head back to the beginning of the source. We show that MILk's adaptive schedule allows it to arrive at latency-quality trade-offs that are favorable to those of a recently proposed wait-k strategy for many latency values.

* Accepted for publication at ACL 2019 

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Massively Multilingual Neural Machine Translation in the Wild: Findings and Challenges

Jul 11, 2019
Naveen Arivazhagan, Ankur Bapna, Orhan Firat, Dmitry Lepikhin, Melvin Johnson, Maxim Krikun, Mia Xu Chen, Yuan Cao, George Foster, Colin Cherry, Wolfgang Macherey, Zhifeng Chen, Yonghui Wu

We introduce our efforts towards building a universal neural machine translation (NMT) system capable of translating between any language pair. We set a milestone towards this goal by building a single massively multilingual NMT model handling 103 languages trained on over 25 billion examples. Our system demonstrates effective transfer learning ability, significantly improving translation quality of low-resource languages, while keeping high-resource language translation quality on-par with competitive bilingual baselines. We provide in-depth analysis of various aspects of model building that are crucial to achieving quality and practicality in universal NMT. While we prototype a high-quality universal translation system, our extensive empirical analysis exposes issues that need to be further addressed, and we suggest directions for future research.


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Lingvo: a Modular and Scalable Framework for Sequence-to-Sequence Modeling

Feb 21, 2019
Jonathan Shen, Patrick Nguyen, Yonghui Wu, Zhifeng Chen, Mia X. Chen, Ye Jia, Anjuli Kannan, Tara Sainath, Yuan Cao, Chung-Cheng Chiu, Yanzhang He, Jan Chorowski, Smit Hinsu, Stella Laurenzo, James Qin, Orhan Firat, Wolfgang Macherey, Suyog Gupta, Ankur Bapna, Shuyuan Zhang, Ruoming Pang, Ron J. Weiss, Rohit Prabhavalkar, Qiao Liang, Benoit Jacob, Bowen Liang, HyoukJoong Lee, Ciprian Chelba, Sébastien Jean, Bo Li, Melvin Johnson, Rohan Anil, Rajat Tibrewal, Xiaobing Liu, Akiko Eriguchi, Navdeep Jaitly, Naveen Ari, Colin Cherry, Parisa Haghani, Otavio Good, Youlong Cheng, Raziel Alvarez, Isaac Caswell, Wei-Ning Hsu, Zongheng Yang, Kuan-Chieh Wang, Ekaterina Gonina, Katrin Tomanek, Ben Vanik, Zelin Wu, Llion Jones, Mike Schuster, Yanping Huang, Dehao Chen, Kazuki Irie, George Foster, John Richardson, Klaus Macherey, Antoine Bruguier, Heiga Zen, Colin Raffel, Shankar Kumar, Kanishka Rao, David Rybach, Matthew Murray, Vijayaditya Peddinti, Maxim Krikun, Michiel A. U. Bacchiani, Thomas B. Jablin, Rob Suderman, Ian Williams, Benjamin Lee, Deepti Bhatia, Justin Carlson, Semih Yavuz, Yu Zhang, Ian McGraw, Max Galkin, Qi Ge, Golan Pundak, Chad Whipkey, Todd Wang, Uri Alon, Dmitry Lepikhin, Ye Tian, Sara Sabour, William Chan, Shubham Toshniwal, Baohua Liao, Michael Nirschl, Pat Rondon

Lingvo is a Tensorflow framework offering a complete solution for collaborative deep learning research, with a particular focus towards sequence-to-sequence models. Lingvo models are composed of modular building blocks that are flexible and easily extensible, and experiment configurations are centralized and highly customizable. Distributed training and quantized inference are supported directly within the framework, and it contains existing implementations of a large number of utilities, helper functions, and the newest research ideas. Lingvo has been used in collaboration by dozens of researchers in more than 20 papers over the last two years. This document outlines the underlying design of Lingvo and serves as an introduction to the various pieces of the framework, while also offering examples of advanced features that showcase the capabilities of the framework.


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