Models, code, and papers for "Daniel A. Lazar":
Road congestion induces significant costs across the world, and road network disturbances, such as traffic accidents, can cause highly congested traffic patterns. If a planner had control over the routing of all vehicles in the network, they could easily reverse this effect. In a more realistic scenario, we consider a planner that controls autonomous cars, which are a fraction of all present cars. We study a dynamic routing game, in which the route choices of autonomous cars can be controlled and the human drivers react selfishly and dynamically to autonomous cars' actions. As the problem is prohibitively large, we use deep reinforcement learning to learn a policy for controlling the autonomous vehicles. This policy influences human drivers to route themselves in such a way that minimizes congestion on the network. To gauge the effectiveness of our learned policies, we establish theoretical results characterizing equilibria on a network of parallel roads and empirically compare the learned policy results with best possible equilibria. Moreover, we show that in the absence of these policies, high demands and network perturbations would result in large congestion, whereas using the policy greatly decreases the travel times by minimizing the congestion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that employs deep reinforcement learning to reduce congestion by influencing humans' routing decisions in mixed-autonomy traffic.
Autonomous vehicles have the potential to increase the capacity of roads via platooning, even when human drivers and autonomous vehicles share roads. However, when users of a road network choose their routes selfishly, the resulting traffic configuration may be very inefficient. Because of this, we consider how to influence human decisions so as to decrease congestion on these roads. We consider a network of parallel roads with two modes of transportation: (i) human drivers who will choose the quickest route available to them, and (ii) ride hailing service which provides an array of autonomous vehicle ride options, each with different prices, to users. In this work, we seek to design these prices so that when autonomous service users choose from these options and human drivers selfishly choose their resulting routes, road usage is maximized and transit delay is minimized. To do so, we formalize a model of how autonomous service users make choices between routes with different price/delay values. Developing a preference-based algorithm to learn the preferences of the users, and using a vehicle flow model related to the Fundamental Diagram of Traffic, we formulate a planning optimization to maximize a social objective and demonstrate the benefit of the proposed routing and learning scheme.
The emerging technology enabling autonomy in vehicles has led to a variety of new problems in transportation networks, such as planning and perception for autonomous vehicles. Other works consider social objectives such as decreasing fuel consumption and travel time by platooning. However, these strategies are limited by the actions of the surrounding human drivers. In this paper, we consider proactively achieving these social objectives by influencing human behavior through planned interactions. Our key insight is that we can use these social objectives to design local interactions that influence human behavior to achieve these goals. To this end, we characterize the increase in road capacity afforded by platooning, as well as the vehicle configuration that maximizes road capacity. We present a novel algorithm that uses a low-level control framework to leverage local interactions to optimally rearrange vehicles. We showcase our algorithm using a simulated road shared between autonomous and human-driven vehicles, in which we illustrate the reordering in action.
While the harmonic function solution performs well in many semi-supervised learning (SSL) tasks, it is known to scale poorly with the number of samples. Recent successful and scalable methods, such as the eigenfunction method focus on efficiently approximating the whole spectrum of the graph Laplacian constructed from the data. This is in contrast to various subsampling and quantization methods proposed in the past, which may fail in preserving the graph spectra. However, the impact of the approximation of the spectrum on the final generalization error is either unknown, or requires strong assumptions on the data. In this paper, we introduce Sparse-HFS, an efficient edge-sparsification algorithm for SSL. By constructing an edge-sparse and spectrally similar graph, we are able to leverage the approximation guarantees of spectral sparsification methods to bound the generalization error of Sparse-HFS. As a result, we obtain a theoretically-grounded approximation scheme for graph-based SSL that also empirically matches the performance of known large-scale methods.