This paper studies the trade-off between two different kinds of pure exploration: breadth versus depth. The most biased coin problem asks how many total coin flips are required to identify a "heavy" coin from an infinite bag containing both "heavy" coins with mean $\theta_1 \in (0,1)$, and "light" coins with mean $\theta_0 \in (0,\theta_1)$, where heavy coins are drawn from the bag with probability $\alpha \in (0,1/2)$. The key difficulty of this problem lies in distinguishing whether the two kinds of coins have very similar means, or whether heavy coins are just extremely rare. This problem has applications in crowdsourcing, anomaly detection, and radio spectrum search. Chandrasekaran et. al. (2014) recently introduced a solution to this problem but it required perfect knowledge of $\theta_0,\theta_1,\alpha$. In contrast, we derive algorithms that are adaptive to partial or absent knowledge of the problem parameters. Moreover, our techniques generalize beyond coins to more general instances of infinitely many armed bandit problems. We also prove lower bounds that show our algorithm's upper bounds are tight up to $\log$ factors, and on the way characterize the sample complexity of differentiating between a single parametric distribution and a mixture of two such distributions. As a result, these bounds have surprising implications both for solutions to the most biased coin problem and for anomaly detection when only partial information about the parameters is known.

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Although the human visual system is surprisingly robust to extreme distortion when recognizing objects, most evaluations of computer object detection methods focus only on robustness to natural form deformations such as people's pose changes. To determine whether algorithms truly mirror the flexibility of human vision, they must be compared against human vision at its limits. For example, in Cubist abstract art, painted objects are distorted by object fragmentation and part-reorganization, to the point that human vision often fails to recognize them. In this paper, we evaluate existing object detection methods on these abstract renditions of objects, comparing human annotators to four state-of-the-art object detectors on a corpus of Picasso paintings. Our results demonstrate that while human perception significantly outperforms current methods, human perception and part-based models exhibit a similarly graceful degradation in object detection performance as the objects become increasingly abstract and fragmented, corroborating the theory of part-based object representation in the brain.

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This report provides an overview of recent work that harnesses the Big Data Revolution and Large Scale Computing to address grand computational challenges in Multi-Messenger Astrophysics, with a particular emphasis on real-time discovery campaigns. Acknowledging the transdisciplinary nature of Multi-Messenger Astrophysics, this document has been prepared by members of the physics, astronomy, computer science, data science, software and cyberinfrastructure communities who attended the NSF-, DOE- and NVIDIA-funded "Deep Learning for Multi-Messenger Astrophysics: Real-time Discovery at Scale" workshop, hosted at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, October 17-19, 2018. Highlights of this report include unanimous agreement that it is critical to accelerate the development and deployment of novel, signal-processing algorithms that use the synergy between artificial intelligence (AI) and high performance computing to maximize the potential for scientific discovery with Multi-Messenger Astrophysics. We discuss key aspects to realize this endeavor, namely (i) the design and exploitation of scalable and computationally efficient AI algorithms for Multi-Messenger Astrophysics; (ii) cyberinfrastructure requirements to numerically simulate astrophysical sources, and to process and interpret Multi-Messenger Astrophysics data; (iii) management of gravitational wave detections and triggers to enable electromagnetic and astro-particle follow-ups; (iv) a vision to harness future developments of machine and deep learning and cyberinfrastructure resources to cope with the scale of discovery in the Big Data Era; (v) and the need to build a community that brings domain experts together with data scientists on equal footing to maximize and accelerate discovery in the nascent field of Multi-Messenger Astrophysics.

* 15 pages, no figures. White paper based on the "Deep Learning for Multi-Messenger Astrophysics: Real-time Discovery at Scale" workshop, hosted at NCSA, October 17-19, 2018 http://www.ncsa.illinois.edu/Conferences/DeepLearningLSST/
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