Models, code, and papers for "Dawei Li":

Customized OCT images compression scheme with deep neural network

Aug 27, 2019
Pengfei Guo, Dawei Li, Xingde Li

We customize an end-to-end image compression framework for retina OCT images based on deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The customized compression scheme consists of three parts: data Preprocessing, compression CNNs, and reconstruction CNNs. Data preprocessing module reduces the speckle noise of the OCT images and the segments out the region of interest. We added customized skip connections between the compression CNNs and the reconstruction CNNs to reserve the detail information and trained the two nets together with the semantic segmented image patches from data preprocessing module. To train the two networks sensitive to both low frequency information and high frequency information, we adopted an objective function with two parts: A PatchGAN discriminator to judge the high frequency information and a differentiable MS-SSIM penalty to evaluate the low frequency information. The proposed framework was trained and evaluated on a publicly available OCT dataset. The evaluation showed above 99% similarity in terms of multi-scale structural similarity (MS-SSIM) when the compression ratio is as high as 40. Furthermore, the reconstructed images of compression ratio 80 from the proposed framework even have better quality than that of compression ratio 20 from JPEG by visual comparison. The testing result outperforms JPEG in term of both of MS-SSIM and visualization, which is more obvious as the increase of compression ratio. Our preliminary result indicates the huge potential of deep neural networks on customized medical image compression.

* One of author disagrees to release this paper at Arxiv 

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Syntax-Aware Aspect-Level Sentiment Classification with Proximity-Weighted Convolution Network

Sep 23, 2019
Chen Zhang, Qiuchi Li, Dawei Song

It has been widely accepted that Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network, coupled with attention mechanism and memory module, is useful for aspect-level sentiment classification. However, existing approaches largely rely on the modelling of semantic relatedness of an aspect with its context words, while to some extent ignore their syntactic dependencies within sentences. Consequently, this may lead to an undesirable result that the aspect attends on contextual words that are descriptive of other aspects. In this paper, we propose a proximity-weighted convolution network to offer an aspect-specific syntax-aware representation of contexts. In particular, two ways of determining proximity weight are explored, namely position proximity and dependency proximity. The representation is primarily abstracted by a bidirectional LSTM architecture and further enhanced by a proximity-weighted convolution. Experiments conducted on the SemEval 2014 benchmark demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach compared with a range of state-of-the-art models.

* 4 pages, 2 figures, SIGIR 2019 (Short) 

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Aspect-based Sentiment Classification with Aspect-specific Graph Convolutional Networks

Sep 08, 2019
Chen Zhang, Qiuchi Li, Dawei Song

Due to their inherent capability in semantic alignment of aspects and their context words, attention mechanism and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are widely applied for aspect-based sentiment classification. However, these models lack a mechanism to account for relevant syntactical constraints and long-range word dependencies, and hence may mistakenly recognize syntactically irrelevant contextual words as clues for judging aspect sentiment. To tackle this problem, we propose to build a Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) over the dependency tree of a sentence to exploit syntactical information and word dependencies. Based on it, a novel aspect-specific sentiment classification framework is raised. Experiments on three benchmarking collections illustrate that our proposed model has comparable effectiveness to a range of state-of-the-art models, and further demonstrate that both syntactical information and long-range word dependencies are properly captured by the graph convolution structure.

* 11 pages, 4 figures, accepted to EMNLP 2019 

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Over-Parameterized Deep Neural Networks Have No Strict Local Minima For Any Continuous Activations

Dec 28, 2018
Dawei Li, Tian Ding, Ruoyu Sun

In this paper, we study the loss surface of the over-parameterized fully connected deep neural networks. We prove that for any continuous activation functions, the loss function has no bad strict local minimum, both in the regular sense and in the sense of sets. This result holds for any convex and continuous loss function, and the data samples are only required to be distinct in at least one dimension. Furthermore, we show that bad local minima do exist for a class of activation functions.

* An earlier version appeared in Optimization Online on Nov 22, 2018 

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DeepRebirth: Accelerating Deep Neural Network Execution on Mobile Devices

Jan 10, 2018
Dawei Li, Xiaolong Wang, Deguang Kong

Deploying deep neural networks on mobile devices is a challenging task. Current model compression methods such as matrix decomposition effectively reduce the deployed model size, but still cannot satisfy real-time processing requirement. This paper first discovers that the major obstacle is the excessive execution time of non-tensor layers such as pooling and normalization without tensor-like trainable parameters. This motivates us to design a novel acceleration framework: DeepRebirth through "slimming" existing consecutive and parallel non-tensor and tensor layers. The layer slimming is executed at different substructures: (a) streamline slimming by merging the consecutive non-tensor and tensor layer vertically; (b) branch slimming by merging non-tensor and tensor branches horizontally. The proposed optimization operations significantly accelerate the model execution and also greatly reduce the run-time memory cost since the slimmed model architecture contains less hidden layers. To maximally avoid accuracy loss, the parameters in new generated layers are learned with layer-wise fine-tuning based on both theoretical analysis and empirical verification. As observed in the experiment, DeepRebirth achieves more than 3x speed-up and 2.5x run-time memory saving on GoogLeNet with only 0.4% drop of top-5 accuracy on ImageNet. Furthermore, by combining with other model compression techniques, DeepRebirth offers an average of 65ms inference time on the CPU of Samsung Galaxy S6 with 86.5% top-5 accuracy, 14% faster than SqueezeNet which only has a top-5 accuracy of 80.5%.

* AAAI 2018 

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Dynamically Hierarchy Revolution: DirNet for Compressing Recurrent Neural Network on Mobile Devices

Jun 08, 2018
Jie Zhang, Xiaolong Wang, Dawei Li, Yalin Wang

Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) achieve cutting-edge performance on a variety of problems. However, due to their high computational and memory demands, deploying RNNs on resource constrained mobile devices is a challenging task. To guarantee minimum accuracy loss with higher compression rate and driven by the mobile resource requirement, we introduce a novel model compression approach DirNet based on an optimized fast dictionary learning algorithm, which 1) dynamically mines the dictionary atoms of the projection dictionary matrix within layer to adjust the compression rate 2) adaptively changes the sparsity of sparse codes cross the hierarchical layers. Experimental results on language model and an ASR model trained with a 1000h speech dataset demonstrate that our method significantly outperforms prior approaches. Evaluated on off-the-shelf mobile devices, we are able to reduce the size of original model by eight times with real-time model inference and negligible accuracy loss.

* Accepted by IJCAI-ECAI 2018 

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ProtoNet: Learning from Web Data with Memory

Jun 28, 2019
Yi Tu, Li Niu, Dawei Cheng, Liqing Zhang

Learning from web data has attracted lots of research interest in recent years. However, crawled web images usually have two types of noises, label noise and background noise, which induce extra difficulties in utilizing them effectively. Most existing methods either rely on human supervision or ignore the background noise. In this paper, we propose the novel ProtoNet, which is capable of handling these two types of noises together, without the supervision of clean images in the training stage. Particularly, we use a memory module to identify the representative and discriminative prototypes for each category. Then, we remove noisy images and noisy region proposals from the web dataset with the aid of the memory module. Our approach is efficient and can be easily integrated into arbitrary CNN model. Extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

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Semantic Hilbert Space for Text Representation Learning

Feb 26, 2019
Benyou Wang, Qiuchi Li, Massimo Melucci, Dawei Song

Capturing the meaning of sentences has long been a challenging task. Current models tend to apply linear combinations of word features to conduct semantic composition for bigger-granularity units e.g. phrases, sentences, and documents. However, the semantic linearity does not always hold in human language. For instance, the meaning of the phrase `ivory tower' can not be deduced by linearly combining the meanings of `ivory' and `tower'. To address this issue, we propose a new framework that models different levels of semantic units (e.g. sememe, word, sentence, and semantic abstraction) on a single \textit{Semantic Hilbert Space}, which naturally admits a non-linear semantic composition by means of a complex-valued vector word representation. An end-to-end neural network~\footnote{} is proposed to implement the framework in the text classification task, and evaluation results on six benchmarking text classification datasets demonstrate the effectiveness, robustness and self-explanation power of the proposed model. Furthermore, intuitive case studies are conducted to help end users to understand how the framework works.

* accepted in WWW 2019 

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Quantum-inspired Complex Word Embedding

May 29, 2018
Qiuchi Li, Sagar Uprety, Benyou Wang, Dawei Song

A challenging task for word embeddings is to capture the emergent meaning or polarity of a combination of individual words. For example, existing approaches in word embeddings will assign high probabilities to the words "Penguin" and "Fly" if they frequently co-occur, but it fails to capture the fact that they occur in an opposite sense - Penguins do not fly. We hypothesize that humans do not associate a single polarity or sentiment to each word. The word contributes to the overall polarity of a combination of words depending upon which other words it is combined with. This is analogous to the behavior of microscopic particles which exist in all possible states at the same time and interfere with each other to give rise to new states depending upon their relative phases. We make use of the Hilbert Space representation of such particles in Quantum Mechanics where we subscribe a relative phase to each word, which is a complex number, and investigate two such quantum inspired models to derive the meaning of a combination of words. The proposed models achieve better performances than state-of-the-art non-quantum models on the binary sentence classification task.

* This paper has been accepted by the 3rd Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP (RepL4NLP) 

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LCANet: End-to-End Lipreading with Cascaded Attention-CTC

Mar 13, 2018
Kai Xu, Dawei Li, Nick Cassimatis, Xiaolong Wang

Machine lipreading is a special type of automatic speech recognition (ASR) which transcribes human speech by visually interpreting the movement of related face regions including lips, face, and tongue. Recently, deep neural network based lipreading methods show great potential and have exceeded the accuracy of experienced human lipreaders in some benchmark datasets. However, lipreading is still far from being solved, and existing methods tend to have high error rates on the wild data. In this paper, we propose LCANet, an end-to-end deep neural network based lipreading system. LCANet encodes input video frames using a stacked 3D convolutional neural network (CNN), highway network and bidirectional GRU network. The encoder effectively captures both short-term and long-term spatio-temporal information. More importantly, LCANet incorporates a cascaded attention-CTC decoder to generate output texts. By cascading CTC with attention, it partially eliminates the defect of the conditional independence assumption of CTC within the hidden neural layers, and this yields notably performance improvement as well as faster convergence. The experimental results show the proposed system achieves a 1.3% CER and 3.0% WER on the GRID corpus database, leading to a 12.3% improvement compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

* FG 2018 

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A Confident Information First Principle for Parametric Reduction and Model Selection of Boltzmann Machines

Feb 05, 2015
Xiaozhao Zhao, Yuexian Hou, Dawei Song, Wenjie Li

Typical dimensionality reduction (DR) methods are often data-oriented, focusing on directly reducing the number of random variables (features) while retaining the maximal variations in the high-dimensional data. In unsupervised situations, one of the main limitations of these methods lies in their dependency on the scale of data features. This paper aims to address the problem from a new perspective and considers model-oriented dimensionality reduction in parameter spaces of binary multivariate distributions. Specifically, we propose a general parameter reduction criterion, called Confident-Information-First (CIF) principle, to maximally preserve confident parameters and rule out less confident parameters. Formally, the confidence of each parameter can be assessed by its contribution to the expected Fisher information distance within the geometric manifold over the neighbourhood of the underlying real distribution. We then revisit Boltzmann machines (BM) from a model selection perspective and theoretically show that both the fully visible BM (VBM) and the BM with hidden units can be derived from the general binary multivariate distribution using the CIF principle. This can help us uncover and formalize the essential parts of the target density that BM aims to capture and the non-essential parts that BM should discard. Guided by the theoretical analysis, we develop a sample-specific CIF for model selection of BM that is adaptive to the observed samples. The method is studied in a series of density estimation experiments and has been shown effective in terms of the estimate accuracy.

* 16pages. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1302.3931 

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An Integrated Image Filter for Enhancing Change Detection Results

Jul 02, 2019
Dawei Li, Siyuan Yan, Xin Cai, Yan Cao, Sifan Wang

Change detection is a fundamental task in computer vision. Despite significant advances have been made, most of the change detection methods fail to work well in challenging scenes due to ubiquitous noise and interferences. Nowadays, post-processing methods (e.g. MRF, and CRF) aiming to enhance the binary change detection results still fall short of the requirements on universality for distinctive scenes, applicability for different types of detection methods, accuracy, and real-time performance. Inspired by the nature of image filtering, which separates noise from pixel observations and recovers the real structure of patches, we consider utilizing image filters to enhance the detection masks. In this paper, we present an integrated filter which comprises a weighted local guided image filter and a weighted spatiotemporal tree filter. The spatiotemporal tree filter leverages the global spatiotemporal information of adjacent video frames and meanwhile the guided filter carries out local window filtering of pixels, for enhancing the coarse change detection masks. The main contributions are three: (i) the proposed filter can make full use of the information of the same object in consecutive frames to improve its current detection mask by computations on a spatiotemporal minimum spanning tree; (ii) the integrated filter possesses both advantages of local filtering and global filtering; it not only has good edge-preserving property but also can handle heavily textured and colorful foreground regions; and (iii) Unlike some popular enhancement methods (MRF, and CRF) that require either a priori background probabilities or a posteriori foreground probabilities for every pixel to improve the coarse detection masks, our method is a versatile enhancement filter that can be applied after many different types of change detection methods, and is particularly suitable for video sequences.

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Learning Non-Uniform Hypergraph for Multi-Object Tracking

Dec 10, 2018
Longyin Wen, Dawei Du, Shengkun Li, Xiao Bian, Siwei Lyu

The majority of Multi-Object Tracking (MOT) algorithms based on the tracking-by-detection scheme do not use higher order dependencies among objects or tracklets, which makes them less effective in handling complex scenarios. In this work, we present a new near-online MOT algorithm based on non-uniform hypergraph, which can model different degrees of dependencies among tracklets in a unified objective. The nodes in the hypergraph correspond to the tracklets and the hyperedges with different degrees encode various kinds of dependencies among them. Specifically, instead of setting the weights of hyperedges with different degrees empirically, they are learned automatically using the structural support vector machine algorithm (SSVM). Several experiments are carried out on various challenging datasets (i.e., PETS09, ParkingLot sequence, SubwayFace, and MOT16 benchmark), to demonstrate that our method achieves favorable performance against the state-of-the-art MOT methods.

* 11 pages, 4 figures, accepted by AAAI 2019 

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Realistic Adversarial Examples in 3D Meshes

Oct 11, 2018
Dawei Yang, Chaowei Xiao, Bo Li, Jia Deng, Mingyan Liu

Highly expressive models such as deep neural networks (DNNs) have been widely applied to various applications and achieved increasing success. However, recent studies show that such machine learning models appear to be vulnerable against adversarial examples. So far adversarial examples have been heavily explored for 2D images, while few works have conducted to understand vulnerabilities of 3D objects which exist in real world, where 3D objects are projected to 2D domains by photo taking for different learning (recognition) tasks. In this paper, we consider adversarial behaviors in practical scenarios by manipulating the shape and texture of a given 3D mesh representation of an object. Our goal is to project the optimized "adversarial meshes" to 2D with a photorealistic renderer, and still able to mislead different machine learning models. Extensive experiments show that by generating unnoticeable 3D adversarial perturbation on shape or texture for a 3D mesh, the corresponding projected 2D instance can either lead classifiers to misclassify the victim object as an arbitrary malicious target, or hide any target object within the scene from object detectors. We conduct human studies to show that our optimized adversarial 3D perturbation is highly unnoticeable for human vision systems. In addition to the subtle perturbation for a given 3D mesh, we also propose to synthesize a realistic 3D mesh and put in a scene mimicking similar rendering conditions and therefore attack different machine learning models. In-depth analysis of transferability among various 3D renderers and vulnerable regions of meshes are provided to help better understand adversarial behaviors in real-world.

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Understanding Boltzmann Machine and Deep Learning via A Confident Information First Principle

Oct 09, 2013
Xiaozhao Zhao, Yuexian Hou, Qian Yu, Dawei Song, Wenjie Li

Typical dimensionality reduction methods focus on directly reducing the number of random variables while retaining maximal variations in the data. In this paper, we consider the dimensionality reduction in parameter spaces of binary multivariate distributions. We propose a general Confident-Information-First (CIF) principle to maximally preserve parameters with confident estimates and rule out unreliable or noisy parameters. Formally, the confidence of a parameter can be assessed by its Fisher information, which establishes a connection with the inverse variance of any unbiased estimate for the parameter via the Cram\'{e}r-Rao bound. We then revisit Boltzmann machines (BM) and theoretically show that both single-layer BM without hidden units (SBM) and restricted BM (RBM) can be solidly derived using the CIF principle. This can not only help us uncover and formalize the essential parts of the target density that SBM and RBM capture, but also suggest that the deep neural network consisting of several layers of RBM can be seen as the layer-wise application of CIF. Guided by the theoretical analysis, we develop a sample-specific CIF-based contrastive divergence (CD-CIF) algorithm for SBM and a CIF-based iterative projection procedure (IP) for RBM. Both CD-CIF and IP are studied in a series of density estimation experiments.

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On Tsallis Entropy Bias and Generalized Maximum Entropy Models

Apr 07, 2010
Yuexian Hou, Tingxu Yan, Peng Zhang, Dawei Song, Wenjie Li

In density estimation task, maximum entropy model (Maxent) can effectively use reliable prior information via certain constraints, i.e., linear constraints without empirical parameters. However, reliable prior information is often insufficient, and the selection of uncertain constraints becomes necessary but poses considerable implementation complexity. Improper setting of uncertain constraints can result in overfitting or underfitting. To solve this problem, a generalization of Maxent, under Tsallis entropy framework, is proposed. The proposed method introduces a convex quadratic constraint for the correction of (expected) Tsallis entropy bias (TEB). Specifically, we demonstrate that the expected Tsallis entropy of sampling distributions is smaller than the Tsallis entropy of the underlying real distribution. This expected entropy reduction is exactly the (expected) TEB, which can be expressed by a closed-form formula and act as a consistent and unbiased correction. TEB indicates that the entropy of a specific sampling distribution should be increased accordingly. This entails a quantitative re-interpretation of the Maxent principle. By compensating TEB and meanwhile forcing the resulting distribution to be close to the sampling distribution, our generalized TEBC Maxent can be expected to alleviate the overfitting and underfitting. We also present a connection between TEB and Lidstone estimator. As a result, TEB-Lidstone estimator is developed by analytically identifying the rate of probability correction in Lidstone. Extensive empirical evaluation shows promising performance of both TEBC Maxent and TEB-Lidstone in comparison with various state-of-the-art density estimation methods.

* 29 pages 

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MICIK: MIning Cross-Layer Inherent Similarity Knowledge for Deep Model Compression

Feb 03, 2019
Jie Zhang, Xiaolong Wang, Dawei Li, Shalini Ghosh, Abhishek Kolagunda, Yalin Wang

State-of-the-art deep model compression methods exploit the low-rank approximation and sparsity pruning to remove redundant parameters from a learned hidden layer. However, they process each hidden layer individually while neglecting the common components across layers, and thus are not able to fully exploit the potential redundancy space for compression. To solve the above problem and enable further compression of a model, removing the cross-layer redundancy and mining the layer-wise inheritance knowledge is necessary. In this paper, we introduce a holistic model compression framework, namely MIning Cross-layer Inherent similarity Knowledge (MICIK), to fully excavate the potential redundancy space. The proposed MICIK framework simultaneously, (1) learns the common and unique weight components across deep neural network layers to increase compression rate; (2) preserves the inherent similarity knowledge of nearby layers and distant layers to minimize the accuracy loss and (3) can be complementary to other existing compression techniques such as knowledge distillation. Extensive experiments on large-scale convolutional neural networks demonstrate that MICIK is superior over state-of-the-art model compression approaches with 16X parameter reduction on VGG-16 and 6X on GoogLeNet, all without accuracy loss.

* 10 pages, 4 figures 

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Off-policy Learning for Multiple Loggers

Aug 05, 2019
Li He, Long Xia, Wei Zeng, Zhi-Ming Ma, Yihong Zhao, Dawei Yin

It is well known that the historical logs are used for evaluating and learning policies in interactive systems, e.g. recommendation, search, and online advertising. Since direct online policy learning usually harms user experiences, it is more crucial to apply off-policy learning in real-world applications instead. Though there have been some existing works, most are focusing on learning with one single historical policy. However, in practice, usually a number of parallel experiments, e.g. multiple AB tests, are performed simultaneously. To make full use of such historical data, learning policies from multiple loggers becomes necessary. Motivated by this, in this paper, we investigate off-policy learning when the training data coming from multiple historical policies. Specifically, policies, e.g. neural networks, can be learned directly from multi-logger data, with counterfactual estimators. In order to understand the generalization ability of such estimator better, we conduct generalization error analysis for the empirical risk minimization problem. We then introduce the generalization error bound as the new risk function, which can be reduced to a constrained optimization problem. Finally, we give the corresponding learning algorithm for the new constrained problem, where we can appeal to the minimax problems to control the constraints. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed methods achieve better performances than the state-of-the-arts.

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Efficient Incremental Learning for Mobile Object Detection

Mar 26, 2019
Dawei Li, Serafettin Tasci, Shalini Ghosh, Jingwen Zhu, Junting Zhang, Larry Heck

Object detection models shipped with camera-equipped mobile devices cannot cover the objects of interest for every user. Therefore, the incremental learning capability is a critical feature for a robust and personalized mobile object detection system that many applications would rely on. In this paper, we present an efficient yet practical system, IMOD, to incrementally train an existing object detection model such that it can detect new object classes without losing its capability to detect old classes. The key component of IMOD is a novel incremental learning algorithm that trains end-to-end for one-stage object detection deep models only using training data of new object classes. Specifically, to avoid catastrophic forgetting, the algorithm distills three types of knowledge from the old model to mimic the old model's behavior on object classification, bounding box regression and feature extraction. In addition, since the training data for the new classes may not be available, a real-time dataset construction pipeline is designed to collect training images on-the-fly and automatically label the images with both category and bounding box annotations. We have implemented IMOD under both mobile-cloud and mobile-only setups. Experiment results show that the proposed system can learn to detect a new object class in just a few minutes, including both dataset construction and model training. In comparison, traditional fine-tuning based method may take a few hours for training, and in most cases would also need a tedious and costly manual dataset labeling step.

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