Research papers and code for "Denis Wolf":
The instance segmentation problem intends to precisely detect and delineate objects in images. Most of the current solutions rely on deep convolutional neural networks but despite this fact proposed solutions are very diverse. Some solutions approach the problem as a network problem, where they use several networks or specialize a single network to solve several tasks. A different approach tries to solve the problem as an annotation problem, where the instance information is encoded in a mathematical representation. This work proposes a solution based in the DCME technique to solve the instance segmentation with a single segmentation network. Different from others, the segmentation network decoder is not specialized in a multi-task network. Instead, the network encoder is repurposed to classify image objects, reducing the computational cost of the solution.

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The autonomous car technology promises to replace human drivers with safer driving systems. But although autonomous cars can become safer than human drivers this is a long process that is going to be refined over time. Before these vehicles are deployed on urban roads a minimum safety level must be assured. Since the autonomous car technology is still under development there is no standard methodology to evaluate such systems. It is important to completely understand the technology that is being developed to design efficient means to evaluate it. In this paper we assume safety-critical systems reliability as a safety measure. We model an autonomous road vehicle as an intelligent agent and we approach its evaluation from an artificial intelligence perspective. Our focus is the evaluation of perception and decision making systems and also to propose a systematic method to evaluate their integration in the vehicle. We identify critical aspects of the data dependency from the artificial intelligence state of the art models and we also propose procedures to reproduce them.

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The instance segmentation can be considered an extension of the object detection problem where bounding boxes are replaced by object contours. Strictly speaking the problem requires to identify each pixel instance and class independently of the artifice used for this mean. The advantage of instance segmentation over the usual object detection lies in the precise delineation of objects improving object localization. Additionally, object contours allow the evaluation of partial occlusion with basic image processing algorithms. This work approaches the instance segmentation problem as an annotation problem and presents a novel technique to encode and decode ground truth annotations. We propose a mathematical representation of instances that any deep semantic segmentation model can learn and generalize. Each individual instance is represented by a center of mass and a field of vectors pointing to it. This encoding technique has been denominated Distance to Center of Mass Encoding (DCME).

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Pedestrians and vehicles often share the road in complex inner city traffic. This leads to interactions between the vehicle and pedestrians, with each affecting the other's motion. In order to create robust methods to reason about pedestrian behavior and to design interfaces of communication between self-driving cars and pedestrians we need to better understand such interactions. In this paper, we present a data-driven approach to implicitly model pedestrians' interactions with vehicles, to better predict pedestrian behavior. We propose a LSTM model that takes as input the past trajectories of the pedestrian and ego-vehicle, and pedestrian head orientation, and predicts the future positions of the pedestrian. Our experiments based on a real-world, inner city dataset captured with vehicle mounted cameras, show that the usage of such cues improve pedestrian prediction when compared to a baseline that purely uses the past trajectory of the pedestrian.

* IV 2019
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Road detection is a fundamental task in autonomous navigation systems. In this paper, we consider the case of monocular road detection, where images are segmented into road and non-road regions. Our starting point is the well-known machine learning approach, in which a classifier is trained to distinguish road and non-road regions based on hand-labeled images. We proceed by introducing the use of "contextual blocks" as an efficient way of providing contextual information to the classifier. Overall, the proposed methodology, including its image feature selection and classifier, was conceived with computational cost in mind, leaving room for optimized implementations. Regarding experiments, we perform a sensible evaluation of each phase and feature subset that composes our system. The results show a great benefit from using contextual blocks and demonstrate their computational efficiency. Finally, we submit our results to the KITTI road detection benchmark achieving scores comparable with state of the art methods.

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According to data from the United Nations, more than 3000 people have died each day in the world due to road traffic collision. Considering recent researches, the human error may be considered as the main responsible for these fatalities. Because of this, researchers seek alternatives to transfer the vehicle control from people to autonomous systems. However, providing this technological innovation for the people may demand complex challenges in the legal, economic and technological areas. Consequently, carmakers and researchers have divided the driving automation in safety and emergency systems that improve the driver perception on the road. This may reduce the human error. Therefore, the main contribution of this study is to propose a driving simulator platform to develop and evaluate safety and emergency systems, in the first design stage. This driving simulator platform has an advantage: a flexible software structure.This allows in the simulation one adaptation for development or evaluation of a system. The proposed driving simulator platform was tested in two applications: cooperative vehicle system development and the influence evaluation of a Driving Assistance System (\textit{DAS}) on a driver. In the cooperative vehicle system development, the results obtained show that the increment of the time delay in the communication among vehicles ($V2V$) is determinant for the system performance. On the other hand, in the influence evaluation of a \textit{DAS} in a driver, it was possible to conclude that the \textit{DAS'} model does not have the level of influence necessary in a driver to avoid an accident.

* 14 pages, 27 figures
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