Research papers and code for "Dietrich Klakow":
Manually labeled corpora are expensive to create and often not available for low-resource languages or domains. Automatic labeling approaches are an alternative way to obtain labeled data in a quicker and cheaper way. However, these labels often contain more errors which can deteriorate a classifier's performance when trained on this data. We propose a noise layer that is added to a neural network architecture. This allows modeling the noise and train on a combination of clean and noisy data. We show that in a low-resource NER task we can improve performance by up to 35% by using additional, noisy data and handling the noise.

* In Proceedings of the Workshop on Deep Learning Approaches for Low-Resource NLP 2018
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The performance of Neural Network (NN)-based language models is steadily improving due to the emergence of new architectures, which are able to learn different natural language characteristics. This paper presents a novel framework, which shows that a significant improvement can be achieved by combining different existing heterogeneous models in a single architecture. This is done through 1) a feature layer, which separately learns different NN-based models and 2) a mixture layer, which merges the resulting model features. In doing so, this architecture benefits from the learning capabilities of each model with no noticeable increase in the number of model parameters or the training time. Extensive experiments conducted on the Penn Treebank (PTB) and the Large Text Compression Benchmark (LTCB) corpus showed a significant reduction of the perplexity when compared to state-of-the-art feedforward as well as recurrent neural network architectures.

* IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), New Orleans, LA, 2017, pp. 5710-5714
* Published at IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) 2017. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1703.08068
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Training large vocabulary Neural Network Language Models (NNLMs) is a difficult task due to the explicit requirement of the output layer normalization, which typically involves the evaluation of the full softmax function over the complete vocabulary. This paper proposes a Batch Noise Contrastive Estimation (B-NCE) approach to alleviate this problem. This is achieved by reducing the vocabulary, at each time step, to the target words in the batch and then replacing the softmax by the noise contrastive estimation approach, where these words play the role of targets and noise samples at the same time. In doing so, the proposed approach can be fully formulated and implemented using optimal dense matrix operations. Applying B-NCE to train different NNLMs on the Large Text Compression Benchmark (LTCB) and the One Billion Word Benchmark (OBWB) shows a significant reduction of the training time with no noticeable degradation of the models performance. This paper also presents a new baseline comparative study of different standard NNLMs on the large OBWB on a single Titan-X GPU.

* Accepted for publication at INTERSPEECH'17
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In this paper, we address the problem of effectively self-training neural networks in a low-resource setting. Self-training is frequently used to automatically increase the amount of training data. However, in a low-resource scenario, it is less effective due to unreliable annotations created using self-labeling of unlabeled data. We propose to combine self-training with noise handling on the self-labeled data. Directly estimating noise on the combined clean training set and self-labeled data can lead to corruption of the clean data and hence, performs worse. Thus, we propose the Clean and Noisy Label Neural Network which trains on clean and noisy self-labeled data simultaneously by explicitly modelling clean and noisy labels separately. In our experiments on Chunking and NER, this approach performs more robustly than the baselines. Complementary to this explicit approach, noise can also be handled implicitly with the help of an auxiliary learning task. To such a complementary approach, our method is more beneficial than other baseline methods and together provides the best performance overall.

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Sequence-to-Sequence (seq2seq) models have become overwhelmingly popular in building end-to-end trainable dialogue systems. Though highly efficient in learning the backbone of human-computer communications, they suffer from the problem of strongly favoring short generic responses. In this paper, we argue that a good response should smoothly connect both the preceding dialogue history and the following conversations. We strengthen this connection through mutual information maximization. To sidestep the non-differentiability of discrete natural language tokens, we introduce an auxiliary continuous code space and map such code space to a learnable prior distribution for generation purpose. Experiments on two dialogue datasets validate the effectiveness of our model, where the generated responses are closely related to the dialogue context and lead to more interactive conversations.

* Accepted by EMNLP2018
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The goal of language modeling techniques is to capture the statistical and structural properties of natural languages from training corpora. This task typically involves the learning of short range dependencies, which generally model the syntactic properties of a language and/or long range dependencies, which are semantic in nature. We propose in this paper a new multi-span architecture, which separately models the short and long context information while it dynamically merges them to perform the language modeling task. This is done through a novel recurrent Long-Short Range Context (LSRC) network, which explicitly models the local (short) and global (long) context using two separate hidden states that evolve in time. This new architecture is an adaptation of the Long-Short Term Memory network (LSTM) to take into account the linguistic properties. Extensive experiments conducted on the Penn Treebank (PTB) and the Large Text Compression Benchmark (LTCB) corpus showed a significant reduction of the perplexity when compared to state-of-the-art language modeling techniques.

* Published at EMNLP'16
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Feedforward Neural Network (FNN)-based language models estimate the probability of the next word based on the history of the last N words, whereas Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) perform the same task based only on the last word and some context information that cycles in the network. This paper presents a novel approach, which bridges the gap between these two categories of networks. In particular, we propose an architecture which takes advantage of the explicit, sequential enumeration of the word history in FNN structure while enhancing each word representation at the projection layer through recurrent context information that evolves in the network. The context integration is performed using an additional word-dependent weight matrix that is also learned during the training. Extensive experiments conducted on the Penn Treebank (PTB) and the Large Text Compression Benchmark (LTCB) corpus showed a significant reduction of the perplexity when compared to state-of-the-art feedforward as well as recurrent neural network architectures.

* published (INTERSPEECH 2016), 5 pages, 3 figures, 4 tables
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Popular word embedding methods such as word2vec and GloVe assign a single vector representation to each word, even if a word has multiple distinct meanings. Multi-sense embeddings instead provide different vectors for each sense of a word. However, they typically cannot serve as a drop-in replacement for conventional single-sense embeddings, because the correct sense vector needs to be selected for each word. In this work, we study the effect of multi-sense embeddings on the task of reverse dictionaries. We propose a technique to easily integrate them into an existing neural network architecture using an attention mechanism. Our experiments demonstrate that large improvements can be obtained when employing multi-sense embeddings both in the input sequence as well as for the target representation. An analysis of the sense distributions and of the learned attention is provided as well.

* Accepted as long paper at the 13th International Conference on Computational Semantics (IWCS 2019)
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The increase in computational power and available data has fueled a wide deployment of deep learning in production environments. Despite their successes, deep architectures are still poorly understood and costly to train. We demonstrate in this paper how a simple recipe enables a market player to harm or delay the development of a competing product. Such a threat model is novel and has not been considered so far. We derive the corresponding attacks and show their efficacy both formally and empirically. These attacks only require access to the initial, untrained weights of a network. No knowledge of the problem domain and the data used by the victim is needed. On the initial weights, a mere permutation is sufficient to limit the achieved accuracy to for example 50% on the MNIST dataset or double the needed training time. While we can show straightforward ways to mitigate the attacks, the respective steps are not part of the standard procedure taken by developers so far.

* 16 pages, 20 figures
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Recently, several logit regularization methods have been proposed in [Kannan et al., 2018] to improve the adversarial robustness of classifiers. We show that the proposed computationally fast methods - Clean Logit Pairing (CLP) and Logit Squeezing (LSQ) - just make the gradient-based optimization problem of crafting adversarial examples harder, without providing actual robustness. For Adversarial Logit Pairing (ALP) we find that it can give indeed robustness against adversarial examples and we study it in different settings. Especially, we show that ALP may provide additional robustness when combined with adversarial training. However, the increase is much smaller than claimed by [Kannan et al., 2018]. Finally, our results suggest that evaluation against an iterative PGD attack relies heavily on the parameters used and may result in false conclusions regarding the robustness.

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Spoken Language Systems at Saarland University (LSV) participated this year with 5 runs at the TAC KBP English slot filling track. Effective algorithms for all parts of the pipeline, from document retrieval to relation prediction and response post-processing, are bundled in a modular end-to-end relation extraction system called RelationFactory. The main run solely focuses on shallow techniques and achieved significant improvements over LSV's last year's system, while using the same training data and patterns. Improvements mainly have been obtained by a feature representation focusing on surface skip n-grams and improved scoring for extracted distant supervision patterns. Important factors for effective extraction are the training and tuning scheme for distant supervision classifiers, and the query expansion by a translation model based on Wikipedia links. In the TAC KBP 2013 English Slotfilling evaluation, the submitted main run of the LSV RelationFactory system achieved the top-ranked F1-score of 37.3%.

* to be published in: Proceedings of the Sixth Text Analysis Conference (TAC 2013)
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