Research papers and code for "Dominique Vaufreydaz":
Autonomous Vehicles navigating in urban areas have a need to understand and predict future pedestrian behavior for safer navigation. This high level of situational awareness requires observing pedestrian behavior and extrapolating their positions to know future positions. While some work has been done in this field using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), one of the few observed drawbacks of the method is the need for informed priors for learning behavior. In this work, an extension to the Growing Hidden Markov Model (GHMM) method is proposed to solve some of these drawbacks. This is achieved by building on existing work using potential cost maps and the principle of Natural Vision. As a consequence, the proposed model is able to predict pedestrian positions more precisely over a longer horizon compared to the state of the art. The method is tested over "legal" and "illegal" behavior of pedestrians, having trained the model with sparse observations and partial trajectories. The method, with no training data, is compared against a trained state of the art model. It is observed that the proposed method is robust even in new, previously unseen areas.

* 15 th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision (ICARCV 2018), Nov 2018, Singapore, Singapore
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Recognition of intentions is a subconscious cognitive process vital to human communication. This skill enables anticipation and increases the quality of interactions between humans. Within the context of engagement, non-verbal signals are used to communicate the intention of starting the interaction with a partner. In this paper, we investigated methods to detect these signals in order to allow a robot to know when it is about to be addressed. Originality of our approach resides in taking inspiration from social and cognitive sciences to perform our perception task. We investigate meaningful features, i.e. human readable features, and elicit which of these are important for recognizing someone's intention of starting an interaction. Classically, spatial information like the human position and speed, the human-robot distance are used to detect the engagement. Our approach integrates multimodal features gathered using a companion robot equipped with a Kinect. The evaluation on our corpus collected in spontaneous conditions highlights its robustness and validates the use of such a technique in a real environment. Experimental validation shows that multimodal features set gives better precision and recall than using only spatial and speed features. We also demonstrate that 7 selected features are sufficient to provide a good starting engagement detection score. In our last investigation, we show that among our full 99 features set, the space reduction is not a solved task. This result opens new researches perspectives on multimodal engagement detection.

* Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Elsevier, 2015, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, pp.25
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This article reports on an investigation of the use of convolutional neural networks to predict the visual attention of chess players. The visual attention model described in this article has been created to generate saliency maps that capture hierarchical and spatial features of chessboard, in order to predict the probability fixation for individual pixels Using a skip-layer architecture of an autoencoder, with a unified decoder, we are able to use multiscale features to predict saliency of part of the board at different scales, showing multiple relations between pieces. We have used scan path and fixation data from players engaged in solving chess problems, to compute 6600 saliency maps associated to the corresponding chess piece configurations. This corpus is completed with synthetically generated data from actual games gathered from an online chess platform. Experiments realized using both scan-paths from chess players and the CAT2000 saliency dataset of natural images, highlights several results. Deep features, pretrained on natural images, were found to be helpful in training visual attention prediction for chess. The proposed neural network architecture is able to generate meaningful saliency maps on unseen chess configurations with good scores on standard metrics. This work provides a baseline for future work on visual attention prediction in similar contexts.

* ACM Symposium On Eye Tracking Research \& Applications (ETRA 2019), Jun 2019, Denver, United States. \&\#x27E8;10.1145/3314111.3319827\&\#x27E9
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In this paper we present the first results of a pilot experiment in the capture and interpretation of multimodal signals of human experts engaged in solving challenging chess problems. Our goal is to investigate the extent to which observations of eye-gaze, posture, emotion and other physiological signals can be used to model the cognitive state of subjects, and to explore the integration of multiple sensor modalities to improve the reliability of detection of human displays of awareness and emotion. We observed chess players engaged in problems of increasing difficulty while recording their behavior. Such recordings can be used to estimate a participant's awareness of the current situation and to predict ability to respond effectively to challenging situations. Results show that a multimodal approach is more accurate than a unimodal one. By combining body posture, visual attention and emotion, the multimodal approach can reach up to 93% of accuracy when determining player's chess expertise while unimodal approach reaches 86%. Finally this experiment validates the use of our equipment as a general and reproducible tool for the study of participants engaged in screen-based interaction and/or problem solving.

* 1st Workshop on "Behavior, Emotion and Representation: Building Blocks of Interaction'', Oct 2017, Bielefeld, Germany. 2017
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In this paper we present results from recent experiments that suggest that chess players associate emotions to game situations and reactively use these associations to guide search for planning and problem solving. We describe the design of an instrument for capturing and interpreting multimodal signals of humans engaged in solving challenging problems. We review results from a pilot experiment with human experts engaged in solving challenging problems in Chess that revealed an unexpected observation of rapid changes in emotion as players attempt to solve challenging problems. We propose a cognitive model that describes the process by which subjects select chess chunks for use in interpretation of the game situation and describe initial results from a second experiment designed to test this model.

* ICMI 2018 - Workshop at 20th ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction, Oct 2018, Boulder, Colorado, United States. pp.1-13
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This article deals with the specific context of an autonomous car navigating in an urban center within a shared space between pedestrians and cars. The driver delegates the control to the autonomous system while remaining seated in the driver's seat. The proposed study aims at giving a first insight into the definition of human perception of space applied to vehicles by testing the existence of a personal space around the car.It aims at measuring proxemic information about the driver's comfort zone in such conditions.Proxemics, or human perception of space, has been largely explored when applied to humans or to robots, leading to the concept of personal space, but poorly when applied to vehicles. In this article, we highlight the existence and the characteristics of a zone of comfort around the car which is not correlated to the risk of a collision between the car and other road users. Our experiment includes 19 volunteers using a virtual reality headset to look at 30 scenarios filmed in 360{\textdegree} from the point of view of a passenger sitting in the driver's seat of an autonomous car.They were asked to say "stop" when they felt discomfort visualizing the scenarios.As said, the scenarios voluntarily avoid collision effect as we do not want to measure fear but discomfort.The scenarios involve one or three pedestrians walking past the car at different distances from the wings of the car, relative to the direction of motion of the car, on both sides. The car is either static or moving straight forward at different speeds.The results indicate the existence of a comfort zone around the car in which intrusion causes discomfort.The size of the comfort zone is sensitive neither to the side of the car where the pedestrian passes nor to the number of pedestrians. In contrast, the feeling of discomfort is relative to the car's motion (static or moving).Another outcome from this study is an illustration of the usage of first person 360{\textdegree} video and a virtual reality headset to evaluate feelings of a passenger within an autonomous car.

* The 2018 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV'18), Jun 2018, Changshu, Suzhou, China
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