Models, code, and papers for "Donghyeon Lee":
The amount of dialogue history to include in a conversational agent is often underestimated and/or set in an empirical and thus possibly naive way. This suggests that principled investigations into optimal context windows are urgently needed given that the amount of dialogue history and corresponding representations can play an important role in the overall performance of a conversational system. This paper studies the amount of history required by conversational agents for reliably predicting dialogue rewards. The task of dialogue reward prediction is chosen for investigating the effects of varying amounts of dialogue history and their impact on system performance. Experimental results using a dataset of 18K human-human dialogues report that lengthy dialogue histories of at least 10 sentences are preferred (25 sentences being the best in our experiments) over short ones, and that lengthy histories are useful for training dialogue reward predictors with strong positive correlations between target dialogue rewards and predicted ones.
With online calendar services gaining popularity worldwide, calendar data has become one of the richest context sources for understanding human behavior. However, event scheduling is still time-consuming even with the development of online calendars. Although machine learning based event scheduling models have automated scheduling processes to some extent, they often fail to understand subtle user preferences and complex calendar contexts with event titles written in natural language. In this paper, we propose Neural Event Scheduling Assistant (NESA) which learns user preferences and understands calendar contexts, directly from raw online calendars for fully automated and highly effective event scheduling. We leverage over 593K calendar events for NESA to learn scheduling personal events, and we further utilize NESA for multi-attendee event scheduling. NESA successfully incorporates deep neural networks such as Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory, Convolutional Neural Network, and Highway Network for learning the preferences of each user and understanding calendar context based on natural languages. The experimental results show that NESA significantly outperforms previous baseline models in terms of various evaluation metrics on both personal and multi-attendee event scheduling tasks. Our qualitative analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of each layer in NESA and learned user preferences.
The recent success of question answering systems is largely attributed to pre-trained language models. However, as language models are mostly pre-trained on general domain corpora such as Wikipedia, they often have difficulty in understanding biomedical questions. In this paper, we investigate the performance of BioBERT, a pre-trained biomedical language model, in answering biomedical questions including factoid, list, and yes/no type questions. BioBERT uses almost the same structure across various question types and achieved the best performance in the 7th BioASQ Challenge (Task 7b, Phase B). BioBERT pre-trained on SQuAD or SQuAD 2.0 easily outperformed previous state-of-the-art models. BioBERT obtains the best performance when it uses the appropriate pre-/post-processing strategies for questions, passages, and answers.
Training chatbots using the reinforcement learning paradigm is challenging due to high-dimensional states, infinite action spaces and the difficulty in specifying the reward function. We address such problems using clustered actions instead of infinite actions, and a simple but promising reward function based on human-likeness scores derived from human-human dialogue data. We train Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) agents using chitchat data in raw text---without any manual annotations. Experimental results using different splits of training data report the following. First, that our agents learn reasonable policies in the environments they get familiarised with, but their performance drops substantially when they are exposed to a test set of unseen dialogues. Second, that the choice of sentence embedding size between 100 and 300 dimensions is not significantly different on test data. Third, that our proposed human-likeness rewards are reasonable for training chatbots as long as they use lengthy dialogue histories of >=10 sentences.
Biomedical text mining is becoming increasingly important as the number of biomedical documents rapidly grows. With the progress in machine learning, extracting valuable information from biomedical literature has gained popularity among researchers, and deep learning has boosted the development of effective biomedical text mining models. However, as deep learning models require a large amount of training data, applying deep learning to biomedical text mining is often unsuccessful due to the lack of training data in biomedical fields. Recent researches on training contextualized language representation models on text corpora shed light on the possibility of leveraging a large number of unannotated biomedical text corpora. We introduce BioBERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers for Biomedical Text Mining), which is a domain specific language representation model pre-trained on large-scale biomedical corpora. Based on the BERT architecture, BioBERT effectively transfers the knowledge from a large amount of biomedical texts to biomedical text mining models with minimal task-specific architecture modifications. While BERT shows competitive performances with previous state-of-the-art models, BioBERT significantly outperforms them on the following three representative biomedical text mining tasks: biomedical named entity recognition (0.51% absolute improvement), biomedical relation extraction (3.49% absolute improvement), and biomedical question answering (9.61% absolute improvement). We make the pre-trained weights of BioBERT freely available at https://github.com/naver/biobert-pretrained, and the source code for fine-tuning BioBERT available at https://github.com/dmis-lab/biobert.
Trainable chatbots that exhibit fluent and human-like conversations remain a big challenge in artificial intelligence. Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) is promising for addressing this challenge, but its successful application remains an open question. This article describes a novel ensemble-based approach applied to value-based DRL chatbots, which use finite action sets as a form of meaning representation. In our approach, while dialogue actions are derived from sentence clustering, the training datasets in our ensemble are derived from dialogue clustering. The latter aim to induce specialised agents that learn to interact in a particular style. In order to facilitate neural chatbot training using our proposed approach, we assume dialogue data in raw text only -- without any manually-labelled data. Experimental results using chitchat data reveal that (1) near human-like dialogue policies can be induced, (2) generalisation to unseen data is a difficult problem, and (3) training an ensemble of chatbot agents is essential for improved performance over using a single agent. In addition to evaluations using held-out data, our results are further supported by a human evaluation that rated dialogues in terms of fluency, engagingness and consistency -- which revealed that our proposed dialogue rewards strongly correlate with human judgements.