Running high-resolution physical models is computationally expensive and essential for many disciplines. Agriculture, transportation, and energy are sectors that depend on high-resolution weather models, which typically consume many hours of large High Performance Computing (HPC) systems to deliver timely results. Many users cannot afford to run the desired resolution and are forced to use low resolution output. One simple solution is to interpolate results for visualization. It is also possible to combine an ensemble of low resolution models to obtain a better prediction. However, these approaches fail to capture the redundant information and patterns in the low-resolution input that could help improve the quality of prediction. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a strategy based on a deep neural network to learn a high-resolution representation from low-resolution predictions using weather forecast as a practical use case. We take a supervised learning approach, since obtaining labeled data can be done automatically. Our results show significant improvement when compared with standard practices and the strategy is still lightweight enough to run on modest computer systems.

* 8 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication at 14th IEEE eScience
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In recent years, with the popularization of deep learning frameworks and large datasets, researchers have started parallelizing their models in order to train faster. This is crucially important, because they typically explore many hyperparameters in order to find the best ones for their applications. This process is time consuming and, consequently, speeding up training improves productivity. One approach to parallelize deep learning models followed by many researchers is based on weak scaling. The minibatches increase in size as new GPUs are added to the system. In addition, new learning rates schedules have been proposed to fix optimization issues that occur with large minibatch sizes. In this paper, however, we show that the recommendations provided by recent work do not apply to models that lack large datasets. In fact, we argument in favor of using strong scaling for achieving reliable performance in such cases. We evaluated our approach with up to 32 GPUs and show that weak scaling not only does not have the same accuracy as the sequential model, it also fails to converge most of time. Meanwhile, strong scaling has good scalability while having exactly the same accuracy of a sequential implementation.

* 8 pages, 5 figures, Presented at HPML 2018 -
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Machine Learning in High Energy Physics Community White Paper
Jul 08, 2018
Kim Albertsson, Piero Altoe, Dustin Anderson, Michael Andrews, Juan Pedro Araque Espinosa, Adam Aurisano, Laurent Basara, Adrian Bevan, Wahid Bhimji, Daniele Bonacorsi, Paolo Calafiura, Mario Campanelli, Louis Capps, Federico Carminati, Stefano Carrazza, Taylor Childers, Elias Coniavitis, Kyle Cranmer, Claire David, Douglas Davis, Javier Duarte, Martin Erdmann, Jonas Eschle, Amir Farbin, Matthew Feickert, Nuno Filipe Castro, Conor Fitzpatrick, Michele Floris, Alessandra Forti, Jordi Garra-Tico, Jochen Gemmler, Maria Girone, Paul Glaysher, Sergei Gleyzer, Vladimir Gligorov, Tobias Golling, Jonas Graw, Lindsey Gray, Dick Greenwood, Thomas Hacker, John Harvey, Benedikt Hegner, Lukas Heinrich, Ben Hooberman, Johannes Junggeburth, Michael Kagan, Meghan Kane, Konstantin Kanishchev, Przemysław Karpiński, Zahari Kassabov, Gaurav Kaul, Dorian Kcira, Thomas Keck, Alexei Klimentov, Jim Kowalkowski, Luke Kreczko, Alexander Kurepin, Rob Kutschke, Valentin Kuznetsov, Nicolas Köhler, Igor Lakomov, Kevin Lannon, Mario Lassnig, Antonio Limosani, Gilles Louppe, Aashrita Mangu, Pere Mato, Narain Meenakshi, Helge Meinhard, Dario Menasce, Lorenzo Moneta, Seth Moortgat, Mark Neubauer, Harvey Newman, Hans Pabst, Michela Paganini, Manfred Paulini, Gabriel Perdue, Uzziel Perez, Attilio Picazio, Jim Pivarski, Harrison Prosper, Fernanda Psihas, Alexander Radovic, Ryan Reece, Aurelius Rinkevicius, Eduardo Rodrigues, Jamal Rorie, David Rousseau, Aaron Sauers, Steven Schramm, Ariel Schwartzman, Horst Severini, Paul Seyfert, Filip Siroky, Konstantin Skazytkin, Mike Sokoloff, Graeme Stewart, Bob Stienen, Ian Stockdale, Giles Strong, Savannah Thais, Karen Tomko, Eli Upfal, Emanuele Usai, Andrey Ustyuzhanin, Martin Vala, Sofia Vallecorsa, Mauro Verzetti, Xavier Vilasís-Cardona, Jean-Roch Vlimant, Ilija Vukotic, Sean-Jiun Wang, Gordon Watts, Michael Williams, Wenjing Wu, Stefan Wunsch, Omar Zapata

Machine learning is an important research area in particle physics, beginning with applications to high-level physics analysis in the 1990s and 2000s, followed by an explosion of applications in particle and event identification and reconstruction in the 2010s. In this document we discuss promising future research and development areas in machine learning in particle physics with a roadmap for their implementation, software and hardware resource requirements, collaborative initiatives with the data science community, academia and industry, and training the particle physics community in data science. The main objective of the document is to connect and motivate these areas of research and development with the physics drivers of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider and future neutrino experiments and identify the resource needs for their implementation. Additionally we identify areas where collaboration with external communities will be of great benefit.

* Editors: Sergei Gleyzer, Paul Seyfert and Steven Schramm
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