In many computer vision tasks, for example saliency prediction or semantic segmentation, the desired output is a foreground map that predicts pixels where some criteria is satisfied. Despite the inherently spatial nature of this task commonly used learning objectives do not incorporate the spatial relationships between misclassified pixels and the underlying ground truth. The Weighted F-measure, a recently proposed evaluation metric, does reweight errors spatially, and has been shown to closely correlate with human evaluation of quality, and stably rank predictions with respect to noisy ground truths (such as a sloppy human annotator might generate). However it suffers from computational complexity which makes it intractable as an optimization objective for gradient descent, which must be evaluated thousands or millions of times while learning a model's parameters. We propose a differentiable and efficient approximation of this metric. By incorporating spatial information into the objective we can use a simpler model than competing methods without sacrificing accuracy, resulting in faster inference speeds and alleviating the need for pre/post-processing. We match (or improve) performance on several tasks compared to prior state of the art by traditional metrics, and in many cases significantly improve performance by the weighted F-measure. Click to Read Paper
Have you ever taken a picture only to find out that an unimportant background object ended up being overly salient? Or one of those team sports photos where your favorite player blends with the rest? Wouldn't it be nice if you could tweak these pictures just a little bit so that the distractor would be attenuated and your favorite player will stand-out among her peers? Manipulating images in order to control the saliency of objects is the goal of this paper. We propose an approach that considers the internal color and saliency properties of the image. It changes the saliency map via an optimization framework that relies on patch-based manipulation using only patches from within the same image to achieve realistic looking results. Applications include object enhancement, distractors attenuation and background decluttering. Comparing our method to previous ones shows significant improvement, both in the achieved saliency manipulation and in the realistic appearance of the resulting images. Click to Read Paper
Recent work has shown impressive success in transferring painterly style to images. These approaches, however, fall short of photorealistic style transfer. Even when both the input and reference images are photographs, the output still exhibits distortions reminiscent of a painting. In this paper we propose an approach that takes as input a stylized image and makes it more photorealistic. It relies on the Screened Poisson Equation, maintaining the fidelity of the stylized image while constraining the gradients to those of the original input image. Our method is fast, simple, fully automatic and shows positive progress in making a stylized image photorealistic. Our results exhibit finer details and are less prone to artifacts than the state-of-the-art. Click to Read Paper
This paper introduces a deep-learning approach to photographic style transfer that handles a large variety of image content while faithfully transferring the reference style. Our approach builds upon the recent work on painterly transfer that separates style from the content of an image by considering different layers of a neural network. However, as is, this approach is not suitable for photorealistic style transfer. Even when both the input and reference images are photographs, the output still exhibits distortions reminiscent of a painting. Our contribution is to constrain the transformation from the input to the output to be locally affine in colorspace, and to express this constraint as a custom fully differentiable energy term. We show that this approach successfully suppresses distortion and yields satisfying photorealistic style transfers in a broad variety of scenarios, including transfer of the time of day, weather, season, and artistic edits. Click to Read Paper
This note presents an extension to the neural artistic style transfer algorithm (Gatys et al.). The original algorithm transforms an image to have the style of another given image. For example, a photograph can be transformed to have the style of a famous painting. Here we address a potential shortcoming of the original method: the algorithm transfers the colors of the original painting, which can alter the appearance of the scene in undesirable ways. We describe simple linear methods for transferring style while preserving colors. Click to Read Paper
Realistic image manipulation is challenging because it requires modifying the image appearance in a user-controlled way, while preserving the realism of the result. Unless the user has considerable artistic skill, it is easy to "fall off" the manifold of natural images while editing. In this paper, we propose to learn the natural image manifold directly from data using a generative adversarial neural network. We then define a class of image editing operations, and constrain their output to lie on that learned manifold at all times. The model automatically adjusts the output keeping all edits as realistic as possible. All our manipulations are expressed in terms of constrained optimization and are applied in near-real time. We evaluate our algorithm on the task of realistic photo manipulation of shape and color. The presented method can further be used for changing one image to look like the other, as well as generating novel imagery from scratch based on user's scribbles. Click to Read Paper
What makes an image appear realistic? In this work, we are answering this question from a data-driven perspective by learning the perception of visual realism directly from large amounts of data. In particular, we train a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model that distinguishes natural photographs from automatically generated composite images. The model learns to predict visual realism of a scene in terms of color, lighting and texture compatibility, without any human annotations pertaining to it. Our model outperforms previous works that rely on hand-crafted heuristics, for the task of classifying realistic vs. unrealistic photos. Furthermore, we apply our learned model to compute optimal parameters of a compositing method, to maximize the visual realism score predicted by our CNN model. We demonstrate its advantage against existing methods via a human perception study. Click to Read Paper
While it is nearly effortless for humans to quickly assess the perceptual similarity between two images, the underlying processes are thought to be quite complex. Despite this, the most widely used perceptual metrics today, such as PSNR and SSIM, are simple, shallow functions, and fail to account for many nuances of human perception. Recently, the deep learning community has found that features of the VGG network trained on ImageNet classification has been remarkably useful as a training loss for image synthesis. But how perceptual are these so-called "perceptual losses"? What elements are critical for their success? To answer these questions, we introduce a new dataset of human perceptual similarity judgments. We systematically evaluate deep features across different architectures and tasks and compare them with classic metrics. We find that deep features outperform all previous metrics by large margins on our dataset. More surprisingly, this result is not restricted to ImageNet-trained VGG features, but holds across different deep architectures and levels of supervision (supervised, self-supervised, or even unsupervised). Our results suggest that perceptual similarity is an emergent property shared across deep visual representations. Click to Read Paper
Shadows often create unwanted artifacts in photographs, and removing them can be very challenging. Previous shadow removal methods often produce de-shadowed regions that are visually inconsistent with the rest of the image. In this work we propose a fully automatic shadow region harmonization approach that improves the appearance compatibility of the de-shadowed region as typically produced by previous methods. It is based on a shadow-guided patch-based image synthesis approach that reconstructs the shadow region using patches sampled from non-shadowed regions. The result is then refined based on the reconstruction confidence to handle unique image patterns. Many shadow removal results and comparisons are show the effectiveness of our improvement. Quantitative evaluation on a benchmark dataset suggests that our automatic shadow harmonization approach effectively improves upon the state-of-the-art. Click to Read Paper
We address the problem of finding realistic geometric corrections to a foreground object such that it appears natural when composited into a background image. To achieve this, we propose a novel Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) architecture that utilizes Spatial Transformer Networks (STNs) as the generator, which we call Spatial Transformer GANs (ST-GANs). ST-GANs seek image realism by operating in the geometric warp parameter space. In particular, we exploit an iterative STN warping scheme and propose a sequential training strategy that achieves better results compared to naive training of a single generator. One of the key advantages of ST-GAN is its applicability to high-resolution images indirectly since the predicted warp parameters are transferable between reference frames. We demonstrate our approach in two applications: (1) visualizing how indoor furniture (e.g. from product images) might be perceived in a room, (2) hallucinating how accessories like glasses would look when matched with real portraits. Click to Read Paper
Neural Style Transfer has shown very exciting results enabling new forms of image manipulation. Here we extend the existing method to introduce control over spatial location, colour information and across spatial scale. We demonstrate how this enhances the method by allowing high-resolution controlled stylisation and helps to alleviate common failure cases such as applying ground textures to sky regions. Furthermore, by decomposing style into these perceptual factors we enable the combination of style information from multiple sources to generate new, perceptually appealing styles from existing ones. We also describe how these methods can be used to more efficiently produce large size, high-quality stylisation. Finally we show how the introduced control measures can be applied in recent methods for Fast Neural Style Transfer. Click to Read Paper
In this work, we focus on the challenge of taking partial observations of highly-stylized text and generalizing the observations to generate unobserved glyphs in the ornamented typeface. To generate a set of multi-content images following a consistent style from very few examples, we propose an end-to-end stacked conditional GAN model considering content along channels and style along network layers. Our proposed network transfers the style of given glyphs to the contents of unseen ones, capturing highly stylized fonts found in the real-world such as those on movie posters or infographics. We seek to transfer both the typographic stylization (ex. serifs and ears) as well as the textual stylization (ex. color gradients and effects.) We base our experiments on our collected data set including 10,000 fonts with different styles and demonstrate effective generalization from a very small number of observed glyphs. Click to Read Paper
Traditional face editing methods often require a number of sophisticated and task specific algorithms to be applied one after the other --- a process that is tedious, fragile, and computationally intensive. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end generative adversarial network that infers a face-specific disentangled representation of intrinsic face properties, including shape (i.e. normals), albedo, and lighting, and an alpha matte. We show that this network can be trained on "in-the-wild" images by incorporating an in-network physically-based image formation module and appropriate loss functions. Our disentangling latent representation allows for semantically relevant edits, where one aspect of facial appearance can be manipulated while keeping orthogonal properties fixed, and we demonstrate its use for a number of facial editing applications. Click to Read Paper
Recent advances in deep learning have shown exciting promise in filling large holes in natural images with semantically plausible and context aware details, impacting fundamental image manipulation tasks such as object removal. While these learning-based methods are significantly more effective in capturing high-level features than prior techniques, they can only handle very low-resolution inputs due to memory limitations and difficulty in training. Even for slightly larger images, the inpainted regions would appear blurry and unpleasant boundaries become visible. We propose a multi-scale neural patch synthesis approach based on joint optimization of image content and texture constraints, which not only preserves contextual structures but also produces high-frequency details by matching and adapting patches with the most similar mid-layer feature correlations of a deep classification network. We evaluate our method on the ImageNet and Paris Streetview datasets and achieved state-of-the-art inpainting accuracy. We show our approach produces sharper and more coherent results than prior methods, especially for high-resolution images. Click to Read Paper
Localizing moments in a longer video via natural language queries is a new, challenging task at the intersection of language and video understanding. Though moment localization with natural language is similar to other language and vision tasks like natural language object retrieval in images, moment localization offers an interesting opportunity to model temporal dependencies and reasoning in text. We propose a new model that explicitly reasons about different temporal segments in a video, and shows that temporal context is important for localizing phrases which include temporal language. To benchmark whether our model, and other recent video localization models, can effectively reason about temporal language, we collect the novel TEMPOral reasoning in video and language (TEMPO) dataset. Our dataset consists of two parts: a dataset with real videos and template sentences (TEMPO - Template Language) which allows for controlled studies on temporal language, and a human language dataset which consists of temporal sentences annotated by humans (TEMPO - Human Language). Click to Read Paper
We consider retrieving a specific temporal segment, or moment, from a video given a natural language text description. Methods designed to retrieve whole video clips with natural language determine what occurs in a video but not when. To address this issue, we propose the Moment Context Network (MCN) which effectively localizes natural language queries in videos by integrating local and global video features over time. A key obstacle to training our MCN model is that current video datasets do not include pairs of localized video segments and referring expressions, or text descriptions which uniquely identify a corresponding moment. Therefore, we collect the Distinct Describable Moments (DiDeMo) dataset which consists of over 10,000 unedited, personal videos in diverse visual settings with pairs of localized video segments and referring expressions. We demonstrate that MCN outperforms several baseline methods and believe that our initial results together with the release of DiDeMo will inspire further research on localizing video moments with natural language. Click to Read Paper
Many image-to-image translation problems are ambiguous, as a single input image may correspond to multiple possible outputs. In this work, we aim to model a \emph{distribution} of possible outputs in a conditional generative modeling setting. The ambiguity of the mapping is distilled in a low-dimensional latent vector, which can be randomly sampled at test time. A generator learns to map the given input, combined with this latent code, to the output. We explicitly encourage the connection between output and the latent code to be invertible. This helps prevent a many-to-one mapping from the latent code to the output during training, also known as the problem of mode collapse, and produces more diverse results. We explore several variants of this approach by employing different training objectives, network architectures, and methods of injecting the latent code. Our proposed method encourages bijective consistency between the latent encoding and output modes. We present a systematic comparison of our method and other variants on both perceptual realism and diversity. Click to Read Paper
Applying image processing algorithms independently to each frame of a video often leads to undesired inconsistent results over time. Developing temporally consistent video-based extensions, however, requires domain knowledge for individual tasks and is unable to generalize to other applications. In this paper, we present an efficient end-to-end approach based on deep recurrent network for enforcing temporal consistency in a video. Our method takes the original unprocessed and per-frame processed videos as inputs to produce a temporally consistent video. Consequently, our approach is agnostic to specific image processing algorithms applied on the original video. We train the proposed network by minimizing both short-term and long-term temporal losses as well as the perceptual loss to strike a balance between temporal stability and perceptual similarity with the processed frames. At test time, our model does not require computing optical flow and thus achieves real-time speed even for high-resolution videos. We show that our single model can handle multiple and unseen tasks, including but not limited to artistic style transfer, enhancement, colorization, image-to-image translation and intrinsic image decomposition. Extensive objective evaluation and subject study demonstrate that the proposed approach performs favorably against the state-of-the-art methods on various types of videos. Click to Read Paper
As font is one of the core design concepts, automatic font identification and similar font suggestion from an image or photo has been on the wish list of many designers. We study the Visual Font Recognition (VFR) problem, and advance the state-of-the-art remarkably by developing the DeepFont system. First of all, we build up the first available large-scale VFR dataset, named AdobeVFR, consisting of both labeled synthetic data and partially labeled real-world data. Next, to combat the domain mismatch between available training and testing data, we introduce a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) decomposition approach, using a domain adaptation technique based on a Stacked Convolutional Auto-Encoder (SCAE) that exploits a large corpus of unlabeled real-world text images combined with synthetic data preprocessed in a specific way. Moreover, we study a novel learning-based model compression approach, in order to reduce the DeepFont model size without sacrificing its performance. The DeepFont system achieves an accuracy of higher than 80% (top-5) on our collected dataset, and also produces a good font similarity measure for font selection and suggestion. We also achieve around 6 times compression of the model without any visible loss of recognition accuracy. Click to Read Paper
We present a domain adaption framework to address a domain mismatch between synthetic training and real-world testing data. We demonstrate our method on a challenging fine-grain classification problem: recognizing a font style from an image of text. In this task, it is very easy to generate lots of rendered font examples but very hard to obtain real-world labeled images. This real-to-synthetic domain gap caused poor generalization to new real data in previous font recognition methods (Chen et al. (2014)). In this paper, we introduce a Convolutional Neural Network decomposition approach, leveraging a large training corpus of synthetic data to obtain effective features for classification. This is done using an adaptation technique based on a Stacked Convolutional Auto-Encoder that exploits a large collection of unlabeled real-world text images combined with synthetic data preprocessed in a specific way. The proposed DeepFont method achieves an accuracy of higher than 80% (top-5) on a new large labeled real-world dataset we collected. Click to Read Paper