Non deterministic applications arise in many domains, including, stochastic optimization, multi-objectives optimization, stochastic planning, contingent stochastic planning, reinforcement learning, reinforcement learning in partially observable Markov decision processes, and conditional planning. We present a logic programming framework called non deterministic logic programs, along with a declarative semantics and fixpoint semantics, to allow representing and reasoning about inherently non deterministic real-world applications. The language of non deterministic logic programs framework is extended with non-monotonic negation, and two alternative semantics are defined: the stable non deterministic model semantics and the well-founded non deterministic model semantics as well as their relationship is studied. These semantics subsume the deterministic stable model semantics and the deterministic well-founded semantics of deterministic normal logic programs, and they reduce to the semantics of deterministic definite logic programs without negation. We show the application of the non deterministic logic programs framework to a conditional planning problem.

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**
We present a logical framework to represent and reason about stochastic optimization problems based on probability answer set programming. This is established by allowing probability optimization aggregates, e.g., minimum and maximum in the language of probability answer set programming to allow minimization or maximization of some desired criteria under the probabilistic environments. We show the application of the proposed logical stochastic optimization framework under the probability answer set programming to two stages stochastic optimization problems with recourse.

* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1304.2384, arXiv:1304.2797, arXiv:1304.1684, arXiv:1304.3144

* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1304.2384, arXiv:1304.2797, arXiv:1304.1684, arXiv:1304.3144

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**
We allow representing and reasoning in the presence of nested multiple aggregates over multiple variables and nested multiple aggregates over functions involving multiple variables in answer sets, precisely, in answer set optimization programming and in answer set programming. We show the applicability of the answer set optimization programming with nested multiple aggregates and the answer set programming with nested multiple aggregates to the Probabilistic Traveling Salesman Problem, a fundamental a priori optimization problem in Operation Research.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1304.2384

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1304.2384

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**
We present a unified logical framework for representing and reasoning about both probability quantitative and qualitative preferences in probability answer set programming, called probability answer set optimization programs. The proposed framework is vital to allow defining probability quantitative preferences over the possible outcomes of qualitative preferences. We show the application of probability answer set optimization programs to a variant of the well-known nurse restoring problem, called the nurse restoring with probability preferences problem. To the best of our knowledge, this development is the first to consider a logical framework for reasoning about probability quantitative preferences, in general, and reasoning about both probability quantitative and qualitative preferences in particular.

* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1304.2384, arXiv:1304.2797

* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1304.2384, arXiv:1304.2797

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**
We present a unified logical framework for representing and reasoning about both quantitative and qualitative preferences in fuzzy answer set programming, called fuzzy answer set optimization programs. The proposed framework is vital to allow defining quantitative preferences over the possible outcomes of qualitative preferences. We show the application of fuzzy answer set optimization programs to the course scheduling with fuzzy preferences problem. To the best of our knowledge, this development is the first to consider a logical framework for reasoning about quantitative preferences, in general, and reasoning about both quantitative and qualitative preferences in particular.

* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1304.2384

* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1304.2384

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**
We present a logical framework to represent and reason about fuzzy optimization problems based on fuzzy answer set optimization programming. This is accomplished by allowing fuzzy optimization aggregates, e.g., minimum and maximum in the language of fuzzy answer set optimization programming to allow minimization or maximization of some desired criteria under fuzzy environments. We show the application of the proposed logical fuzzy optimization framework under the fuzzy answer set optimization programming to the fuzzy water allocation optimization problem.

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**
Fuzzy answer set programming is a declarative framework for representing and reasoning about knowledge in fuzzy environments. However, the unavailability of fuzzy aggregates in disjunctive fuzzy logic programs, DFLP, with fuzzy answer set semantics prohibits the natural and concise representation of many interesting problems. In this paper, we extend DFLP to allow arbitrary fuzzy aggregates. We define fuzzy answer set semantics for DFLP with arbitrary fuzzy aggregates including monotone, antimonotone, and nonmonotone fuzzy aggregates. We show that the proposed fuzzy answer set semantics subsumes both the original fuzzy answer set semantics of DFLP and the classical answer set semantics of classical disjunctive logic programs with classical aggregates, and consequently subsumes the classical answer set semantics of classical disjunctive logic programs. We show that the proposed fuzzy answer sets of DFLP with fuzzy aggregates are minimal fuzzy models and hence incomparable, which is an important property for nonmonotonic fuzzy reasoning.

* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1304.1684

* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1304.1684

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**
Probability answer set programming is a declarative programming that has been shown effective for representing and reasoning about a variety of probability reasoning tasks. However, the lack of probability aggregates, e.g. {\em expected values}, in the language of disjunctive hybrid probability logic programs (DHPP) disallows the natural and concise representation of many interesting problems. In this paper, we extend DHPP to allow arbitrary probability aggregates. We introduce two types of probability aggregates; a type that computes the expected value of a classical aggregate, e.g., the expected value of the minimum, and a type that computes the probability of a classical aggregate, e.g, the probability of sum of values. In addition, we define a probability answer set semantics for DHPP with arbitrary probability aggregates including monotone, antimonotone, and nonmonotone probability aggregates. We show that the proposed probability answer set semantics of DHPP subsumes both the original probability answer set semantics of DHPP and the classical answer set semantics of classical disjunctive logic programs with classical aggregates, and consequently subsumes the classical answer set semantics of the original disjunctive logic programs. We show that the proposed probability answer sets of DHPP with probability aggregates are minimal probability models and hence incomparable, which is an important property for nonmonotonic probability reasoning.

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**
Bridging the Gap between Reinforcement Learning and Knowledge Representation: A Logical Off- and On-Policy Framework

Dec 07, 2010

Emad Saad

Knowledge Representation is important issue in reinforcement learning. In this paper, we bridge the gap between reinforcement learning and knowledge representation, by providing a rich knowledge representation framework, based on normal logic programs with answer set semantics, that is capable of solving model-free reinforcement learning problems for more complex do-mains and exploits the domain-specific knowledge. We prove the correctness of our approach. We show that the complexity of finding an offline and online policy for a model-free reinforcement learning problem in our approach is NP-complete. Moreover, we show that any model-free reinforcement learning problem in MDP environment can be encoded as a SAT problem. The importance of that is model-free reinforcement
Dec 07, 2010

Emad Saad

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**

Reinforcement Learning in Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes using Hybrid Probabilistic Logic Programs

Nov 27, 2010

Emad Saad

We present a probabilistic logic programming framework to reinforcement learning, by integrating reinforce-ment learning, in POMDP environments, with normal hybrid probabilistic logic programs with probabilistic answer set seman-tics, that is capable of representing domain-specific knowledge. We formally prove the correctness of our approach. We show that the complexity of finding a policy for a reinforcement learning problem in our approach is NP-complete. In addition, we show that any reinforcement learning problem can be encoded as a classical logic program with answer set semantics. We also show that a reinforcement learning problem can be encoded as a SAT problem. We present a new high level action description language that allows the factored representation of POMDP. Moreover, we modify the original model of POMDP so that it be able to distinguish between knowledge producing actions and actions that change the environment.
Nov 27, 2010

Emad Saad

**Click to Read Paper and Get Code**