Research papers and code for "Francis Song":
Theory of mind (ToM; Premack & Woodruff, 1978) broadly refers to humans' ability to represent the mental states of others, including their desires, beliefs, and intentions. We propose to train a machine to build such models too. We design a Theory of Mind neural network -- a ToMnet -- which uses meta-learning to build models of the agents it encounters, from observations of their behaviour alone. Through this process, it acquires a strong prior model for agents' behaviour, as well as the ability to bootstrap to richer predictions about agents' characteristics and mental states using only a small number of behavioural observations. We apply the ToMnet to agents behaving in simple gridworld environments, showing that it learns to model random, algorithmic, and deep reinforcement learning agents from varied populations, and that it passes classic ToM tasks such as the "Sally-Anne" test (Wimmer & Perner, 1983; Baron-Cohen et al., 1985) of recognising that others can hold false beliefs about the world. We argue that this system -- which autonomously learns how to model other agents in its world -- is an important step forward for developing multi-agent AI systems, for building intermediating technology for machine-human interaction, and for advancing the progress on interpretable AI.

* 21 pages, 15 figures
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When observing the actions of others, humans carry out inferences about why the others acted as they did, and what this implies about their view of the world. Humans also use the fact that their actions will be interpreted in this manner when observed by others, allowing them to act informatively and thereby communicate efficiently with others. Although learning algorithms have recently achieved superhuman performance in a number of two-player, zero-sum games, scalable multi-agent reinforcement learning algorithms that can discover effective strategies and conventions in complex, partially observable settings have proven elusive. We present the Bayesian action decoder (BAD), a new multi-agent learning method that uses an approximate Bayesian update to obtain a public belief that conditions on the actions taken by all agents in the environment. Together with the public belief, this Bayesian update effectively defines a new Markov decision process, the public belief MDP, in which the action space consists of deterministic partial policies, parameterised by deep neural networks, that can be sampled for a given public state. It exploits the fact that an agent acting only on this public belief state can still learn to use its private information if the action space is augmented to be over partial policies mapping private information into environment actions. The Bayesian update is also closely related to the theory of mind reasoning that humans carry out when observing others' actions. We first validate BAD on a proof-of-principle two-step matrix game, where it outperforms traditional policy gradient methods. We then evaluate BAD on the challenging, cooperative partial-information card game Hanabi, where in the two-player setting the method surpasses all previously published learning and hand-coded approaches.

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The behavioral dynamics of multi-agent systems have a rich and orderly structure, which can be leveraged to understand these systems, and to improve how artificial agents learn to operate in them. Here we introduce Relational Forward Models (RFM) for multi-agent learning, networks that can learn to make accurate predictions of agents' future behavior in multi-agent environments. Because these models operate on the discrete entities and relations present in the environment, they produce interpretable intermediate representations which offer insights into what drives agents' behavior, and what events mediate the intensity and valence of social interactions. Furthermore, we show that embedding RFM modules inside agents results in faster learning systems compared to non-augmented baselines. As more and more of the autonomous systems we develop and interact with become multi-agent in nature, developing richer analysis tools for characterizing how and why agents make decisions is increasingly necessary. Moreover, developing artificial agents that quickly and safely learn to coordinate with one another, and with humans in shared environments, is crucial.

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From the early days of computing, games have been important testbeds for studying how well machines can do sophisticated decision making. In recent years, machine learning has made dramatic advances with artificial agents reaching superhuman performance in challenge domains like Go, Atari, and some variants of poker. As with their predecessors of chess, checkers, and backgammon, these game domains have driven research by providing sophisticated yet well-defined challenges for artificial intelligence practitioners. We continue this tradition by proposing the game of Hanabi as a new challenge domain with novel problems that arise from its combination of purely cooperative gameplay and imperfect information in a two to five player setting. In particular, we argue that Hanabi elevates reasoning about the beliefs and intentions of other agents to the foreground. We believe developing novel techniques capable of imbuing artificial agents with such theory of mind will not only be crucial for their success in Hanabi, but also in broader collaborative efforts, and especially those with human partners. To facilitate future research, we introduce the open-source Hanabi Learning Environment, propose an experimental framework for the research community to evaluate algorithmic advances, and assess the performance of current state-of-the-art techniques.

* 37 pages, 5 figures, submitted to Artificial Intelligence
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Artificial intelligence (AI) has undergone a renaissance recently, making major progress in key domains such as vision, language, control, and decision-making. This has been due, in part, to cheap data and cheap compute resources, which have fit the natural strengths of deep learning. However, many defining characteristics of human intelligence, which developed under much different pressures, remain out of reach for current approaches. In particular, generalizing beyond one's experiences--a hallmark of human intelligence from infancy--remains a formidable challenge for modern AI. The following is part position paper, part review, and part unification. We argue that combinatorial generalization must be a top priority for AI to achieve human-like abilities, and that structured representations and computations are key to realizing this objective. Just as biology uses nature and nurture cooperatively, we reject the false choice between "hand-engineering" and "end-to-end" learning, and instead advocate for an approach which benefits from their complementary strengths. We explore how using relational inductive biases within deep learning architectures can facilitate learning about entities, relations, and rules for composing them. We present a new building block for the AI toolkit with a strong relational inductive bias--the graph network--which generalizes and extends various approaches for neural networks that operate on graphs, and provides a straightforward interface for manipulating structured knowledge and producing structured behaviors. We discuss how graph networks can support relational reasoning and combinatorial generalization, laying the foundation for more sophisticated, interpretable, and flexible patterns of reasoning. As a companion to this paper, we have released an open-source software library for building graph networks, with demonstrations of how to use them in practice.

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Given a continuous-time signal that can be modeled as the superposition of localized, time-shifted events from multiple sources, the goal of Convolutional Dictionary Learning (CDL) is to identify the location of the events--by Convolutional Sparse Coding (CSC)--and learn the template for each source--by Convolutional Dictionary Update (CDU). In practice, because we observe samples of the continuous-time signal on a uniformly-sampled grid in discrete time, classical CSC methods can only produce estimates of the times when the events occur on this grid, which degrades the performance of the CDU. We introduce a CDL framework that significantly reduces the errors arising from performing the estimation in discrete time. Specifically, we construct an expanded dictionary that comprises, not only discrete-time shifts of the templates, but also interpolated variants, obtained by bandlimited interpolation, that account for continuous-time shifts. For CSC, we develop a novel computationally efficient CSC algorithm, termed Convolutional Orthogonal Matching Pursuit with interpolated dictionary (COMP-INTERP). We benchmarked COMP-INTERP to Contiunuous Basis Pursuit (CBP), the state-of-the-art CSC algorithm for estimating off-the-grid events, and demonstrate, on simulated data, that 1) COMP-INTERP achieves a similar level of accuracy, and 2) is two orders of magnitude faster. For CDU, we derive a novel procedure to update the templates given sparse codes that can occur both on and off the discrete-time grid. We also show that 3) dictionary update with the overcomplete dictionary yields more accurate templates. Finally, we apply the algorithms to the spike sorting problem on electrophysiology recording and show their competitive performance.

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In this paper we present an attentional neural network for folk song classification. We introduce the concept of musical motif embedding, and show how using melodic local context we are able to model monophonic folk song motifs using the skipgram version of the word2vec algorithm. We use the motif embeddings to represent folk songs from Germany, China, and Sweden, and classify them using an attentional neural network that is able to discern relevant motifs in a song. The results show how the network obtains state of the art accuracy in a completely unsupervised manner, and how motif embeddings produce high quality motif representations from folk songs. We conjecture on the advantages of this type of representation in large symbolic music corpora, and how it can be helpful in the musicological analysis of folk song collections from different cultures and geographical areas.

* Accepted for ICMC 2019
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Music summarization allows for higher efficiency in processing, storage, and sharing of datasets. Machine-oriented approaches, being agnostic to human consumption, optimize these aspects even further. Such summaries have already been successfully validated in some MIR tasks. We now generalize previous conclusions by evaluating the impact of generic summarization of music from a probabilistic perspective. We estimate Gaussian distributions for original and summarized songs and compute their relative entropy, in order to measure information loss incurred by summarization. Our results suggest that relative entropy is a good predictor of summarization performance in the context of tasks relying on a bag-of-features model. Based on this observation, we further propose a straightforward yet expressive summarizer, which minimizes relative entropy with respect to the original song, that objectively outperforms previous methods and is better suited to avoid potential copyright issues.

* 7 pages, 1 algorithm, 7 figures, 1 table, submitted to Pattern Recognition Letters (Elsevier)
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In order to satisfy processing time constraints, many MIR tasks process only a segment of the whole music signal. This practice may lead to decreasing performance, since the most important information for the tasks may not be in those processed segments. In this paper, we leverage generic summarization algorithms, previously applied to text and speech summarization, to summarize items in music datasets. These algorithms build summaries, that are both concise and diverse, by selecting appropriate segments from the input signal which makes them good candidates to summarize music as well. We evaluate the summarization process on binary and multiclass music genre classification tasks, by comparing the performance obtained using summarized datasets against the performances obtained using continuous segments (which is the traditional method used for addressing the previously mentioned time constraints) and full songs of the same original dataset. We show that GRASSHOPPER, LexRank, LSA, MMR, and a Support Sets-based Centrality model improve classification performance when compared to selected 30-second baselines. We also show that summarized datasets lead to a classification performance whose difference is not statistically significant from using full songs. Furthermore, we make an argument stating the advantages of sharing summarized datasets for future MIR research.

* IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing, vol. 24, n. 6, March 2016
* 24 pages, 10 tables; Submitted to IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing
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