Research papers and code for "Gaëtan Hadjeres":
This paper presents the Variation Network (VarNet), a generative model providing means to manipulate the high-level attributes of a given input. The originality of our approach is that VarNet is not only capable of handling pre-defined attributes but can also learn the relevant attributes of the dataset by itself. These two settings can be easily combined which makes VarNet applicable for a wide variety of tasks. Further, VarNet has a sound probabilistic interpretation which grants us with a novel way to navigate in the latent spaces as well as means to control how the attributes are learned. We demonstrate experimentally that this model is capable of performing interesting input manipulation and that the learned attributes are relevant and interpretable.

* 15 pages, 7 figures
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Inpainting-based generative modeling allows for stimulating human-machine interactions by letting users perform stylistically coherent local editions to an object using a statistical model. We present NONOTO, a new interface for interactive music generation based on inpainting models. It is aimed both at researchers, by offering a simple and flexible API allowing them to connect their own models with the interface, and at musicians by providing industry-standard features such as audio playback, real-time MIDI output and straightforward synchronization with DAWs using Ableton Link.

* 3 pages, 1 figure. Published as a conference paper at the 10th International Conference on Computational Creativity (ICCC 2019), UNC Charlotte, North Carolina
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We consider both finite and infinite power chi expansions of $f$-divergences derived from Taylor's expansions of smooth generators, and elaborate on cases where these expansions yield closed-form formula, bounded approximations, or analytic divergence series expressions of $f$-divergences.

* 21 pages
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Exponential families and mixture families are parametric probability models that can be geometrically studied as smooth statistical manifolds with respect to any statistical divergence like the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence or the Hellinger divergence. When equipping a statistical manifold with the KL divergence, the induced manifold structure is dually flat, and the KL divergence between distributions amounts to an equivalent Bregman divergence on their corresponding parameters. In practice, the corresponding Bregman generators of mixture/exponential families require to perform definite integral calculus that can either be too time-consuming (for exponentially large discrete support case) or even do not admit closed-form formula (for continuous support case). In these cases, the dually flat construction remains theoretical and cannot be used by information-geometric algorithms. To bypass this problem, we consider performing stochastic Monte Carlo (MC) estimation of those integral-based mixture/exponential family Bregman generators. We show that, under natural assumptions, these MC generators are almost surely Bregman generators. We define a series of dually flat information geometries, termed Monte Carlo Information Geometries, that increasingly-finely approximate the untractable geometry. The advantage of this MCIG is that it allows a practical use of the Bregman algorithmic toolbox on a wide range of probability distribution families. We demonstrate our approach with a clustering task on a mixture family manifold.

* 25 pages
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Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNS) are now widely used on sequence generation tasks due to their ability to learn long-range dependencies and to generate sequences of arbitrary length. However, their left-to-right generation procedure only allows a limited control from a potential user which makes them unsuitable for interactive and creative usages such as interactive music generation. This paper introduces a novel architecture called Anticipation-RNN which possesses the assets of the RNN-based generative models while allowing to enforce user-defined positional constraints. We demonstrate its efficiency on the task of generating melodies satisfying positional constraints in the style of the soprano parts of the J.S. Bach chorale harmonizations. Sampling using the Anticipation-RNN is of the same order of complexity than sampling from the traditional RNN model. This fast and interactive generation of musical sequences opens ways to devise real-time systems that could be used for creative purposes.

* 9 pages, 7 figures
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In this work, we introduce a system for real-time generation of drum sounds. This system is composed of two parts: a generative model for drum sounds together with a Max4Live plugin providing intuitive controls on the generative process. The generative model consists of a Conditional Wasserstein autoencoder (CWAE), which learns to generate Mel-scaled magnitude spectrograms of short percussion samples, coupled with a Multi-Head Convolutional Neural Network (MCNN) which estimates the corresponding audio signal from the magnitude spectrogram. The design of this model makes it lightweight, so that it allows one to perform real-time generation of novel drum sounds on an average CPU, removing the need for the users to possess dedicated hardware in order to use this system. We then present our Max4Live interface designed to interact with this generative model. With this setup, the system can be easily integrated into a studio-production environment and enhance the creative process. Finally, we discuss the advantages of our system and how the interaction of music producers with such tools could change the way drum tracks are composed.

* 8 pages, accepted at the International Conference on Computational Creativity 2019
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Music Inpainting is the task of filling in missing or lost information in a piece of music. We investigate this task from an interactive music creation perspective. To this end, a novel deep learning-based approach for musical score inpainting is proposed. The designed model takes both past and future musical context into account and is capable of suggesting ways to connect them in a musically meaningful manner. To achieve this, we leverage the representational power of the latent space of a Variational Auto-Encoder and train a Recurrent Neural Network which learns to traverse this latent space conditioned on the past and future musical contexts. Consequently, the designed model is capable of generating several measures of music to connect two musical excerpts. The capabilities and performance of the model are showcased by comparison with competitive baselines using several objective and subjective evaluation methods. The results show that the model generates meaningful inpaintings and can be used in interactive music creation applications. Overall, the method demonstrates the merit of learning complex trajectories in the latent spaces of deep generative models.

* 20th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference (ISMIR), 2019, Delft, The Netherlands; 6 pages, 8 figures
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VAEs (Variational AutoEncoders) have proved to be powerful in the context of density modeling and have been used in a variety of contexts for creative purposes. In many settings, the data we model possesses continuous attributes that we would like to take into account at generation time. We propose in this paper GLSR-VAE, a Geodesic Latent Space Regularization for the Variational AutoEncoder architecture and its generalizations which allows a fine control on the embedding of the data into the latent space. When augmenting the VAE loss with this regularization, changes in the learned latent space reflects changes of the attributes of the data. This deeper understanding of the VAE latent space structure offers the possibility to modulate the attributes of the generated data in a continuous way. We demonstrate its efficiency on a monophonic music generation task where we manage to generate variations of discrete sequences in an intended and playful way.

* 11 pages
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This paper introduces DeepBach, a graphical model aimed at modeling polyphonic music and specifically hymn-like pieces. We claim that, after being trained on the chorale harmonizations by Johann Sebastian Bach, our model is capable of generating highly convincing chorales in the style of Bach. DeepBach's strength comes from the use of pseudo-Gibbs sampling coupled with an adapted representation of musical data. This is in contrast with many automatic music composition approaches which tend to compose music sequentially. Our model is also steerable in the sense that a user can constrain the generation by imposing positional constraints such as notes, rhythms or cadences in the generated score. We also provide a plugin on top of the MuseScore music editor making the interaction with DeepBach easy to use.

* Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 70:1362-1371, 2017
* 10 pages, ICML2017 version
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Modeling polyphonic music is a particularly challenging task because of the intricate interplay between melody and harmony. A good model should satisfy three requirements: statistical accuracy (capturing faithfully the statistics of correlations at various ranges, horizontally and vertically), flexibility (coping with arbitrary user constraints), and generalization capacity (inventing new material, while staying in the style of the training corpus). Models proposed so far fail on at least one of these requirements. We propose a statistical model of polyphonic music, based on the maximum entropy principle. This model is able to learn and reproduce pairwise statistics between neighboring note events in a given corpus. The model is also able to invent new chords and to harmonize unknown melodies. We evaluate the invention capacity of the model by assessing the amount of cited, re-discovered, and invented chords on a corpus of Bach chorales. We discuss how the model enables the user to specify and enforce user-defined constraints, which makes it useful for style-based, interactive music generation.

* 18 pages, 11 figures
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This book is a survey and an analysis of different ways of using deep learning (deep artificial neural networks) to generate musical content. At first, we propose a methodology based on four dimensions for our analysis: - objective - What musical content is to be generated? (e.g., melody, accompaniment...); - representation - What are the information formats used for the corpus and for the expected generated output? (e.g., MIDI, piano roll, text...); - architecture - What type of deep neural network is to be used? (e.g., recurrent network, autoencoder, generative adversarial networks...); - strategy - How to model and control the process of generation (e.g., direct feedforward, sampling, unit selection...). For each dimension, we conduct a comparative analysis of various models and techniques. For the strategy dimension, we propose some tentative typology of possible approaches and mechanisms. This classification is bottom-up, based on the analysis of many existing deep-learning based systems for music generation, which are described in this book. The last part of the book includes discussion and prospects.

* 108 pages
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