Models, code, and papers for "Geoffrey Hinton":

Deep neural networks have proved to be a very effective way to perform classification tasks. They excel when the input data is high dimensional, the relationship between the input and the output is complicated, and the number of labeled training examples is large. But it is hard to explain why a learned network makes a particular classification decision on a particular test case. This is due to their reliance on distributed hierarchical representations. If we could take the knowledge acquired by the neural net and express the same knowledge in a model that relies on hierarchical decisions instead, explaining a particular decision would be much easier. We describe a way of using a trained neural net to create a type of soft decision tree that generalizes better than one learned directly from the training data.

Data are often labeled by many different experts with each expert only labeling a small fraction of the data and each data point being labeled by several experts. This reduces the workload on individual experts and also gives a better estimate of the unobserved ground truth. When experts disagree, the standard approaches are to treat the majority opinion as the correct label or to model the correct label as a distribution. These approaches, however, do not make any use of potentially valuable information about which expert produced which label. To make use of this extra information, we propose modeling the experts individually and then learning averaging weights for combining them, possibly in sample-specific ways. This allows us to give more weight to more reliable experts and take advantage of the unique strengths of individual experts at classifying certain types of data. Here we show that our approach leads to improvements in computer-aided diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. We also show that our method performs better than competing algorithms by Welinder and Perona (2010), and by Mnih and Hinton (2012). Our work offers an innovative approach for dealing with the myriad real-world settings that use expert opinions to define labels for training.

The generalization and learning speed of a multi-class neural network can often be significantly improved by using soft targets that are a weighted average of the hard targets and the uniform distribution over labels. Smoothing the labels in this way prevents the network from becoming over-confident and label smoothing has been used in many state-of-the-art models, including image classification, language translation and speech recognition. Despite its widespread use, label smoothing is still poorly understood. Here we show empirically that in addition to improving generalization, label smoothing improves model calibration which can significantly improve beam-search. However, we also observe that if a teacher network is trained with label smoothing, knowledge distillation into a student network is much less effective. To explain these observations, we visualize how label smoothing changes the representations learned by the penultimate layer of the network. We show that label smoothing encourages the representations of training examples from the same class to group in tight clusters. This results in loss of information in the logits about resemblances between instances of different classes, which is necessary for distillation, but does not hurt generalization or calibration of the model's predictions.

To generalize to novel visual scenes with new viewpoints and new object poses, a visual system needs representations of the shapes of the parts of an object that are invariant to changes in viewpoint or pose. 3D graphics representations disentangle visual factors such as viewpoints and lighting from object structure in a natural way. It is possible to learn to invert the process that converts 3D graphics representations into 2D images, provided the 3D graphics representations are available as labels. When only the unlabeled images are available, however, learning to derender is much harder. We consider a simple model which is just a set of free floating parts. Each part has its own relation to the camera and its own triangular mesh which can be deformed to model the shape of the part. At test time, a neural network looks at a single image and extracts the shapes of the parts and their relations to the camera. Each part can be viewed as one head of a multi-headed derenderer. During training, the extracted parts are used as input to a differentiable 3D renderer and the reconstruction error is backpropagated to train the neural net. We make the learning task easier by encouraging the deformations of the part meshes to be invariant to changes in viewpoint and invariant to the changes in the relative positions of the parts that occur when the pose of an articulated body changes. Cerberus, our multi-headed derenderer, outperforms previous methods for extracting 3D parts from single images without part annotations, and it does quite well at extracting natural parts of human figures.

We explore and expand the $\textit{Soft Nearest Neighbor Loss}$ to measure the $\textit{entanglement}$ of class manifolds in representation space: i.e., how close pairs of points from the same class are relative to pairs of points from different classes. We demonstrate several use cases of the loss. As an analytical tool, it provides insights into the evolution of class similarity structures during learning. Surprisingly, we find that $\textit{maximizing}$ the entanglement of representations of different classes in the hidden layers is beneficial for discrimination in the final layer, possibly because it encourages representations to identify class-independent similarity structures. Maximizing the soft nearest neighbor loss in the hidden layers leads not only to improved generalization but also to better-calibrated estimates of uncertainty on outlier data. Data that is not from the training distribution can be recognized by observing that in the hidden layers, it has fewer than the normal number of neighbors from the predicted class.

We present a simple technique that allows capsule models to detect adversarial images. In addition to being trained to classify images, the capsule model is trained to reconstruct the images from the pose parameters and identity of the correct top-level capsule. Adversarial images do not look like a typical member of the predicted class and they have much larger reconstruction errors when the reconstruction is produced from the top-level capsule for that class. We show that setting a threshold on the $l2$ distance between the input image and its reconstruction from the winning capsule is very effective at detecting adversarial images for three different datasets. The same technique works quite well for CNNs that have been trained to reconstruct the image from all or part of the last hidden layer before the softmax. We then explore a stronger, white-box attack that takes the reconstruction error into account. This attack is able to fool our detection technique but in order to make the model change its prediction to another class, the attack must typically make the "adversarial" image resemble images of the other class.

A very simple way to improve the performance of almost any machine learning algorithm is to train many different models on the same data and then to average their predictions. Unfortunately, making predictions using a whole ensemble of models is cumbersome and may be too computationally expensive to allow deployment to a large number of users, especially if the individual models are large neural nets. Caruana and his collaborators have shown that it is possible to compress the knowledge in an ensemble into a single model which is much easier to deploy and we develop this approach further using a different compression technique. We achieve some surprising results on MNIST and we show that we can significantly improve the acoustic model of a heavily used commercial system by distilling the knowledge in an ensemble of models into a single model. We also introduce a new type of ensemble composed of one or more full models and many specialist models which learn to distinguish fine-grained classes that the full models confuse. Unlike a mixture of experts, these specialist models can be trained rapidly and in parallel.

Some high-dimensional data.sets can be modelled by assuming that there are many different linear constraints, each of which is Frequently Approximately Satisfied (FAS) by the data. The probability of a data vector under the model is then proportional to the product of the probabilities of its constraint violations. We describe three methods of learning products of constraints using a heavy-tailed probability distribution for the violations.

Visual perception is a challenging problem in part due to illumination variations. A possible solution is to first estimate an illumination invariant representation before using it for recognition. The object albedo and surface normals are examples of such representations. In this paper, we introduce a multilayer generative model where the latent variables include the albedo, surface normals, and the light source. Combining Deep Belief Nets with the Lambertian reflectance assumption, our model can learn good priors over the albedo from 2D images. Illumination variations can be explained by changing only the lighting latent variable in our model. By transferring learned knowledge from similar objects, albedo and surface normals estimation from a single image is possible in our model. Experiments demonstrate that our model is able to generalize as well as improve over standard baselines in one-shot face recognition.

An efficient way to learn deep density models that have many layers of latent variables is to learn one layer at a time using a model that has only one layer of latent variables. After learning each layer, samples from the posterior distributions for that layer are used as training data for learning the next layer. This approach is commonly used with Restricted Boltzmann Machines, which are undirected graphical models with a single hidden layer, but it can also be used with Mixtures of Factor Analysers (MFAs) which are directed graphical models. In this paper, we present a greedy layer-wise learning algorithm for Deep Mixtures of Factor Analysers (DMFAs). Even though a DMFA can be converted to an equivalent shallow MFA by multiplying together the factor loading matrices at different levels, learning and inference are much more efficient in a DMFA and the sharing of each lower-level factor loading matrix by many different higher level MFAs prevents overfitting. We demonstrate empirically that DMFAs learn better density models than both MFAs and two types of Restricted Boltzmann Machine on a wide variety of datasets.

Products of Hidden Markov Models(PoHMMs) are an interesting class of generative models which have received little attention since their introduction. This maybe in part due to their more computationally expensive gradient-based learning algorithm,and the intractability of computing the log likelihood of sequences under the model. In this paper, we demonstrate how the partition function can be estimated reliably via Annealed Importance Sampling. We perform experiments using contrastive divergence learning on rainfall data and data captured from pairs of people dancing. Our results suggest that advances in learning and evaluation for undirected graphical models and recent increases in available computing power make PoHMMs worth considering for complex time-series modeling tasks.

A capsule is a group of neurons whose activity vector represents the instantiation parameters of a specific type of entity such as an object or an object part. We use the length of the activity vector to represent the probability that the entity exists and its orientation to represent the instantiation parameters. Active capsules at one level make predictions, via transformation matrices, for the instantiation parameters of higher-level capsules. When multiple predictions agree, a higher level capsule becomes active. We show that a discrimininatively trained, multi-layer capsule system achieves state-of-the-art performance on MNIST and is considerably better than a convolutional net at recognizing highly overlapping digits. To achieve these results we use an iterative routing-by-agreement mechanism: A lower-level capsule prefers to send its output to higher level capsules whose activity vectors have a big scalar product with the prediction coming from the lower-level capsule.

Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are a powerful model for sequential data. End-to-end training methods such as Connectionist Temporal Classification make it possible to train RNNs for sequence labelling problems where the input-output alignment is unknown. The combination of these methods with the Long Short-term Memory RNN architecture has proved particularly fruitful, delivering state-of-the-art results in cursive handwriting recognition. However RNN performance in speech recognition has so far been disappointing, with better results returned by deep feedforward networks. This paper investigates \emph{deep recurrent neural networks}, which combine the multiple levels of representation that have proved so effective in deep networks with the flexible use of long range context that empowers RNNs. When trained end-to-end with suitable regularisation, we find that deep Long Short-term Memory RNNs achieve a test set error of 17.7% on the TIMIT phoneme recognition benchmark, which to our knowledge is the best recorded score.

Conditional Restricted Boltzmann Machines (CRBMs) are rich probabilistic models that have recently been applied to a wide range of problems, including collaborative filtering, classification, and modeling motion capture data. While much progress has been made in training non-conditional RBMs, these algorithms are not applicable to conditional models and there has been almost no work on training and generating predictions from conditional RBMs for structured output problems. We first argue that standard Contrastive Divergence-based learning may not be suitable for training CRBMs. We then identify two distinct types of structured output prediction problems and propose an improved learning algorithm for each. The first problem type is one where the output space has arbitrary structure but the set of likely output configurations is relatively small, such as in multi-label classification. The second problem is one where the output space is arbitrarily structured but where the output space variability is much greater, such as in image denoising or pixel labeling. We show that the new learning algorithms can work much better than Contrastive Divergence on both types of problems.

Recent work has sought to understand the behavior of neural networks by comparing representations between layers and between different trained models. We examine methods for comparing neural network representations based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA). We show that CCA belongs to a family of statistics for measuring multivariate similarity, but that neither CCA nor any other statistic that is invariant to invertible linear transformation can measure meaningful similarities between representations of higher dimension than the number of data points. We introduce a similarity index that measures the relationship between representational similarity matrices and does not suffer from this limitation. This similarity index is equivalent to centered kernel alignment (CKA) and is also closely connected to CCA. Unlike CCA, CKA can reliably identify correspondences between representations in networks trained from different initializations.

Learning long term dependencies in recurrent networks is difficult due to vanishing and exploding gradients. To overcome this difficulty, researchers have developed sophisticated optimization techniques and network architectures. In this paper, we propose a simpler solution that use recurrent neural networks composed of rectified linear units. Key to our solution is the use of the identity matrix or its scaled version to initialize the recurrent weight matrix. We find that our solution is comparable to LSTM on our four benchmarks: two toy problems involving long-range temporal structures, a large language modeling problem and a benchmark speech recognition problem.

We introduce a Deep Boltzmann Machine model suitable for modeling and extracting latent semantic representations from a large unstructured collection of documents. We overcome the apparent difficulty of training a DBM with judicious parameter tying. This parameter tying enables an efficient pretraining algorithm and a state initialization scheme that aids inference. The model can be trained just as efficiently as a standard Restricted Boltzmann Machine. Our experiments show that the model assigns better log probability to unseen data than the Replicated Softmax model. Features extracted from our model outperform LDA, Replicated Softmax, and DocNADE models on document retrieval and document classification tasks.

Product models of low dimensional experts are a powerful way to avoid the curse of dimensionality. We present the ``under-complete product of experts' (UPoE), where each expert models a one dimensional projection of the data. The UPoE is fully tractable and may be interpreted as a parametric probabilistic model for projection pursuit. Its ML learning rules are identical to the approximate learning rules proposed before for under-complete ICA. We also derive an efficient sequential learning algorithm and discuss its relationship to projection pursuit density estimation and feature induction algorithms for additive random field models.

The vast majority of successful deep neural networks are trained using variants of stochastic gradient descent (SGD) algorithms. Recent attempts to improve SGD can be broadly categorized into two approaches: (1) adaptive learning rate schemes, such as AdaGrad and Adam, and (2) accelerated schemes, such as heavy-ball and Nesterov momentum. In this paper, we propose a new optimization algorithm, Lookahead, that is orthogonal to these previous approaches and iteratively updates two sets of weights. Intuitively, the algorithm chooses a search direction by \emph{looking ahead} at the sequence of "fast weights" generated by another optimizer. We show that Lookahead improves the learning stability and lowers the variance of its inner optimizer with negligible computation and memory cost. We empirically demonstrate Lookahead can significantly improve the performance of SGD and Adam, even with their default hyperparameter settings on ImageNet, CIFAR-10/100, neural machine translation, and Penn Treebank.

Training state-of-the-art, deep neural networks is computationally expensive. One way to reduce the training time is to normalize the activities of the neurons. A recently introduced technique called batch normalization uses the distribution of the summed input to a neuron over a mini-batch of training cases to compute a mean and variance which are then used to normalize the summed input to that neuron on each training case. This significantly reduces the training time in feed-forward neural networks. However, the effect of batch normalization is dependent on the mini-batch size and it is not obvious how to apply it to recurrent neural networks. In this paper, we transpose batch normalization into layer normalization by computing the mean and variance used for normalization from all of the summed inputs to the neurons in a layer on a single training case. Like batch normalization, we also give each neuron its own adaptive bias and gain which are applied after the normalization but before the non-linearity. Unlike batch normalization, layer normalization performs exactly the same computation at training and test times. It is also straightforward to apply to recurrent neural networks by computing the normalization statistics separately at each time step. Layer normalization is very effective at stabilizing the hidden state dynamics in recurrent networks. Empirically, we show that layer normalization can substantially reduce the training time compared with previously published techniques.